Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS Expository Essay

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The role of other organizations, recommendation.

HIV/AIDS has become a concern to everybody in the world. Many countries and individuals have found it very hard to deal with it because of the lack of funds. Therefore, organizations have come up to help them handle this problem. Notable organizations that have offered their support include WHO, PEPFAR, the Clinton’s AIDS Initiative, the Gates Foundation and the Global Fund.

WHO HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention Program Policy

The World Health Organization Department of HIV/AIDS provides normative and policy support to its members basing on enough evidence ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014). The purpose of this support is to improve the treatment, care provision and prevention services ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014).

The global vision of WHO is to eradicate HIV infections, deaths and discrimination against infected people. It aims at attaining universal and comprehensive HIV prevention, treatment and care. It also aims at combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014). WHO developed strategic directions that health units should adopt in achieving its goals. They are:

  • Optimizing the prevention, diagnosis and provision of care for HIV victims ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014)
  • Leveraging wider outcomes in health through appropriate response to HIV ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014)
  • Reducing susceptibility and getting rid of barriers to accessing services ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014)

The World Health Organization also proposes treatment and preventive methods that are specific to the needs of individual countries. Among the methods it proposes for the countries include the use of male and female condoms, male circumcision, antiretroviral therapy, prophylaxis and behavior change counseling ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014).

WHO also volunteered to expand HIV prevention methods in every country ( WHO | Guidelines, 2014). Currently, it has plans to develop a HIV prevention strategy based on national evidence and push for the creation of better prevention methods and interventions.

Global Fund

The Global Fund partners with governments, civil societies, the private sector and victims of AIDS, Tuberculosis, and malaria in 140 countries worldwide ( HIV/AIDS-The Global Fund, 2014). It spends over $4 billion every year on these partnerships. This support has greatly accelerated the rate at which the prevalence of AIDS reduces.

The fund was developed with the purpose of giving HIV victims financial support to reduce the rate of infections ( HIV/AIDS-The Global Fund, 2014). In addition, the Global Fund ensures that all infected people in the world can access antiretroviral therapy. By last year, the fund had helped 6 million victims of HIV get access to ARV ( HIV/AIDS-The Global Fund, 2014).

Its efforts have largely depended on the realization that ARV reduces the chances of HIV transmission by close to 90%. The Global Fund concentrates its services and support in areas where the effects of HIV/AIDS are more prevalent. It looks for geographic and demographic information, making it easier to focus on certain countries and populations around the world. It mostly focuses on stigmatized groups such as women, girls, drug users, migrant workers and inmates.

Gates Foundation

The main objective of the Gates Foundation is “to reduce the incidence of HIV infection and extend the lives of people living with HIV” ( HIV, 2014, par. 4). The organization offers support to all the efforts of reducing worldwide transmission of HIV. It also helps the victims of the virus live long and healthy lives.

The organization mainly focuses on populations living in Sub-Saharan regions of Africa. HIV has greatly affected the population in these regions ( HIV, 2014). These regions are very poor and cannot afford HIV medication without support. The foundation gives grants to organizations that fight HIV. It also offers financial support to the Global Fund.

So far, it has given approximately $2.5 billion to organizations in all countries and $1.4 billion to the Global Fund ( HIV, 2014). The foundation also advocates sustainability and increase in funding programs that aim at reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence.

The fund also supports the search for a HIV vaccine. It invests in research that aims at coming up with the vaccine. It partners with private institutions, individual researchers and governments in researching on several types of possible vaccines. It also provides antiretroviral therapy and other products such as vaginal rings and injections to the victims.

In addition to other activities, the foundation provides tools for carrying out voluntary male circumcision in 14 Sub-Saharan countries ( HIV, 2014). It also supports efforts by governments and other private institutions to diagnose and measure the prevalence of HIV.

Clinton’s AIDS Initiative

The Clinton Health Access Initiative was established with the purpose of helping all victims of HIV get access to medication and reduce its cost ( HIV/AIDS , 2014). Since its inception, the number of people accessing HIV medication has risen from 200, 000 in 2002 to over 8 million today ( HIV/AIDS , 2014).

In addition, the cost of the treatment has fallen from $ 10, 000 to approximately $100. The initiative has partnered with many countries around the world in formulating programs aimed at fighting HIV/AIDS ( HIV/AIDS , 2014). The best example of such partnerships includes the partnership with Ukraine.

This partnership aimed at increasing the access to HIV/AIDS treatment. President Clinton and Preval’s agreement to expand HIV/AIDS services and strengthen health systems in Haiti and the partnership with UNITAID that focused on reducing the prices of important AIDS medicine were also part of this initiative ( HIV/AIDS , 2014).

The main goal of PEPFAR is to save many lives through upgrading existing strategies and supporting efforts by different countries to improve their people’s health ( The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 2014). In 2008, the president of America signed an act that authorized the use of $ 48 billion in the fight against HIV, malaria and TB.

PEPFAR also aims at promoting sustainable AIDS eradication programs ( The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 2014). This initiative also supports countries in responding to HIV because of the belief that fighting AIDS is more effective when countries take charge of their affairs ( The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 2014). PEPFAR also focuses on other challenges that come with HIV/AIDS such as stigma and opportunistic diseases.

The organizations should provide more material support compared to money since most countries misuse the funds they receive.

Many countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa are too poor to provide good preventive and treatment methods of HIV/AIDS to their citizens. Close to 18% of their population is infected with the virus.

This situation has prompted many private and international organizations to come to their rescue. WHO, PEPFAR, the Clinton’s Organization and the Gates Foundation have provided support in these regions for a long time.

Private and International organizations have been very supportive in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Many countries and individuals could not afford the HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment without the support of PEPFAR, WHO, Clinton’s AIDS Initiative, Gates Foundation and other organizations. These organizations have invested lots of money and material support in regions with the most prevalent cases of HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS (2014). Web.

HIV/AIDS – The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (2014). Web.

HIV – Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (2014). Web.

The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Five-Year Strategy (2014). Web.

WHO | Guidelines: HIV (2014). Web.

  • Epidemiology
  • Epidemiological Studies of Tuberculosis
  • Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV People
  • Malaria in Women and Children in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Key Drivers of HIV and AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa and in San Francisco and Church’s Response to the AIDS Pandemic
  • Duties of Health Care Professionals During Pandemic of Highly Contagious Diseases
  • Prevention and Treatment of Tuberculosis
  • Epidemiology: Genetics-Related Programs
  • Leishmaniasis: Causes & Treatment
  • HIV and AIDS Prevention Among the Youth in Asia
  • Chicago (A-D)
  • Chicago (N-B)

IvyPanda. (2019, June 22). Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS.

"Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS." IvyPanda , 22 June 2019,

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IvyPanda . "Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS." June 22, 2019.

Essay About HIV/AIDS


Human Immunodeficiency Virus, abbreviated as HIV, attacks the body’s immune system, and if left untreated, it can cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV is a retroviral disease transmitted through unprotected sexual activity, from mother to child, blood transfusion, contact with infected body fluids, or hypodermic needles (Melhuish & Lewthwaite, 2018). The disease originated from a zoonotic animal, a chimpanzee in Central Africa. The virus version in chimpanzees, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, is thought to have been passed to humans during their hunting activities way back in 1800. The disease has further been spread across Africa over the decades and eventually into other parts of the world. Its existence in the United States occurred between the mid to late 1970s.

Disease Manifestation

HIV weakens the immune system through infection and destruction of the CD4+ T cells, leading to immunodeficiency at the later stages of the disease. The virus adheres to the CD4+ protein on its surface and other cells to gain entry into the body  ( Melhuish & Lewthwaite, 2018 ).  Other coreceptors such as CCR5 and CXCR4 are essential in enabling the virus to gain complete access and cause infection to the body cells. HIV infection undergoes three stages: acute illness, chronic infection, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Velloza et al., 2020). The first stage usually develops between 2 to 4 weeks after initial exposure. The stage often goes unrecognized because of the occasionally mild and nonspecific symptoms. Some of the clinical manifestations observed in the first stage include typical rushes distributed on the face and trunk, although they may also appear in the palms and soles. Oral and genital mucocutaneous ulceration is also another clinical manifestation that can be experienced during the first stage. In this stage, gastrointestinal manifestation, facial nerve palsy, acute encephalopathy, and many other clinical symptoms may participate.

In the second stage of infection, the virus continues to multiply but at low levels. Infected individuals who are in this stage may not have any alarming symptoms. The stage can last for up to 10 to 15 years, although it may move so fast in some individuals c. AIDs infection occurs in the third stage. The infection may be manifested by symptoms such as rapid loss of weight, recurring fever, extreme tiredness, prolonged swelling of the lymph glands in the groin, armpits, or neck, sores in the mouth, diarrhea that lasts for more than a week, or memory loss and other neurologic disorder (Nasuuna et al., 2018). When infected individuals are not treated, they may develop severe diseases such as serious bacterial infections, cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculosis, and cancers like Kaposi’s sarcoma and lymphomas.

Diagnosis and Treatment

HIV diagnosis can be made by a rapid diagnostic test that provides results on the same day. Individuals may also test themselves using an HIV self-test kit, although a confirmatory test has to be done later on by a qualified health professional (Mayo Clinic, 2020). The diagnostic test works by detecting antibodies produced by a person as part of their immune response to fight the virus. When the results turn out positive, immediate treatment should be done to manage the virus (Mayo Clinic, 2020). A combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) or antiretroviral therapy (ART) may suppress the symptoms and viral replication within an individual hence allowing recovery of the immune system and regain the ability to protect the body from opportunistic infections.

The public health measures of HIV prevention can be divided into three categories; primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention measures protect an individual from acquiring HIV infection. It involves strategies such as abstaining from sex, not sharing needles and sharp objects and using condoms when engaging in sexual activities. Prevention medicines such as PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) and PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) may also be used to protect yourself from the infection (Mayo Clinic, 2020). Secondary HIV prevention involves measures that should be directed to infected individuals to prevent transmission to negative people (Mayo Clinic, 2020). Strategies used in secondary prevention entails giving health education to those who are infected, supporting ART adherence efforts, providing ongoing risk assessment regarding substance use and sexual behavior, encouraging infected individuals to disclose their HIV status to their sexual and drug use partners, prescribing condoms for positive individuals and providing counseling to them (Mayo Clinic, 2020). Tertiary prevention measures ensure the improved treatment to reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS disease and promote recovery. A tertiary prevention strategy aims at reducing complications that may be caused by HIV infection.

Surveillance measures

Local surveillance of HIV may be carried out using various reporting tools to fill HIV infection cases and later submitted to the local health departments for further analysis. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) plays a big role in collecting, analyzing, and disseminating data for national surveillance on HIV/AIDS. The CDC’s National surveillance system monitors HIV trends in the U.S (CDC, 2020). Moreover, the World Health organization can conduct international surveillance of HIV/AIDS, which surveys on HIV sentinel, STDs, and behavior.

Prevalence and Incidence

According to WHO (2020), the global prevalence of HIV is estimated to be over 37.7 million people, including 1.7 million children. The percentage prevalence in adults is 0.7%. Additionally, the incidence of HIV infection was 1.5 million (WHO, 2020). Most people living with HIV live in low and middle-income countries, with East and Southern Africa being the most affected region globally. In 2020, there were 670,000 new cases which amounted to 20.6 million infected individuals in East and Southern Africa.

Interesting facts

According to the WHO, some of the current interesting facts about HIV/AIDS is that it has claimed over 36.3 million people since its emergence; hence, it is still a major public health concern (WHO, 2021). Additionally, over 37.7 million were HIV positive in 2020, whereby 25.4 million were in the WHO African region. WHO also reports that over 680 thousand individuals succumbed to HIV-related infections, and over 1.5 million people acquired HIV/AIDS.

CDC. (2020, June 19).  Tracking AIDS Trends . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Eisinger, R. W., & Fauci, A. S. (2018). Ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic.  Emerging infectious diseases ,  24 (3), 413.

Mayo Clinic. (2020, February 13).  HIV/AIDS – Symptoms and causes .

Melhuish, A., & Lewthwaite, P. (2018). Natural history of HIV and AIDS.  Medicine ,  46 (6), 356-361.

Nasuuna, E., Kigozi, J., Babirye, L., Muganzi, A., Sewankambo, N. K., & Nakanjako, D. (2018). Low HIV viral suppression rates following the intensive adherence counseling (IAC) program for children and adolescents with viral failure in public health facilities in Uganda.  BMC Public Health ,  18 (1), 1-9.

Velloza, J., Kemp, C. G., Aunon, F. M., Ramaiya, M. K., Creegan, E., & Simoni, J. M. (2020). Alcohol use and antiretroviral therapy non-adherence among adults living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  AIDS and Behavior ,  24 (6), 1727-1742.

WHO. (2021, June 9).  HIV/AIDS . WHO | World Health Organization.

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