An Essay on Man: Epistle I

To Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke Awake, my St. John! leave all meaner things To low ambition, and the pride of kings. Let us (since life can little more supply Than just to look about us and to die) Expatiate free o’er all this scene of man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A wild, where weeds and flow’rs promiscuous shoot; Or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the open, what the covert yield; The latent tracts, the giddy heights explore Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar; Eye Nature’s walks, shoot folly as it flies, And catch the manners living as they rise; Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; But vindicate the ways of God to man. I. Say first, of God above, or man below, What can we reason, but from what we know? Of man what see we, but his station here, From which to reason, or to which refer? Through worlds unnumber’d though the God be known, ‘Tis ours to trace him only in our own. He, who through vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, What varied being peoples ev’ry star, May tell why Heav’n has made us as we are. But of this frame the bearings, and the ties, The strong connections, nice dependencies, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul Look’d through? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain, that draws all to agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God, or thee? II. Presumptuous man! the reason wouldst thou find, Why form’d so weak, so little, and so blind? First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess, Why form’d no weaker, blinder, and no less! Ask of thy mother earth , why oaks are made Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade? Or ask of yonder argent fields above, Why Jove’s satellites are less than Jove? Of systems possible, if ’tis confest That Wisdom infinite must form the best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the scale of reas’ning life, ’tis plain There must be somewhere, such a rank as man: And all the question (wrangle e’er so long) Is only this, if God has plac’d him wrong? Respecting man, whatever wrong we call, May, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, though labour’d on with pain, A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain; In God’s, one single can its end produce; Yet serves to second too some other use. So man, who here seems principal alone , Perhaps acts second to some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal; ‘Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. When the proud steed shall know why man restrains His fiery course, or drives him o’er the plains: When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt’s God: Then shall man’s pride and dulness comprehend His actions’, passions’, being’s, use and end; Why doing, suff’ring, check’d, impell’d; and why This hour a slave, the next a deity. Then say not man’s imperfect, Heav’n in fault; Say rather, man’s as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur’d to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. If to be perfect in a certain sphere, What matter, soon or late, or here or there? The blest today is as completely so, As who began a thousand years ago. III. Heav’n from all creatures hides the book of fate, All but the page prescrib’d, their present state: From brutes what men, from men what spirits know: Or who could suffer being here below? The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed today, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play ? Pleas’d to the last, he crops the flow’ry food, And licks the hand just rais’d to shed his blood. Oh blindness to the future! kindly giv’n, That each may fill the circle mark’d by Heav’n: Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl’d, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar; Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore! What future bliss, he gives not thee to know, But gives that hope to be thy blessing now. Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul, uneasy and confin’d from home, Rests and expatiates in a life to come. Lo! the poor Indian, whose untutor’d mind Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul, proud science never taught to stray Far as the solar walk, or milky way; Yet simple nature to his hope has giv’n, Behind the cloud -topt hill, an humbler heav’n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac’d, Some happier island in the wat’ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold. To be, contents his natural desire, He asks no angel’s wing, no seraph’s fire; But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. IV. Go, wiser thou! and, in thy scale of sense Weigh thy opinion against Providence; Call imperfection what thou fanciest such, Say, here he gives too little, there too much: Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if man’s unhappy, God’s unjust; If man alone engross not Heav’n’s high care, Alone made perfect here, immortal there: Snatch from his hand the balance and the rod, Rejudge his justice , be the God of God. In pride, in reas’ning pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies. Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes, Men would be angels, angels would be gods. Aspiring to be gods, if angels fell, Aspiring to be angels, men rebel: And who but wishes to invert the laws Of order, sins against th’ Eternal Cause. V. ask for what end the heav’nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use? Pride answers, ” ‘Tis for mine: For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow’r, Suckles each herb, and spreads out ev’ry flow’r; Annual for me, the grape, the rose renew, The juice nectareous, and the balmy dew; For me, the mine a thousand treasures brings; For me, health gushes from a thousand springs; Seas roll to waft me, suns to light me rise; My foot -stool earth, my canopy the skies.” But errs not Nature from this gracious end, From burning suns when livid deaths descend, When earthquakes swallow, or when tempests sweep Towns to one grave, whole nations to the deep? “No, (’tis replied) the first Almighty Cause Acts not by partial, but by gen’ral laws; Th’ exceptions few; some change since all began: And what created perfect?”—Why then man? If the great end be human happiness, Then Nature deviates; and can man do less? As much that end a constant course requires Of show’rs and sunshine, as of man’s desires; As much eternal springs and cloudless skies, As men for ever temp’rate, calm, and wise. If plagues or earthquakes break not Heav’n’s design , Why then a Borgia, or a Catiline? Who knows but he, whose hand the lightning forms, Who heaves old ocean, and who wings the storms, Pours fierce ambition in a Cæsar’s mind, Or turns young Ammon loose to scourge mankind? From pride, from pride, our very reas’ning springs; Account for moral , as for nat’ral things: Why charge we Heav’n in those, in these acquit? In both, to reason right is to submit. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos’d the mind. But ALL subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen’ral order, since the whole began, Is kept in nature, and is kept in man. VI. What would this man? Now upward will he soar, And little less than angel, would be more; Now looking downwards, just as griev’d appears To want the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Made for his use all creatures if he call, Say what their use, had he the pow’rs of all? Nature to these, without profusion, kind, The proper organs, proper pow’rs assign’d; Each seeming want compensated of course, Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force; All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav’n unkind to man, and man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas’d with nothing, if not bless’d with all? The bliss of man (could pride that blessing find) Is not to act or think beyond mankind; No pow’rs of body or of soul to share, But what his nature and his state can bear. Why has not man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, man is not a fly. Say what the use, were finer optics giv’n, T’ inspect a mite, not comprehend the heav’n? Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o’er, To smart and agonize at ev’ry pore? Or quick effluvia darting through the brain, Die of a rose in aromatic pain? If nature thunder’d in his op’ning ears, And stunn’d him with the music of the spheres, How would he wish that Heav’n had left him still The whisp’ring zephyr, and the purling rill? Who finds not Providence all good and wise, Alike in what it gives, and what denies? VII. Far as creation’s ample range extends, The scale of sensual, mental pow’rs ascends: Mark how it mounts, to man’s imperial race, From the green myriads in the peopled grass : What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The mole’s dim curtain, and the lynx’s beam: Of smell, the headlong lioness between, And hound sagacious on the tainted green: Of hearing, from the life that fills the flood, To that which warbles through the vernal wood: The spider’s touch, how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true From pois’nous herbs extracts the healing dew: How instinct varies in the grov’lling swine, Compar’d, half-reas’ning elephant, with thine: ‘Twixt that, and reason, what a nice barrier; For ever sep’rate, yet for ever near! Remembrance and reflection how allied; What thin partitions sense from thought divide: And middle natures, how they long to join, Yet never pass th’ insuperable line! Without this just gradation, could they be Subjected, these to those, or all to thee? The pow’rs of all subdu’d by thee alone, Is not thy reason all these pow’rs in one? VIII. See, through this air, this ocean, and this earth, All matter quick, and bursting into birth. Above, how high, progressive life may go! Around, how wide! how deep extend below! Vast chain of being, which from God began, Natures ethereal, human, angel, man, Beast, bird, fish, insect! what no eye can see, No glass can reach! from infinite to thee, From thee to nothing!—On superior pow’rs Were we to press, inferior might on ours: Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale’s destroy’d: From nature’s chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. And, if each system in gradation roll Alike essential to th’ amazing whole, The least confusion but in one, not all That system only, but the whole must fall. Let earth unbalanc’d from her orbit fly, Planets and suns run lawless through the sky; Let ruling angels from their spheres be hurl’d, Being on being wreck’d, and world on world; Heav’n’s whole foundations to their centre nod, And nature tremble to the throne of God. All this dread order break—for whom? for thee? Vile worm!—Oh madness, pride, impiety! IX. What if the foot ordain’d the dust to tread, Or hand to toil, aspir’d to be the head? What if the head, the eye, or ear repin’d To serve mere engines to the ruling mind? Just as absurd for any part to claim To be another, in this gen’ral frame: Just as absurd, to mourn the tasks or pains, The great directing Mind of All ordains. All are but parts of one stupendous whole, Whose body Nature is, and God the soul; That, chang’d through all, and yet in all the same, Great in the earth, as in th’ ethereal frame, Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees , Lives through all life, extends through all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent, Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal part, As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart; As full, as perfect, in vile man that mourns, As the rapt seraph that adores and burns; To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all. X. Cease then, nor order imperfection name: Our proper bliss depends on what we blame. Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heav’n bestows on thee. Submit.—In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing pow’r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see; All discord, harmony, not understood; All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason’s spite, One truth is clear, Whatever is, is right.

Summary of An Essay on Man: Epistle I

Analysis of literary devices used in “an essay on man: epistle i”.

“Lo! the poor Indian, whose untutor’d mind Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind.”

Analysis of Poetic Devices Used in “An Essay on Man: Epistle I”

“And, spite of pride, in erring reason’s spite, One truth is clear, Whatever is, is right.”

Quotes to be Used

“ All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see; All discord, harmony, not understood; All partial evil, universal good.”

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An Essay on Man (Epistle I)

An essay on man (epistle i) lyrics, the design..

Having proposed to write some pieces on human life and manners, such as (to use my Lord Bacon’s expression) come home to men’s business and bosoms, I thought it more satisfactory to begin with considering man in the abstract, his nature and his state; since, to prove any moral duty, to enforce any moral precept, or to examine the perfection or imperfection of any creature whatsoever, it is necessary first to know what condition and relation it is placed in, and what is the proper end and purpose of its being. The science of human nature is, like all other sciences, reduced to a few clear points: there are not many certain truths in this world. It is therefore in the anatomy of the mind as in that of the body; more good will accrue to mankind by attending to the large, open, and perceptible parts, than by studying too much such finer nerves and vessels, the conformations and uses of which will for ever escape our observation. The disputes are all upon these last, and, I will venture to say, they have less sharpened the wits than the hearts of men against each other, and have diminished the practice, more than advanced the theory, of morality. If I could flatter myself that this essay has any merit, it is in steering betwixt the extremes of doctrines seemingly opposite, in passing over terms utterly unintelligible, and in forming a yet not, and a yet not system of ethics. This I might have done in prose; but I chose verse, and even rhyme, for two reasons. The one will appear obvious; that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards: the other may seem odd, but is true; I found I could express them more shortly this way than in prose itself; and nothing is more certain, than that much of the force as well as grace of arguments or instructions, depends on their conciseness. I was unable to treat this part of my subject more in detail, without becoming dry and tedious; or more poetically, without sacrificing perspicuity to ornament, without wandering from the precision, or breaking the chain of reasoning: If any man can unite all these without diminution of any of them, I freely confess he will compass a thing above my capacity. What is now published, is only to be considered as a general map of Man, marking out no more than the greater parts, their extent, their limits, and their connexion, but leaving the particular to be more fully delineated in the charts which are to follow. Consequently, these epistles in their progress (if I have health and leisure to make any progress) will be less dry, and more susceptible of poetical ornament. I am here only opening the, and clearing the passage. To deduce the, to follow them in their course, and to observe their effects, may be a task more agreeable.

OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH RESPECT TO THE UNIVERSE.

Of man in the abstract. I. That we can judge only with regard to our own system, being ignorant of the relations of systems and things, ver. 17, &c. II. That Man is not to be deemed imperfect, but a being suited to his place and rank in the creation, agreeable to the general order of things, and conformable to ends and relations to him unknown, ver. 35, &c. III. That it is partly upon his ignorance of future events, and partly upon the hope of a future state, that all his happiness in the present depends, ver. 77, &c. IV. The pride of aiming at more knowledge, and pretending to more perfection, the cause of Man’s error and misery. The impiety of putting himself in the place of God, and judging of the fitness or unfitness, perfection or imperfection, justice or injustice of his dispensations, ver. 109, &c. V. The absurdity of conceiting himself the final cause of the creation, or expecting that perfection in the moral world, which is not in the natural, ver. 131, &c. VI. The unreasonableness of his complaints against Providence, while on the one hand he demands the perfections of the angels, and on the other the bodily qualifications of the brutes; though to possess any of the sensitive faculties in a higher degree, would render him miserable, ver. 173, &c. VII. That throughout the whole visible world, an universal order and gradation in the sensual and mental faculties is observed, which causes a subordination of creature to creature, and of all creatures to Man. The gradations of sense, instinct, thought, reflection, reason; that reason alone countervails all the other faculties, ver. 207. VIII. How much further this order and subordination of living creatures may extend, above and below us; were any part of which broken, not that part only, but the whole connected creation must be destroyed, ver. 233. IX. The extravagance, madness, and pride of such a desire, ver. 259. X. The consequence of all, the absolute submission due to Providence, both as to our present and future state, ver. 281, &c. to the end.

Awake, my St. John! leave all meaner things To low ambition, and the pride of Kings. Let us (since Life can little more supply Than just to look about us and to die) Expatiate free o’er all this scene of Man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan; A Wild, where weeds and flow’rs promiscuous shoot; Or Garden, tempting with forbidden fruit. Together let us beat this ample field, Try what the open, what the covert yield; The latent tracts, the giddy heights, explore Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar; Eye Nature’s walks, shoot Folly as it flies, And catch the Manners living as they rise; Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; But vindicate the ways of God to Man. I. Say first, of God above, or Man below, What can we reason, but from what we know? Of Man, what see we but his station here, From which to reason, or to which refer? Thro’ worlds unnumber’d tho’ the God be known, ‘Tis ours to trace him only in our own. He, who thro’ vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, What vary’d Being peoples ev’ry star, May tell why Heav’n has made us as we are. But of this frame the bearings, and the ties, The strong connexions, nice dependencies, Gradations just, has thy pervading soul Look’d thro’? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain, that draws all to agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God, or thee? II. Presumptuous Man! the reason wouldst thou find, Why form’d so weak, so little, and so blind? First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess, Why form’d no weaker, blinder, and no less? Ask of thy mother earth, why oaks are made Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade? Or ask of yonder argent fields above, Why Jove’s satellites are less than Jove? Of Systems possible, if ‘tis confest That Wisdom infinite must form the best, Where all must full or not coherent be, And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the scale of reas’ning life, ‘tis plain, There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man: And all the question (wrangle e’er so long) Is only this, if God has plac’d him wrong? Respecting Man, whatever wrong we call, May, must be right, as relative to all. In human works, tho’ labour’d on with pain, A thousand movements scarce one purpose gain; In God’s, one single can its end produce; Yet serves to second too some other use. So Man, who here seems principal alone, Perhaps acts second to some sphere unknown, Touches some wheel, or verges to some goal; ‘Tis but a part we see, and not a whole. When the proud steed shall know why Man restrains His fiery course, or drives him o’er the plains: When the dull Ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Ægypt’s God: Then shall Man’s pride and dulness comprehend His actions’, passions’, being’s, use and end; Why doing, suff’ring, check’d, impell’d; and why This hour a slave, the next a deity. Then say not Man’s imperfect, Heav’n in fault; Say rather, Man’s as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur’d to his state and place; His time a moment, and a point his space. If to be perfect in a certain sphere, What matter, soon or late, or here or there? The blest to day is as completely so,, As who began a thousand years ago. III. Heav’n from all creatures hides the book of Fate, All but the page prescrib’d, their present state: From brutes what men, from men what spirits know: Or who could suffer Being here below? The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy Reason, would he skip and play? Pleas’d to the last, he crops the flow’ry food, And licks the hand just rais’d to shed his blood. Oh blindness to the future! kindly giv’n, That each may fill the circle mark’d by Heav’n: Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl’d, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Hope humbly then: with trembling pinions soar; Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore. What future bliss, he gives not thee to know, But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now. Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never Is, but always To be blest: The soul, uneasy and confin’d from home, Rests and expatiates in a life to come. Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor’d mind Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind: His soul, proud Science never taught to stray Far as the solar walk, or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv’n, Behind the cloud-topt hill, an humbler heav’n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac’d, Some happier island in the watry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold. To Be, contents his natural desire, He asks no Angel’s wing, no Seraph’s fire; But thinks, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. IV. Go, wiser thou! and, in thy scale of sense, Weight thy Opinion against Providence; Call imperfection what thou fancy’st such, Say, here he gives too little, there too much: Destroy all Creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, If Man’s unhappy, God’s unjust; If Man alone engross not Heav’n’s high care, Alone made perfect here, immortal there: Snatch from his hand the balance and the rod, Re-judge his justice, be the God of God. In Pride, in reas’ning Pride, our error lies; All quit their sphere, and rush into the skies. Pride still is aiming at the blest abodes, Men would be Angels, Angels would be Gods. Aspiring to be Gods, if Angels fell, Aspiring to be Angels, Men rebel: And who but wishes to invert the laws Of Order, sins against th’ Eternal Cause. V. Ask for what end the heav’nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use? Pride answers, “‘Tis for mine: For me kind Nature wakes her genial Pow’r, Suckles each herb, and spreads out ev’ry flow’r; Annual for me, the grape, the rose renew The juice nectareous, and the balmy dew; For me, the mine a thousand treasures brings; For me, health gushes from a thousand springs; Seas roll to waft me, suns to light me rise; My foot-stool earth, my canopy the skies.” But errs not Nature from his gracious end, From burning suns when livid deaths descend, When earthquakes swallow, or when tempests sweep Towns to one grave, whole nations to the deep? “No, (‘tis reply’d) the first Almighty Cause Acts not by partial, but by gen’ral laws; Th’ exceptions few; some change since all began: And what created perfect?” — Why then Man? If the great end be human Happiness, Then Nature deviates; and can Man do less? As much that end a constant course requires Of show’rs and sun-shine, as of Man’s desires; As much eternal springs and cloudless skies, As Men for ever temp’rate, calm, and wise. If plagues or earthquakes break not Heav’n’s design, Why then a Borgia, or a Catiline? Who knows but he, whose hand the lightning forms, Who heaves old Ocean, and who wings the storms; Pours fierce Ambition in a Caesar’s mind, Or turns young Ammon loose to scourge mankind? From pride, from pride, our very reas’ning springs; Account for moral, as for nat’ral things: Why charge we Heav’n in those, in these acquit? In both, to reason right is to submit. Better for Us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos’d the mind. But All subsists by elemental strife; And Passions are the elements of Life. The gen’ral Order, since the whole began, Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. VI. What would this Man? Now upward will he soar, And little less than Angel, would be more; Now looking downwards, just as griev’d appears To want the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Made for his use all creatures if he call, Say what their use, had he the pow’rs of all? Nature to these, without profusion, kind, The proper organs, proper pow’rs assign’d; Each seeming want compensated of course, Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force; All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav’n unkind to Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas’d with nothing, if not bless’d with all? The bliss of Man (could Pride that blessing find) Is not to act or think beyond mankind; No pow’rs of body or of soul to share, But what his nature and his state can bear. Why has not Man a microscopic eye? For this plain reason, Man is not a Fly. Say what the use, were finer optics giv’n, T’ inspect a mite, not comprehend the heav’n? Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o’er, To smart and agonize at every pore? Or quick effluvia darting thro’ the brain, Die of a rose in aromatic pain? If Nature thunder’d in his op’ning ears, And stunn’d him with the music of the spheres, How would he wish that Heav’n had left him still The whisp’ring Zephyr, and the purling rill? Who finds not Providence all good and wise, Alike in what it gives, and what denies? VII. Far as Creation’s ample range extends, The scale of sensual, mental pow’rs ascends: Mark how it mounts, to Man’s imperial race, From the green myriads in the peopled grass: What modes of sight betwixt each wide extreme, The mole’s dim curtain, and the lynx’s beam: Of smell, the headlong lioness between, And hound sagacious on the tainted green: Of hearing, from the life that fills the Flood, To that which warbles thro’ the vernal wood: The spider’s touch, how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true From pois’nous herbs extracts the healing dew? How Instinct varies in the grov’lling swine, Compar’d, half-reas’ning elephant, with thine! ‘Twixt that, and Reason, what a nice barrier, For ever sep’rate, yet for ever near! Remembrance and Reflection how ally’d; What thin partitions Sense from Thought divide: And Middle natures, how they long to join, Yet never pass th’ insuperable line! Without this just gradation, could they be Subjected, these to those, or all to thee? The pow’rs of all subdu’d by thee alone, Is not thy Reason all these pow’rs in one? VIII. See, thro’ this air, this ocean, and this earth, All matter quick, and bursting into birth. Above, how high, progressive life may go! Around, how wide! how deep extend below! Vast chain of Being! which from God began, Natures ethereal, human, angel, man, Beast, bird, fish, insect, what no eye can see, No glass can reach; from Infinite to thee, From thee to Nothing. — On superior pow’rs Were we to press, inferior might on ours: Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale’s destroy’d: From Nature’s chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. And, if each system in gradation roll Alike essential to th’ amazing Whole, The least confusion but in one, not all That system only, but the Whole must fall. Let Earth unbalanc’d from her orbit fly, Planets and Suns run lawless thro’ the sky; Let ruling Angels from their spheres be hurl’d, Being on Being wreck’d, and world on world; Heav’n’s whole foundations to their centre nod, And Nature tremble to the throne of God. All this dread Order break — for whom? for thee? Vile worm! — Oh Madness! Pride! Impiety! IX. What if the foot, ordain’d the dust to tread, Or hand, to toil, aspir’d to be the head? What if the head, the eye, or ear repin’d To serve mere engines to the ruling Mind? Just as absurd for any part to claim To be another, in this gen’ral frame: Just as absurd, to mourn the tasks or pains, The great directing Mind of All ordains. All are but parts of one stupendous whole, Whose body Nature is, and God the soul; That, chang’d thro’ all, and yet in all the same; Great in the earth, as in th’ ethereal frame; Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze, Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees, Lives thro’ all life, extends thro’ all extent, Spreads undivided, operates unspent; Breathes in our soul, informs our mortal part, As full, as perfect, in a hair as heart: As full, as perfect, in vile Man that mourns, As the rapt Seraph that adores and burns: To him no high, no low, no great, no small; He fills, he bounds, connects, and equals all. X. Cease then, nor Order Imperfection name: Our proper bliss depends on what we blame. Know thy own point: This kind, this due degree Of blindness, weakness, Heav’n bestows on thee. Submit. — In this, or any other sphere, Secure to be as blest as thou canst bear: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow’r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All Chance, Direction, which thou canst not see; All Discord, Harmony not understood; All partial Evil, universal Good: And, spite of Pride, in erring Reason’s spite, One truth is clear, Whatever Is, Is Right.

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an essay on man line by line explanation

  • 1. An Essay on Man (Epistle I)
  • 2. An Essay on Man (Epistle II)
  • 3. An Essay on Man (Epistle III)
  • 4. An Essay on Man (Epistle IV)

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an essay on man line by line explanation

British Literature Wiki

British Literature Wiki

An Essay on Man

“Is the great chain, that draws all to agree, And drawn supports, upheld by God, or Thee?” – Alexander Pope (From “An Essay on Man”)

“Then say not Man’s imperfect, Heav’n in fault; Say rather, Man’s as perfect as he ought.” – Alexander Pope (From “An Essay on Man”)

“All are but parts of one stupendous whole, Whose body Nature is, and God the soul.” – Alexander Pope (From “An Essay on Man”)

Original Publication of “An Essay on Man”

Awake, my St. John! leave all meaner things

To low ambition, and the pride of kings., let us (since life can little more supply, than just to look about us and die), expatiate free o’er all this scene of man;, a mighty maze but not without a plan;, a wild, where weed and flow’rs promiscuous shoot;, or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit., together let us beat this ample field,, try what the open, what the covert yield;, the latent tracts, the giddy heights explore, of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar;, eye nature’s walks, shoot folly as it flies,, and catch the manners living as they rise;, laugh where we must, be candid where we can;, but vindicate the ways of god to man. (pope 1-16), background on alexander pope.

pope pic 2.jpg

Alexander Pope is a British poet who was born in London, England in 1688 (World Biography 1). Growing up during the Augustan Age, his poetry is heavily influenced by common literary qualities of that time, which include classical influence, the importance of human reason and the rules of nature. These qualities are widely represented in Pope’s poetry. Some of Pope’s most notable works are “The Rape of the Lock,” “An Essay on Criticism,” and “An Essay on Man.”

Overview of “An Essay on Man”

“The Great Chain of Being”

“An Essay on Man” was published in 1734 and contained very deep and well thought out philosophical ideas. It is said that these ideas were partially influenced by his friend, Henry St. John Bolingbroke, who Pope addresses in the first line of Epistle I when he says, “Awake, my St. John!”(Pope 1)(World Biography 1) The purpose of the poem is to address the role of humans as part of the “Great Chain of Being.” In other words, it speaks of man as just one small part of an unfathomably complex universe. Pope urges us to learn from what is around us, what we can observe ourselves in nature, and to not pry into God’s business or question his ways; For everything that happens, both good and bad, happens for a reason. This idea is summed up in the very last lines of the poem when he says, “And, Spite of pride in erring reason’s spite, / One truth is clear, Whatever IS, is RIGHT.”(Pope 293-294) The poem is broken up into four epistles each of which is labeled as its own subcategory of the overall work. They are as follows:

  • Epistle I – Of the Nature and State of Man, with Respect to the Universe
  • Epistle II – Of the Nature and State of Man, with Respect to Himself, as an Individual
  • Epistle III – Of the Nature and State of Man, with Respect to Society
  • Epistle IV – Of the Nature and State of Man with Respect to Happiness

Epistle 1 Intro In the introduction to Pope’s first Epistle, he summarizes the central thesis of his essay in the last line. The purpose of “An Essay on Man” is then to shift or enhance the reader’s perception of what is natural or correct. By doing this, one would justify the happenings of life, and the workings of God, for there is a reason behind all things that is beyond human understanding. Pope’s endeavor to highlight the infallibility of nature is a key aspect of the Augustan period in literature; a poet’s goal was to convey truth by creating a mirror image of nature. This is envisaged in line 13 when, keeping with the hunting motif, Pope advises his reader to study the behaviors of Nature (as hunter would watch his prey), and to rid of all follies, which we can assume includes all that is unnatural. He also encourages the exploration of one’s surroundings, which provides for a gateway to new discoveries and understandings of our purpose here on Earth. Furthermore, in line 12, Pope hints towards vital middle ground on which we are above beats and below a higher power(s). Those who “blindly creep” are consumed by laziness and a willful ignorance, and just as bad are those who “sightless soar” and believe that they understand more than they can possibly know. Thus, it is imperative that we can strive to gain knowledge while maintaining an acceptance of our mental limits.

1. Pope writes the first section to put the reader into the perspective that he believes to yield the correct view of the universe. He stresses the fact that we can only understand things based on what is around us, embodying the relationship with empiricism that characterizes the Augustan era. He encourages the discovery of new things while remaining within the bounds one has been given. These bounds, or the Chain of Being, designate each living thing’s place in the universe, and only God can see the system in full. Pope is adamant in God’s omniscience, and uses that as a sure sign that we can never reach a level of knowledge comparable to His. In the last line however, he questions whether God or man plays a bigger role in maintaining the chain once it is established.

2. The overarching message in section two is envisaged in one of the last couplets: “Then say not Man’s imperfect, Heav’n in fault; Say rather, Man’s as perfect as he ought.” Pope utilizes this section to explain the folly of “Presumptuous Man,” for the fact that we tend to dwell on our limitations rather than capitalize on our abilities. He emphasizes the rightness of our place in the chain of being, for just as we steer the lives of lesser creatures, God has the ability to pilot our fate. Furthermore, he asserts that because we can only analyze what is around us, we cannot be sure that there is not a greater being or sphere beyond our level of comprehension; it is most logical to perceive the universe as functioning through a hierarchal system.

3. Pope utilizes the beginning of section three to elaborate on the functions of the chain of being. He claims that each creatures’ ignorance, including our own, allows for a full and happy life without the possible burden of understanding our fates. Instead of consuming ourselves with what we cannot know, we instead should place hope in a peaceful “life to come.” Pope connects this after-life to the soul, and colors it with a new focus on a more primitive people, “the Indian,” whose souls have not been distracted by power or greed. As humble and level headed beings, Indian’s, and those who have similar beliefs, see life as the ultimate gift and have no vain desires of becoming greater than Man ought to be.

4. In the fourth stanza, Pope warns against the negative effects of excessive pride. He places his primary examples in those who audaciously judge the work of God and declare one person to be too fortunate and another not fortunate enough. He also satirizes Man’s selfish content in destroying other creatures for his own benefit, while complaining when they believe God to be unjust to Man. Pope capitalizes on his point with the final and resonating couplet: “who but wishes to invert the laws of order, sins against th’ Eternal Cause.” This connects to the previous stanza in which the soul is explored; those who wrestle with their place in the universe will disturb the chain of being and warrant punishment instead of gain rewards in the after-life.

5. In the beginning of the fifth stanza, Pope personifies Pride and provides selfish answers to questions regarding the state of the universe. He depicts Pride as a hoarder of all gifts that Nature yields. The image of Nature as a benefactor and Man as her avaricious recipient is countered in the next set of lines: Pope instead entertains the possible faults of Nature in natural disasters such as earthquakes and storms. However, he denies this possibility on the grounds that there is a larger purpose behind all happenings and that God acts by “general laws.” Finally, Pope considers the emergence of evil in human nature and concludes that we are not in a place that allows us to explain such things–blaming God for human misdeeds is again an act of pride.

6. Stanza six connects the different inhabitants of the earth to their rightful place and shows why things are the way they should be. After highlighting the happiness in which most creatures live, Pope facetiously questions if God is unkind to man alone. He asks this because man consistently yearns for the abilities specific to those outside of his sphere, and in that way can never be content in his existence. Pope counters the notorious greed of Man by illustrating the pointless emptiness that would accompany a world in which Man was omnipotent. Furthermore, he describes a blissful lifestyle as one centered around one’s own sphere, without the distraction of seeking unattainable heights.

7. The seventh stanza explores the vastness of the sensory and cognitive spectrums in relation to all earthly creatures. Pope uses an example related to each of the five senses to conjure an image that emphasizes the intricacies with which all things are tailored. For instance, he references a bee’s sensitivity, which allows it to collect only that which is beneficial amid dangerous substances. Pope then moves to the differences in mental abilities along the chain of being. These mental functions are broken down into instinct, reflection, memory, and reason. Pope believes reason to trump all, which of course is the one function specific to Man. Reason thus allows man to synthesize the means to function in ways that are unnatural to himself.

8. In section 8 Pope emphasizes the depths to which the universe extends in all aspects of life. This includes the literal depths of the ocean and the reversed extent of the sky, as well as the vastness that lies between God and Man and Man and the simpler creatures of the earth. Regardless of one’s place in the chain of being however, the removal of one link creates just as much of an impact as any other. Pope stresses the maintenance of order so as to prevent the breaking down of the universe.

9. In the ninth stanza, Pope once again puts the pride and greed of man into perspective. He compares man’s complaints of being subordinate to God to an eye or an ear rejecting its service to the mind. This image drives home the point that all things are specifically designed to ensure that the universe functions properly. Pope ends this stanza with the Augustan belief that Nature permeates all things, and thus constitutes the body of the world, where God characterizes the soul.

10. In the tenth stanza, Pope secures the end of Epistle 1 by advising the reader on how to secure as many blessings as possible, whether that be on earth or in the after life. He highlights the impudence in viewing God’s order as imperfect and emphasizes the fact that true bliss can only be experienced through an acceptance of one’s necessary weaknesses. Pope exemplifies this acceptance of weakness in the last lines of Epistle 1 in which he considers the incomprehensible, whether seemingly miraculous or disastrous, to at least be correct, if nothing else.

Illustration from “An Essay on Man”

1. Epistle II is broken up into six smaller sections, each of which has a specific focus. The first section explains that man must not look to God for answers to the great questions of life, for he will never find the answers. As was explained in the first epistle, man is incapable of truly knowing anything about the things that are higher than he is on the “Great Chain of Being.” For this reason, the way to achieve the greatest knowledge possible is to study man, the greatest thing we have the ability to comprehend. Pope emphasizes the complexity of man in an effort to show that understanding of anything greater than that would simply be too much for any person to fully comprehend. He explains this complexity with lines such as, “Created half to rise, and half to fall; / Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all / Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl’d: / The glory, jest, and riddle of the world!”(15-18) These lines say that we are created for two purposes, to live and die. We are the most intellectual creatures on Earth, and while we have control over most things, we are still set up to die in some way by the end. We are a great gift of God to the Earth with enormous capabilities, yet in the end we really amount to nothing. Pope describes this contrast between our intellectual capabilities and our inevitable fate as a “riddle” of the world. The first section of Epistle II closes by saying that man is to go out and study what is around him. He is to study science to understand all that he can about his existence and the universe in which he lives, but to fully achieve this knowledge he must rid himself of all vices that may slow down this process.

2. The second section of Epistle II tells of the two principles of human nature and how they are to perfectly balance each other out in order for man to achieve all that he is capable of achieving. These two principles are self-love and reason. He explains that all good things can be attributed to the proper use of these two principles and that all bad things stem from their improper use. Pope further discusses the two principles by claiming that self-love is what causes man to do what he desires, but reason is what allows him to know how to stay in line. He follows that with an interesting comparison of man to a flower by saying man is “Fix’d like a plant on his peculiar spot, / To draw nutrition, propagate and rot,” (Pope 62-63) and also of man to a meteor by saying, “Or, meteor-like, flame lawless thro’ the void, / Destroying others, by himself destroy’d.” (Pope 64-65) These comparisons show that man, according to Pope, is born, takes his toll on the Earth, and then dies, and it is all part of a larger plan. The rest of section two continues to talk about the relationship between self-love and reason and closes with a strong argument. Humans all seek pleasure, but only with a good sense of reason can they restrain themselves from becoming greedy. His final remarks are strong, stating that, “Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, / Our greatest evil, or our greatest good,”(Pope 90-91) which means that pleasure in moderation can be a great thing for man, but without the balance that reason produces, a pursuit of pleasure can have terrible consequences.

3. Part III of Epistle II also pertains to the idea of self-love and reason working together. It starts out talking about passions and how they are inherently selfish, but if the means to which these passions are sought out are fair, then there has been a proper balance of self-love and reason. Pope describes love, hope and joy as being “Fair treasure’s smiling train,”(Pope 117) while hate, fear and grief are “The family of pain.”(Pope 118) Too much of any of these things, whether they be from the negative or positive side, is a bad thing. There is a ratio of good to bad that man must reach to have a well balanced mind. We learn, grow, and gain character and perspective through the elements of this “Family of pain,”(Pope 118) while we get great rewards from love, hope and joy. While our goal as humans is to seek our pleasure and follow certain desires, there is always one overall passion that lives deep within us that guides us throughout life. The main points to take away from Section III of this Epistle is that there are many aspects to the life of man, and these aspects, both positive and negative, need to coexist harmoniously to achieve that balance for which man should strive.

4. The fourth section of Epistle II is very short. It starts off by asking what allows us to determine the difference between good and bad. The next line answers this question by saying that it is the God within our minds that allows us to make such judgements. This section finishes up by discussing virtue and vice. The relationship between these two qualities are interesting, for they can exist on their own but most often mix, and there is a fine line between something being a virtue and becoming a vice.

5. Section V is even shorter than section IV with just fourteen lines. It speaks only of the quality of vice. Vices are temptations that man must face on a consistent basis. A line that stands out from this says that when it comes to vices, “We first endure, then pity, then embrace.”(Pope 218) This means that vices start off as something we know is wrong, but over time they become an instinctive part of us if reason is not there to push them away.

6. Section VI, the final section of Epistle II, relates many of the ideas from Sections I-V back to ideas from Epistle I. It works as a conclusion that ties in the main theme of Epistle II, which mainly speaks of the different components of man that balance each other out to form an infinitely complex creature, into the idea from Epistle I that man is created as part of a larger plan with all of his qualities given to him for a specific purpose. It is a way of looking at both negative and positive aspects of life and being content with them both, for they are all part of God’s purpose of creating the universe. This idea is well concluded in the third to last line of this Epistle when Pope says, “Ev’n mean self-love becomes, by force divine.”(Pope 288) This shows that even a negative quality in a man, such as excessive self-love without the stability of reason, is technically divine, for it is what God intended as part of the balance of the universe.

Contributors

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“Alexander Pope.” : The Poetry Foundation . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. < http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/alexander-pope >.

“Alexander Pope Photos.” Rugu RSS . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. < http://www.rugusavay.com/alexander-pope-photos/ >.

“An Essay on Man: Epistle 1 by Alexander Pope • 81 Poems by Alexander PopeEdit.” An Essay on Man: Epistle 1 by Alexander Pope Classic Famous Poet . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. < http://allpoetry.com/poem/8448567-An_Essay_on_Man_Epistle_1-by-Alexander_Pope >.

“An Essay on Man: Epistle II.” By Alexander Pope : The Poetry Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. < http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174166 >.

“Benjamin Franklin’s Mastodon Tooth.” About.com Archaeology . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2013. < http://archaeology.about.com/od/artandartifacts/ss/franklin_4.htm >.

“First Edition of An Essay on Man by Alexander Pope Offered by The Manhattan Rare Book Company.” First Edition of An Essay on Man by Alexander Pope Offered by The Manhattan Rare Book Company. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2013. < http://www.manhattanrarebooks- literature.com/pope_essay.htm>.

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An Essay on Man: Epistle I

Pope, alexander (1688 - 1744).

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an essay on man line by line explanation

An Essay on Man: Epistle 1

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Illustration of "The Lamb" from "Songs of Innocence" by William Blake, 1879. poem; poetry

An Essay on Man

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  • The Victorian Web - Alexander Pope's Essay on Man: An Introduction

An Essay on Man , philosophical essay written in heroic couplets of iambic pentameter by Alexander Pope , published in 1733–34. It was conceived as part of a larger work that Pope never completed.

The poem consists of four epistles. The first epistle surveys relations between humans and the universe; the second discusses humans as individuals. The third addresses the relationship between the individual and society, and the fourth questions the potential of the individual for happiness. An Essay on Man describes the order of the universe in terms of a hierarchy , or chain, of being. By virtue of their ability to reason, humans are placed above animals and plants in this hierarchy.

Illustration of "The Lamb" from "Songs of Innocence" by William Blake, 1879. poem; poetry

Pope's Poems and Prose

By alexander pope, pope's poems and prose summary and analysis of an essay on man: epistle ii.

The subtitle of the second epistle is “Of the Nature and State of Man, with Respect to Himself as an Individual” and treats on the relationship between the individual and God’s greater design.

Here is a section-by-section explanation of the second epistle:

Section I (1-52): Section I argues that man should not pry into God’s affairs but rather study himself, especially his nature, powers, limits, and frailties.

Section II (53-92): Section II shows that the two principles of man are self-love and reason. Self-love is the stronger of the two, but their ultimate goal is the same.

Section III (93-202): Section III describes the modes of self-love (i.e., the passions) and their function. Pope then describes the ruling passion and its potency. The ruling passion works to provide man with direction and defines man’s nature and virtue.

Section IV (203-16): Section IV indicates that virtue and vice are combined in man’s nature and that the two, while distinct, often mix.

Section V (217-30): Section V illustrates the evils of vice and explains how easily man is drawn to it.

Section VI (231-294): Section VI asserts that man’s passions and imperfections are simply designed to suit God’s purposes. The passions and imperfections are distributed to all individuals of each order of men in all societies. They guide man in every state and at every age of life.

The second epistle adds to the interpretive challenges presented in the first epistle. At its outset, Pope commands man to “Know then thyself,” an adage that misdescribes his argument (1). Although he actually intends for man to better understand his place in the universe, the classical meaning of “Know thyself” is that man should look inwards for truth rather than outwards. Having spent most of the first epistle describing man’s relationship to God as well as his fellow creatures, Pope’s true meaning of the phrase is clear. He then confuses the issue by endeavoring to convince man to avoid the presumptuousness of studying God’s creation through natural science. Science has given man the tools to better understand God’s creation, but its intoxicating power has caused man to imitate God. It seems that man must look outwards to gain any understanding of his divine purpose but avoid excessive analysis of what he sees. To do so would be to assume the role of God.

The second epistle abruptly turns to focus on the principles that guide human action. The rest of this section focuses largely on “self-love,” an eighteenth-century term for self-maintenance and fulfillment. It was common during Pope’s lifetime to view the passions as the force determining human action. Typically instinctual, the immediate object of the passions was seen as pleasure. According to Pope’s philosophy, each man has a “ruling passion” that subordinates the others. In contrast with the accepted eighteenth-century views of the passions, Pope’s doctrine of the “ruling passion” is quite original. It seems clear that with this idea, Pope tries to explain why certain individual behave in distinct ways, seemingly governed by a particular desire. He does not, however, make this explicit in the poem.

Pope’s discussion of the passions shows that “self-love” and “reason” are not opposing principles. Reason’s role, it seems, is to regulate human behavior while self-love originates it. In another sense, self-love and the passions dictate the short term while reason shapes the long term.

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Pope’s Poems and Prose Questions and Answers

The Question and Answer section for Pope’s Poems and Prose is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

The Rape of the Lock

In Canto I, a dream is sent to Belinda by Ariel, “her guardian Sylph” (20). The Sylphs are Belinda’s guardians because they understand her vanity and pride, having been coquettes when they were humans. They are devoted to any woman who “rejects...

Who delivers the moralizing speech on the frailty of beauty? A. Chloe B. Clarissa C. Ariel D. Thalestris

What is the significance of Belinda's petticoat?

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Study Guide for Pope’s Poems and Prose

Pope's Poems and Prose study guide contains a biography of Alexander Pope, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

  • About Pope's Poems and Prose
  • Pope's Poems and Prose Summary
  • Character List

Essays for Pope’s Poems and Prose

Pope's Poems and Prose essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Alexander Pope's Poems and Prose.

  • Of the Characteristics of Pope
  • Breaking Clod: Hierarchical Transformation in Pope's An Essay on Man
  • Fortasse, Pope, Idcirco Nulla Tibi Umquam Nupsit (The Rape of the Lock)
  • An Exploration of 'Dulness' In Pope's Dunciad
  • Belinda: Wronged On Behalf of All Women

Wikipedia Entries for Pope’s Poems and Prose

  • Introduction
  • Translations and editions
  • Spirit, skill and satire

an essay on man line by line explanation

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an essay on man line by line explanation

An Essay on Man: Epistle II

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Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady

Eloisa to abelard, epistles to several persons: epistle ii: to a lady on the characters of women, epistles to several persons: epistle iv, epistle to dr. arbuthnot.

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The acknowledged master of the heroic couplet and one of the primary tastemakers of the Augustan age, British writer Alexander Pope was a central figure in the Neoclassical movement of the early 18th century. He is known for having perfected the rhymed couplet form of...

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Wandofknowledge

Essay on Man 

Contents in the Article

Essay on Man 

Explanations of “Essay on Man”

Know then…………………is man..

In these lines from “Essay on Man” the poet Alexander Pope, advises man to confine his studies to himself and to his kind. Man should try first to know and understand himself. There are lots of things that need to be explored. He is a great riddle. Over the ages philosophers have tried to explicate his thought and behaviour but the work is still incomplete. So if man wants to study, he should study himself first. He shouldn’t venture to question the design of God. For man, he himself is the most proper subject of study.

Placed on this…………………….Stoic’s pride.

Reference -These lines occur in Essay on Man’ composed by Alexander Pope

Context – In these lines the poet makes an ironic comment on man as a social animal.

Explanation – About man’s position the poet says that he holds an intermediate place in the chain of being. He is sandwiched between the animal and heavenly worlds. He is ignorant but he calls himself wise. He is rude and insolent but claims to be great.

In fact it is very difficult to rank man. It is not that he is an utter fool but he is not wise even. He is placed somewhere between the two extremes. His knowledge in enough to disappoint scepties as they denied the possibility of knowledge. At the same time his weaknesses are too many to allow Stoics to take pride in him because they endured pain or hardship without complaint. Man thus defies definition

Notes : ‘Darkly wise; and ‘rudely great’ ar good examples of Oxymoron.

He hangs between………………..but to err.

Reference – This passage has been extracted from ‘Essay on Man’ composed by Alexander Pope.

Context – The poet is of the view that man occupies a middle state in God’s scheme of things. In these lines he holds his intermediate place responsible for his vacillating nature.

Explanation – The poet says than man is always in a state of dilemma. He cannot decide whether to act or to be inert. He doesn’t know whether he should consider himself a god or a beast. He is not certain whether he should be a spiritualist or a materialist. He is born only to die. He reasons out things only to make more mistakes.

Alike in ignorance………………….or disabused.

Reference – These lines have been taken from Essay on Man’ composed by Alexander Pope.

Context – The poet thinks that man is in a perpetual state of dilemma. Here, he is trying to diagnose man’s make-up. .

Explanation – The poet says that man’s mental faculties are such that he always remains ignorant whether he thinks too little or too much. Born with an inherent combination of thought and passion, he always remains confused. He first conceives false notions and then tries to get rid of them. This cycle of committing mistakes and correcting them goes on until he breathes his last.

Created half to rise………………..riddle of the world.

Reference – This passage has been taken from “Essay on Man” composed by Alexander Pope.

Context – In these lines the poet tries to sum up his views on man.

Explanation – The poet says that man a bundle of contradictions. He is gifted with noble and base elements in equal measure. He is both angelic and demoniac. He is master of all things yet a prey to each one of them. He is the victor and the victim both. He is the only creature that can distinguish right from wrong yet he goes on committing mistakes endlessly He is the pride as well as the butt of the world. He remains a riddle plausible explanation.

Go, wondrous creature!……….. and regulate the sun.

Reference to the Context- These lines have been taken from the poem “Essay on Man” composed by Alexander Pope. The poem has been extracted from “Epistle II- Man in himself” Which deals with the power of man. Here the poet highlights the glory of man.

Explanation – Man is the prized creation of God, who created him in his own image. That is to man is nearer to God in caliber and capability. The poet address man as a wondrous creature and exhorts him to take strides. Man should mount higher and higher with the help of science. He should use scientific knowledge and win laurels. He can and therefore he should measure the earth, weight air and fathom the depth of ocean. Man is endowed with godly power. He should, therefore establish his supremacy over nature and unearth secrets. Armed with his superior scientific knowledge he can instruct the stars is known to him. He should known the secret of nature and all about the sun. With such knowledge at his command, he will be able to adjust time everywhere. It is the glory of man. We take pride in the power of man, which all of us naturally must possess.

Go, soar with Plato to…………quitting sense call imitating God.

Reference to the Context- These lines have been taken from the poem “Essay on Man” composed by Alexander Pope. The poem contains philosophical ideas of the poet on the existence of man. Here the poet hints at the capability of man.

Explanation- The poet exhorts man to compete with the famous philosopher Plato who would not rest contented with down to earth ideas. Plato soar high in the heavenly regions with his thoughtful mind. He would also does the same as he has the samne mental ability? He thinks of the world in such a way as make it good, perfect and fair. Alternatively, man acts as the followers of Plato. The followers of Plato went on the complicated philosopher ways of thinking. They left the wordly common sense and imitated the ways of God. In their vanity they imagined themselves as the Lord of the universe and posed as God themselves. Today’s man also sometimes does the same. He imitates the ways of God. But he is not God. The lesson he must learn is that he is merely a link in the great chain of God’s impartial order.

As Eastern priests in………into thyself, and be a fool!

Reference to the Context- These lines have been taken from the poem “Essay on Man” composed by Alexander Pope. It is a philosopher poem wherein the poet his speculative thought about man.

Explanation – The poet suggests man to work like eastern priests. They seem to be overwhelmed by excitement a pleasure and go round the world imitating the ways of the sun. They like the sun scatter eight of wisdom and teach the society to adopt ethical and moral living. Many may also do the same. He may show his fellow beings the path to morality and good living. He should really do this. He should teach eternal wisdom to the society at large. He should teach people how to regulate life for self-good. But this is not all. Man should not think that this was the only work for which he was sent to earth. He has got another pious duty to perform. Which he owes to himself. After fulfilling his obligations to the society and people, he must turn inward and peep into his own self. He has finally to leave all outward duties and sit quietly alone like a fool. As if he has nothing to do with the world outside. He now takes an inward journey to known his own-self. That is to say he has to attain self-knowledge which is the ultimate good of life.

English Literature- Important links

  • Critical review of Sonnet Writing of William Shakespeare
  • “The Canonization” by John Donne- Summary & Line by line Explanation
  • Critical appreciation of ‘The Canonisation’ (Poem by John Donne)
  • John Donne- As a Poet, Poet of Love, a Metaphysical Poet
  • “Paradise Lost” (Lines 242-272) John Milton | Summary & Analysis
  • Characteristics of John Milton’s Poetry (with reference to Paradise Lost)
  • “PARADISE LOST” as an Epic- By John Milton
  • Critical appreciation of Paradise Lost- Theme, Styles, Cosmology etc.
  • Speeches of Satan in Book I of Paradise Lost (By John Milton)
  • Absalom and Achitophel (John Dryden)- Introduction & Summary
  • Explanations of Absalom and Achitophel (Line by line analysis)
  • Critical appreciation of “The False Achitophel” by John Dryden
  • Dryden as a Satirical Poet
  • Poetry of Dryden: As Classical Poet, As Versatile Genius etc.

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See it: sniper shot former president donald trump from 130 yards away on roof of manufacturing plant.

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The gunman who tried to assassinate former President Donald Trump at a Pennsylvania campaign rally Saturday had positioned himself on the roof of a manufacturing plant more than 130 yards away — a bit longer than a football field — from the stage.

The open-air campaign event was being held at the Butler Farm Show grounds, whose large, sprawling fields gave the sniper a virtually unobstructed line of sight to the former president from his perch.

The counter-sniper team, which sources told The Post killed the shooter, returned fire from the roof of another building close to where Trump was located — behind the audience stands.

The building where the sniper’s body was later discovered is part of AGR International, Inc., a supplier of automation equipment for the glass and plastic packaging industry whose land directly abuts the farm show grounds, separated only by a chain-link fence.

Map of the stage and manufacturing plant

Everything we know about apparent Trump assassination attempt

  • Former President Donald Trump was targeted by a shooter during a campaign rally in Pennsylvania
  • Trump’s face was grazed by a bullet during the shooting
  • The gunman and one bystander have been killed
  • President Biden addressed the nation and referred to the shooting as sick, saying he “tried to get ahold of Donald”

an essay on man line by line explanation

Keep up to date on updates with the Post’s live blog on the assassination attempt on Trump

The shots originated from atop the building, part of the AGR International Inc. complex, which is located behind and to the left of the stands full of rallygoers, who were looking toward the stage as Trump spoke.

Officers stand over the alleged shooter in Butler, PA.

Follow The Post’s latest stories on the assassination attempt against former President Donald Trump:

  • Trump says he ‘felt the bullet ripping through my skin’ in first statement since assassination attempt
  • Former President Trump ‘inches away from having his face shot open’ by assassin’s bullet during Pa. rally; sniper killed: sources
  • Gunman behind attempted assassination on Trump had head blown off by Secret Service, sources say; rally-goer killed
  • Witnesses frantically tried to warn police of rifle-carrying sniper on roof before Trump assassination attempt
  • Trump sees outpouring of support after assassination attempt at rally stop

The building, identified on Google Street View as building 6 in the complex, sits further away from nearby Whitestown Road and Evans City Road than any of its neighboring structures.

New York Post Front Cover July 14, 2024: "Trump Shot"

Save for a few trees on AGR International’s property, the building’s rooftop provides a clear vantage to the farm show grounds, with nothing but grass separating the gunman’s rifle from the former president’s head. 

An AR-style semi-automatic assault rifle was recovered from the scene, law enforcement sources told The Associated Press.

Map of the stage and manufacturing plant

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Spain vs England: Euro 2024 final prediction, kick-off time, team news, TV, live stream, h2h results, odds

England and Spain tonight face off in the Euro 2024 final.

Gareth Southgate has guided the Three Lions to back-to-back Euros finals and a first continental crown is once again within reach.

Ollie Watkins fired home a 90th-minute winner against the Netherlands to secure a memorable win in the semi-final after England came from behind for the third game in a row.

But Spain are favourites to lift the Henri Delaunay Trophy. La Roja booked their place in a fifth Euro 2024 showpiece on Tuesday night after a thrilling 2-1 win over pre-tournament favourites France in Munich.

Luis de la Fuente’s side fell behind early on at the Allianz Arena after Kylian Mbappe teed up Randal Kolo Muani for Les Bleus’ first goal from open play at these Euros, but that lead was quickly wiped away thanks to a record-breaking wonder strike from 16-year-old Lamine Yamal and another brilliant Dani Olmo effort.

Date, kick-off time and venue

Spain vs England is scheduled for an 8pm BST kick-off today, Sunday July 14, 2024.

The match will take place at the Olympiastadion in Berlin.

an essay on man line by line explanation

Where to watch Spain vs England

TV channel: In the UK, the final will be televised live and free-to-air on both BBC One and ITV1, with coverage beginning at 7pm BST on the former and 6:30pm on the latter.

Live stream: Fans can also catch the contest live online for free via the BBC Sport, BBC iPlayer and ITVX apps and websites.

Live blog: You can follow all the action on matchday via Standard Sport’s live blog, with expert analysis from reporters Dan Kilpatrick and Malik Ouzia at the ground.

an essay on man line by line explanation

Spain vs England team news

Spain will get a double defensive boost for Sunday’s final with Robin Le Normand and Dani Carvajal both returning from suspension.

They will be expected to slot back in place of Nacho Fernandez and 38-year-old Jesus Navas, the latter of whom endured a torrid time against France and Mbappe and went off with a knock in the second half.

How to watch Spain vs England FOR FREE: TV channel and live stream

How to watch Spain vs England FOR FREE: TV channel and live stream

Kane will start for England... and who better to deliver the Euro 2024 trophy?

Kane will start for England... and who better to deliver the Euro 2024 trophy?

England supporter declares confidence in Euros win with tattoo… before final

England supporter declares confidence in Euros win with tattoo… before final

Make the most of summer in London with a night out in the West End

Make the most of summer in London with a night out in the West End

Alvaro Morata started against the French after reports that he too had picked up his second yellow card of the tournament in the 2-1 extra-time win over hosts Germany in the quarter-finals proved to be false, though Spain were handed a freak injury scare over their captain when a security guard slipped and crashed into his knee during the post-match celebrations.

De La Fuente has expressed optimism that Morata will be fit and reports in Spain have also dismissed any concerns .

Otherwise Spain should have a full squad available, with only Pedri missing with the knee injury he suffered against Germany. Olmo replaced him against France and will surely keep his place in midfield after another crucial goal.

an essay on man line by line explanation

Southgate has settled on a 3-4-2-1 system for England but has a couple of tricky calls to make for the final.

Luke Shaw will be pushing to start ahead of Kieran Trippier having overcome an injury which he took to Germany. After coming off the bench in the last two games and replacing Trippier at half-time in Dortmund, the Manchester United defender is not guaranteed to start as England formulate a plan for the threatening Yamal on Spain’s right flank.

Watkins’ goal off the bench will also earn calls for him to start ahead of Harry Kane, who has been a disappointment for much of the tournament despite scoring three goals.

But England are expected to be unchanged with no other injury concerns reported during the semi-final.

Spain vs England prediction

This match-up could become a familiar one at the sharp end of major tournaments for years to come.

Spain are a youthful, well-organised and energetic side with bags of flair and also a ruthless streak. Bar a few stodgy displays at this Euros, the exact same description could so easily apply to England.

If this turns into a rigid, grinding affair then that will suit the Three Lions while Spain will be a huge threat if afforded any space to attack into.

It’s very tough to call and could well go all the way...

England to win on penalties.

an essay on man line by line explanation

Head to head (h2h) history and results

When it comes to major tournaments, England beat Spain at the European Championship in 1996 and in the 1968 play-off quarter-final while they drew at the 1982 World Cup. Their last meeting saw the Three Lions win 3-2 in Seville six years ago.

Spain wins: 10

England wins: 14

Spain vs England match odds

Spain to lift trophy: 4/6

England to lift trophy: 5/4

Odds via Betfair (subject to change).

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Kansas State football suddenly has depth, experience on defensive line for 2024

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Kansas State football coach Chris Klieman has good reason for touting his defensive line as an asset heading into the 2024 season.

It starts with experience, as in three super-seniors, two of whom have been with the program for six years. And then there is a talented group of young defensive ends that may have coordinator Joe Klanderman re-examining the switch two years ago to a three-man front.

Even the nose tackle position, a concern after returning starter Uso Seumalo missed most of spring practice and junior college transfer Malcolm Alcorn-Crowder did not enroll at semester as expected, seems to have sorted itself out.

"We had two six-year guys decide to come back at defensive end, which was big for us," Klieman said of returning starter Brendan Mott and Cody Stufflebean, who was a key member of last year's rotation. "So, we're going to rotate seven or eight guys in the defensive line, and we have a lot of depth there."

Related: Kansas State football quarterback Avery Johnson embraces leadership role at a young age

Related: Kansas State football defense has addressed depth issues at nose tackle, middle linebacker

Related: Kansas State football garners more team than individual respect in Big 12 preseason polls

Mott, a 6-foot-5, 244-pound former walk-on, ranked sixth in the Big 12 last year with six sacks, and he could well end up as the Wildcats' third-leading pass rusher. Sophomore Tobi Osunsanmi, a converted linebacker, and 6-6, 282-pound redshirt freshman Chiddi Obiazor, both can get to the quarterback as well.

Here is how K-State's defensive line might break down in 2024.

Is it time to go back to a four-man front?

The lack of depth at nose tackle in the spring led Klanderman to experiment with additional ends. But that doesn't mean he is scrapping the 3-3-5 base defense just yet.

"We are a little light there," Klanderman said of the tackle position back in April. "So, I guess in my mind it's not so much are we going to play four-down stuff as much as it is, how can we utilize maybe another defensive end type body into what we're already doing?

"And how can we, in that way, get our best 11 people on the field consistently."

The facts that Obiazor is big enough to play inside if need be and the 6-5, 318-pound Alcorn-Crowder is agile enough to occasionally line up at end give the Wildcats plenty of options.

Is there enough playing time to go around at d-end?

Perhaps defensive ends coach Buddy Wyatt's greatest challenge is finding playing time for everybody.

In addition to Mott, Stufflebean, Obiazor and Osunsanmi, the Wildcats brought in sophomore transfer Travis Bates, a 2023 freshman All-American, from Austin Peay. And redshirt freshmen Jordan Allen and Ryan Davis were impressive in the spring as well.

"I like to play a lot of people," Wyatt said. "It's going to be a juggling act, and it's going to be based on those guys. If they're ready to play and they put in the work and we know we can count on them and they know how to do it, they'll play."

Uso Seumalo's return solidified nose tackle position

After transferring from Garden City Community College in 2022, the 6-3, 337-pound Seumalo spent his first season backing up Eli Huggins in the middle. He moved into the starting lineup last year, appearing in 11 games before missing the last two with an injury.

Even as a super-senior, he is relatively new to the position, having only played one year of high school football in his native Hawaii. But he showed enough last year to receive All-Big 12 honorable mention from the league coaches.

With Seumalo sidelined, it meant more opportunities during the spring for junior Damian Ilalio, who started three games as a sophomore. Redshirt freshman Asher Tomaszewski also got plenty of work.

The wildcard is Alcorn-Crowder, a redshirt sophomore, who recorded 28 tackles, 10 of them for loss with seven sacks and two forced fumbles in nine games last year at Butler Community College. He was rated the No. 4 overall junior college prospect in the Class of 2024 by On3 and No. 5 by ESPN.

Arne Green is based in Salina and covers Kansas State University sports for the Gannett network. He can be reached at  [email protected]  or on Twitter at @arnegreen.

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Offensive Line, Run Game Key to Unlocking Ryan Grubb's Seattle Seahawks Offense

Connor benintendi | 19 hours ago.

Seahawks rookie Christian Haynes listens to instructions from coach Scott Huff prior to a sled blocking drill at OTAs.

  • Seattle Seahawks

Since Ryan Grubb was hired as the Seattle Seahawks’ offensive coordinator, it’s been hard not to dream about how his explosive Washington offense that led the nation in pass yards will adapt to the NFL — especially with the weapons the team already has on its roster.

However, multiple other areas must be shored up before the air-raid facet of Grubb’s offense can fire on all cylinders. Seattle needs to run the ball — and run it well — and protect quarterback Geno Smith far better than the past two seasons.

As a guest on the Locked On Seahawks podcast , Tacoma News Tribune reporter Gregg Bell dove into his thoughts on Grubb’s offense, what makes it tick and what the current state of Seattle’s offensive line is. Bell’s message: It all starts with the run game.

“[Offensive guard play] is going to be important because they want to run inside and outside zone, as you know, with Ryan Grubb,” Bell said. “Everyone thinks Grubb and [Michael] Penix just threw the ball over the yard with Odunze and all the NFL receivers they had. And it’s true — [Penix] threw for 4,900 yards to lead the nation. But that was predicated on Dillon Johnson running for 1,100 yards.

“They are going to go back to square one on the run game. Charbonnet is going to be in it; Walker’s going to still be the number one and Charbonnet the number two. But they need horses to block like that.”

Seattle has had four starting right guards in the last five seasons and a different center every year since trading Max Unger to New Orleans in the Jimmy Graham trade back in 2015. The continuity won’t improve heading into 2024, but the Seahawks do have a chance to begin building that consistency with all the young, unproven offensive linemen on their roster.

The Seahawks brought in veteran left guard Laken Tomlinson to fill the vacancy left by Damien Lewis and drafted rookie guards Christian Haynes (UConn) and Sataoa Laumea (Utah) to try and plug the ever-widening holes in their offensive line. Haynes will compete with 2023 undrafted free agent McClendon Curtis and former fourth-round pick Anthony Bradford at right guard, while Laumea looks set to backup Tomlinson at left guard.

“If you count what Damian Lewis did at left guard, their guard play was so poor last year that no matter who it ends up being at right guard, there’s a great chance that’s going to be an improvement over what they’ve had year over year the last few years at the guard position,” Bell said. “The only sure thing on the offensive line is at left tackle, as you know, with Charles Cross, and he had his problems with the best speed rushers, not only in the league but in the division.”

Bell added the offensive line “is far from settled” and projected Haynes to win the starting right guard position due to his proficiency as both a run- and pass-blocker. However, even if they are improved overall, it likely won’t be enough to win the division, Bell said.

“The gap on the line of scrimmage on both the offensive and defensive lines against San Francisco, to me, is still too large that no matter what Ryan Grubb wants to do with Geno Smith and DK Metcalf, Tyler Lockett, Jackson Smith-Njigba, Kenneth Walker — it won’t matter if those four horses in the front aren’t blocking consistently,” Bell said. “And that’s where I think sometimes Geno Smith gets a bad rap.”

Abraham Lucas will also need to remain healthy and effective to avoid veteran George Fant stepping in as a full-time starting option, but that remains an upgrade over what the Seahawks had last season with Stone Forsythe. At the center spot, former Rimington Trophy winner Olu Oluwatimi must develop into a reliable starter and anchor the offensive line.

Protecting Smith is, of course, a huge piece of what the offensive line must do to help Seattle win football games. But they also must create lanes for the Seahawks’ running backs to allow the team to reach second and third-and-manageable situations to even think about being able to open up the passing game. It all starts in the trenches, and with offensive line coach Scott Huff .

“They won’t know the full Ryan Grubb experience until they can run the ball,” Bell said. “We won’t be able to see it until they run, and they won’t be able to run until they have offensive line play to do it.”

Connor Benintendi

CONNOR BENINTENDI

An Essay on Man

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A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality Study Guides with detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, and more.

Epistle Summaries & Analyses

Symbols & Motifs

Literary Devices

Further Reading & Resources

Discussion Questions

Epistle 4 Chapter Summaries & Analyses

Summary epistle 4: “on the nature and state of man with respect to happiness”.

The first section (Lines 1-28) discusses happiness and the many contradictory ideas that people harbor. The speaker says that both “the fool and the wise” (Line 6) hold incorrect views about what happiness is. Happiness is elusive, difficult to define. It is “nowhere to be found, and everywhere” (Line 16). However, happiness is not about wealth or power: The speaker writes that it cannot be purchased and is “always free” (Line 17). They say that some people find happiness in bliss, others in rest, but that no one has found a general definition of happiness that works for all.

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How the Netherlands battled back to beat Turkey to reach Euro 2024 semi-finals

an essay on man line by line explanation

Netherlands beat Turkey 2-1

  • Netherlands beat Turkey 2-1 at Euro 2024
  • 35’: Samet Akaydin headed in the opening goal
  • 70’: Stefan de Vrij powered home equalising header
  • 76’: Cody Gakpo bundled in late second goal
  • England await in the semi-finals

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Liam Tharme

If in doubt, break glass for Wout

If in doubt, break glass for Wout

The Athletic

Even the Dutch, with all of their footballing principles, aren’t opposed to throwing on a big guy and crossing it in.

Everyone has a hard line somewhere, at which they’ll abandon the ‘philosophy’ and take the most direct route to goal.

Weghorst’s introduction allowed the Dutch to move into a 3-2-5. He had a role in the winner too.

In 45 minutes, he had nine touches and three passes, but an unquantifiable impact on his team-mates.

When it doubt, get Wout.

Netherlands 2 Turkey 1: Weghorst’s impact, Guler shines and Dutch comeback courage

Netherlands 2 Turkey 1: Weghorst’s impact, Guler shines and Dutch comeback courage

Tim Spiers

Arda Guler impresses again

Arda Guler impresses again

Getty Images

While a Barcelona teenager — Lamine Yamal — has rightly been garnering attention throughout the tournament, another from Real Madrid is starting to lay claim to equal billing.

Arda Guler may not have played too often for Madrid last season, but he ended the season in fabulous form (five goals in five games) and has brought that momentum to Germany.

His second assist of the tournament was a beauty…Verbruggen helpless.

Jordan Campbell

Gakpo has become their star man

Gakpo has become their star man

It may have been attributed to Turkey’s Mert Muldur as an own goal but it was the presence of Cody Gakpo that counted once again.

While the debate has centred around Memphis Depay or Wout Weghorst as Netherlands’ main striker, it is Gakpo who has looked the most likely route to goal.

He has three goals and one assist in the competition, from his position starting on the left flank and drifting inside.

England will know all about him but in an Oranje shirt he looks to possess a different level of confidence.

Michael Bailey

Super six for the Dutch

Super six for the Dutch

With this win, Netherlands have reached the semi-finals of a European Championship for the sixth time.

Only Germany — who have made it to nine — have reached more.

But then, the hosts are no longer in this one are they? And that’s what matters right now.

Jacob Whitehead

The journey home started quickly

The journey home started quickly

Jacob Whitehead

This was taken not long after full time. It was a Turkish section five minutes earlier.

The Briefing: Weghorst’s impact, Guler shines and Dutch comeback courage

The Briefing: Weghorst’s impact, Guler shines and Dutch comeback courage

So, Netherlands come from behind to beat Turkey and book a semi-final showdown with England.

Samet Akaydin headed Turkey into the lead but two goals in six second-half minutes turned Saturday’s quarter-final on its head.

Stefan de Vrij headed the leveller before a Mert Muldur own goal sent the Dutch to their first Euros semi since 2004.

Tim Spiers , Jordan Campbell and Liam Tharme break down the main talking points from Berlin.

If you go back 28 years...

The last time Netherlands and England met at a European Championship? Arguably one of England’s greatest wins the tournament’s history.

The wonderful Carl Anka revisits a special day for England, and something Netherlands will want to put right in Dortmund.

Revisiting the 4-1 win over Netherlands: Is it England’s greatest European Championship victory?

Revisiting the 4-1 win over Netherlands: Is it England’s greatest European Championship victory?

Euro 2024: Semi-finals line-up

Euro 2024: Semi-finals line-up

Here we are then. From 24 teams, just four remain:

  • Tuesday: Spain vs France — Munich
  • Wednesday: Netherlands vs England — Dortmund

An unforgettable campaign

An unforgettable campaign

Whatever happens next, Euro 2024 will always have Arda Guler.

And there should be a few tournaments to follow too.

Well played, young man.

Bart Verbruggen — a Netherlands’ match-winner

Bart Verbruggen — a Netherlands’ match-winner

There was some fantastic goalkeeping in those final minutes from Bart Verbruggen to protect his side’s lead.

A young keeper with huge talent — as Brighton’s goalkeeping coach Jack Stern knows all too well:

💬 “He’s a world-class professional and he’s going to be one of the best goalkeepers in the world eventually.”

You can read more where that came from with the excellent Andy Naylor and the link below.

Bart Verbruggen, youngest goalkeeper at Euro 2024: A perfect mix of modern and old-school skills

Bart Verbruggen, youngest goalkeeper at Euro 2024: A perfect mix of modern and old-school skills

A fraught finale

It’s an own goal that decides it. Tosun is booked late for dissent at being penalised for a foul. Rennes forward and unused substitute Bertug Yildirim is then sent off from the bench for his actions.

All before the final whistle goes and the Dutch’s win is secure.

FT: Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

FT: Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

That’s it! Netherlands come from behind to make the Euro 2024 semi-finals.

England awaits them in Dortmund on Wednesday.

Turkey’s run is over. They are going home.

The final seconds

The final seconds

90+5' Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

Into the final seconds now. The Dutch are pinned. Can Turkey find something?

Zirkzee gets a chance to shine

90+4' Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

Joshua Zirkzee’s first minutes of the tournament. Ronald Koeman didn’t pick the Bologna attacker — who is of interest to Manchester United this summer — in his initial squad, and even criticised his goalscoring.

But he is a technically excellent forward — and Koeman has turned to him to close it out.

What a save from Verbruggen

90+2' Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

That is the pick of the bunch. Stunning save from Verbruggen at his feet, and from point-blank range, after the close-range effort from Kilicsoy.

This game is an absolute state right now.

FIVE more to go

FIVE more to go

90' Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

Great strike from Gakpo. Fine save from Gunok.

Back up the other end and the delivery from wide is headed off-target by Akturkoglu.

FIVE added minutes to come…

Zirkzee enters the fray

87' Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

Now Koeman makes further changes, with Zirkzee and Frimpong on for Depay and Simons. Bring on the pacey counter-attacks, yes?

Well, it’s still Turkeytrying to press and get increasingly desperate. Tosun sends a header just over, when some of the crowd thought it was in.

Send it to the big man

Send it to the big man

Cenk Tosun and Wout Weghorst on the same pitch. Football is healing, everyone is going back to big guys up-front.

It’s been a fascinating wrinkle on a tournament which has been pretty tactical. Nobody, not even the total footballing Dutch, are above crossing to a target man. And funnily enough, it helps your ball-to-feet No 10s be better when there’s someone to occupy the centre-backs.

Next goal wins, or it feels like it

Next goal wins, or it feels like it

85' Netherlands 2-1 Turkey

It’s gone down as an own goal to Mert Muldur, which looks right.

Akturkoglu, Yokuslu, Tosun and Celik have all come on now.

Tosun has already headed one chance well over. Now the pressure is really coming in the Dutch box.

So far they are finding the blocks they need, but this really now feels like next goal wins — and everyone’s trying to score.

COMMENTS

  1. An Essay on Man: Epistle I Analysis

    Popularity of "An Essay on Man: Epistle I": Alexander Pope, one of the greatest English poets, wrote 'An Essay on Man' It is a superb literary piece about God and creation, and was first published in 1733. The poem speaks about the mastery of God's art that everything happens according to His plan, even though we fail to comprehend His work. It also illustrates man's place in the ...

  2. Pope's Poems and Prose An Essay on Man: Epistle I Summary and Analysis

    Reconciling Pope's own views with his fatalistic description of the universe represents an impossible task. The first epistle of An Essay on Man is its most ambitious. Pope states that his task is to describe man's place in the "universal system" and to "vindicate the ways of God to man" (16). In the poem's prefatory address, Pope ...

  3. An Essay on Man by Alexander Pope

    Learn about Alexander Pope's "An Essay on Man." Read a summary of the poem, find its analysis, review its structure, and understand Pope's purpose in the poem. Updated: 11/21/2023 Table of Contents

  4. Alexander Pope

    Better for Us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there all harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But All subsists by elemental ...

  5. An Essay on Man

    Epistle 1. Intro. In the introduction to Pope's first Epistle, he summarizes the central thesis of his essay in the last line. The purpose of "An Essay on Man" is then to shift or enhance the reader's perception of what is natural or correct. By doing this, one would justify the happenings of life, and the workings of God, for there is ...

  6. Alexander Pope's Essay on Man

    The work that more than any other popularized the optimistic philosophy, not only in England but throughout Europe, was Alexander Pope's Essay on Man (1733-34), a rationalistic effort to justify the ways of God to man philosophically.As has been stated in the introduction, Voltaire had become well acquainted with the English poet during his stay of more than two years in England, and the two ...

  7. An Essay on Man Epistle 1 Summary & Analysis

    Summary Epistle 1: "Of the Nature and State of Man with Respect to the Universe". Lines 1-16 are a dedication to Henry St. John, a friend of Pope's. The speaker urges St. John to abandon the "meaner things" (Line 1) in life and turn his attention toward the higher, grander sphere by reflecting on human nature and God.

  8. An Essay on Man Summary and Study Guide

    Overview. Alexander Pope is the author of "An Essay on Man," published in 1734. Pope was an English poet of the Augustan Age, the literary era in the first half of the 18th century in England (1700-1740s). Neoclassicism, a literary movement in which writers and poets sought inspiration from the works of Virgil, Ovid, and Horace, influenced ...

  9. An Essay on Man: Epistle I

    By Alexander Pope. To Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke. Awake, my St. John! leave all meaner things. To low ambition, and the pride of kings. Let us (since life can little more supply. Than just to look about us and to die) Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan;

  10. An Essay on Man

    Alexander Pope published An Essay on Man in 1734. "An Essay on Man" is a poem published by Alexander Pope in 1733-1734.It was dedicated to Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (pronounced 'Bull-en-brook'), hence the opening line: "Awake, my St John...". It is an effort to rationalize or rather "vindicate the ways of God to man" (l.16), a variation of John Milton's claim in the opening ...

  11. Essay on Man by Alexander Pope: Exploring Human Nature and Reason

    Introduction. "Essay on Man" is a thought-provoking poem written by Alexander Pope, one of the foremost poets of the 18th century, during the Enlightenment period. This poetic essay forms part of a larger work, often celebrated for its insightful approach to understanding humanity's place in the world. Alexander Pope, known for his sharp ...

  12. An Essay on Man Plot Summary

    The first portion of "Essay on Man," called "The Design," is written in prose and serves as an introduction to the piece. The speaker addresses the essay to his friend Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke, who has written on similar subjects. The speaker explains the purpose of the essay—to write about "Man in the abstract, his Nature and his State."

  13. An Essay on Man: Epistle I

    He is considered to have given Pope the origìnal impetus for writing the Essay on Man, the Moral Essays, and the Imitations of Horace. A freethinker and Deist, he may have provided Pope with the "philosophy" of the Essay, although there has been a continual controversy as to whether the poem's point of view is Christian or Deistic. Back to Line

  14. An Essay on Man: Epistle 1 by Alexander Pope

    An Essay on Man: Epistle 1. To Henry St. John, Lord Bolingbroke. Awake, my St. John! leave all meaner things. To low ambition, and the pride of kings. Let us (since life can little more supply. Than just to look about us and to die) Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man; A mighty maze! but not without a plan;

  15. The Essay on Man: Explanation and Analysis

    The Essay on Man is a philosophical poem, written in heroic couplets and published between 1732 and 1734. Pope intended this poem to be the centrepiece of a proposed system of ethics that was to be put forth in poetic form. It was a piece of work that Pope intended to make into a larger work; however, he did not live to complete it. The poem is ...

  16. An Essay on Man

    An Essay on Man, philosophical essay written in heroic couplets of iambic pentameter by Alexander Pope, published in 1733-34. It was conceived as part of a larger work that Pope never completed. The poem consists of four epistles. The first epistle surveys relations between humans and the universe;

  17. An Essay on Man Epistle 2 Summary & Analysis

    Summary Epistle 2: "On the Nature and State of Man with Respect to Himself, as an Individual". In Section 1 (Lines 1-52), the speaker argues that humanity should try to understand itself before trying to understand God. They describe people as stuck between many contradictory impulses: The ability to reason and the ability to feel, the ...

  18. Pope's Poems and Prose An Essay on Man: Epistle II Summary and Analysis

    Pope's discussion of the passions shows that "self-love" and "reason" are not opposing principles. Reason's role, it seems, is to regulate human behavior while self-love originates it. In another sense, self-love and the passions dictate the short term while reason shapes the long term. Next Section An Essay on Man: Epistle III ...

  19. An Essay on Man: Epistle II

    An Essay on Man: Epistle II. By Alexander Pope. I. Know then thyself, presume not God to scan; The proper study of mankind is man. Plac'd on this isthmus of a middle state, A being darkly wise, and rudely great: With too much knowledge for the sceptic side, With too much weakness for the stoic's pride,

  20. "Essay on Man" by Alexander Pope, Epistles II (Explanation)

    Reference to the Context- These lines have been taken from the poem "Essay on Man" composed by Alexander Pope. The poem has been extracted from "Epistle II- Man in himself" Which deals with the power of man. Here the poet highlights the glory of man. Explanation - Man is the prized creation of God, who created him in his own image.

  21. An Essay on Man by Alexander Pope (Line 1-18) Line by Line Explanation

    Hello everyone,Heroic couplet - https://youtu.be/AtaVpdcspK4I am shivani and welcome to my youtube channel. In this video I will discuss about the poem 'From...

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    Alvaro Morata started against the French after reports that he too had picked up his second yellow card of the tournament in the 2-1 extra-time win over hosts Germany in the quarter-finals proved ...

  24. An Essay on Man Literary Devices

    Pope wrote "An Essay on Man" as both a philosophical essay and lyric poem. He uses the heroic couplet to express abstract ideas about human nature, society, and God. In a heroic couplet, each pair of two lines perfectly rhymes, and each line is written in iambic pentameter. Iambic pentameter is a meter where each line has ten syllables or ...

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    Kansas State football coach Chris Klieman has good reason for touting his defensive line as an asset heading into the 2024 season. It starts with experience, as in three super-seniors, two of whom ...

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    Anant Ambani, son of businessman Mukesh Ambani, poses with his fiancee Radhika Merchant during their sangeet ceremony in Mumbai, India, on Friday.

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    Standing at the center of a large stage, with a blue NATO backdrop and eight American flags behind him, Biden fielded questions from reporters for nearly an hour in an effort to display his mental ...

  29. An Essay on Man Epistle 4 Summary & Analysis

    Summary Epistle 4: "On the Nature and State of Man with Respect to Happiness". The first section (Lines 1-28) discusses happiness and the many contradictory ideas that people harbor. The speaker says that both "the fool and the wise" (Line 6) hold incorrect views about what happiness is. Happiness is elusive, difficult to define.

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