Free International Organizations Essay Examples & Topics

If you have to write an international organization essay, you may be unsure what institutions can fall under this definition. On this page, we’ll try to help you figure it all out. Let us start with the very basics:

International organizations contain representatives from at least three states and operate worldwide (in different states). There are two types of international organizations: governmental (IGOs) and non-governmental (NGOs) .

International governmental organizations are established as associations of states. They pursue common goals and are legally bound by agreements with other states. The UN and the OAS are some of the most prominent examples.

Non-governmental organizations are created by private citizens who share essential objectives. For example, Greenpeace and WWF.

When picking an international organizations topic, students tend to either go too broad or too narrow. To help you avoid these mistakes, our team has prepared a list of ideas for you. Whether you need an essay or research topic, we’ve got you. Besides, below you’ll see free international organizations samples.

11 Research Paper Topics on International Organizations

Regardless of your international organization assignment, you’ll need to conduct research. You might need to present an analysis of one company or compare several of them. In this section, you can find a suitable topic for your research paper:

  • Challenges in u niversal international organizations research. International organizations are significant members of the global system. However, they also face challenges and limitations. Some of the difficulties include the unwillingness of members to cooperate and legitimacy concerns. Besides, there is the pursuance of national interests instead of global impact.
  • International organizations’ importance and role. The global community understood the need for international organizations after the First World War. The destruction and bankruptcy caused countries to seek worldwide dialogue and collaboration. Why is it vital for the world even today? Explore the history and the issue as a whole.
  • The reason for different scholarly definitions of the term of international institutions. In this essay, students can discuss definitions for the concept. Pay attention to how the institutions have been conceptualized across various academic disciplines.
  • The role of the UN in promoting democracy in the Indian-Kashmir conflict. The UN played a critical role in maintaining peace in the Kashmir region. For seventeen years, UNSC has been heavily involved in the issue. Consider whether the United Nations’ actions promoted democracy. Is the UN relevant for the region?
  • The relationship between transnational, national, and grassroots associations. This research paper encompasses three concepts, but you should try to go beyond simple definitions. Look at how these organization and their network shapes the world’s order and politics today.
  • Failure of non-governmental organizations due to bureaucracy. This research topic explores how some NGOs fail simply because of the bureaucratic processes they adopted. You can look at the history of the organizations. How can it be resolved? Pick one organization as an example of failure due to bureaucracy.
  • Relations between regional organizations and transnational associations in practice and theory. Regionalism is on the rise ever since the end of the Cold War. Discuss critical events in institutional change from global to regional. Look at both the theory and how it is implemented in practice. For that, choose one or two regional organizations and transnational associations.
  • An analysis of the United Nations security council in the Post Cold War Era. The UNSC is an organ established for international peace and security. Look at the way the policy has been shaped and created in Post Cold War era. You can include case studies such as Iraq, Haiti, or Yugoslavia.
  • An impact of the United Nations conflict resolution in African Countries. Over the past 30 years, the UN attempted to resolve the conflict in West Africa and throughout the region. You can analyze recent issues: Mali, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone. See how the UN helped the parties in negotiating peacekeeping.
  • The economic reasons for why the World Bank is still needed. There is a lot of critique regarding the World Bank. However, you are encouraged to discuss why it is still required, especially in developing countries. You can also touch upon why the World Bank isn’t helpful for the world’s poorest economies.
  • The policy change between US and Russia relationships after Barack Obama . Focus on the historical reasons why US-Russia relations are so difficult. Every president contributed some new layer to the relationships. Students are asked to analyze Barack Obama’s political legacy by examining US-Russia relations.

11 International Organizations Topics for Essays

For an essay, you may need a narrow topic that doesn’t require too much research. Your investigation may not be as extensive as with the ideas from the previous section. Check out our topic generator to create more original ideas on international organizations.

You can try these topics for your paper:

  • The importance of International Cooperation for the global community.
  • Why are environmental problems in Africa a global issue?
  • How do international trade organizations foster the process of globalization?
  • What are the long-term goals of the United Nations?
  • Why did the League of Nations fail its purpose?
  • Fund transfer problems in transnational associations.
  • A comparative analysis of two types of international organizations.
  • The importance of having both regional and international organizations in your country.
  • The key characteristics and functions of international organizations.
  • The role of international organizations in international relations.
  • International organizations’ history in the global economy.

Thank you for reading the article till the very end. We hope it will help you in your brainstorming process for your international organizations assignment. Additionally, check the free essay samples below.

135 Best Essay Examples on International Organizations

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The Role of International Organizations in Shaping Global Diplomacy

The Role of International Organizations in Shaping Global Diplomacy

International organizations play a critical role in shaping global diplomacy , promoting peace, security, and cooperation among nations. These organizations bring together governments, civil society, and other stakeholders to address a wide range of global challenges, from climate change to human rights violations. The role of international organizations has become increasingly important especially with the rise of globalization and increased interconnectivity of states

The United Nations (UN) is perhaps the most well-known and influential international organization. Established in 1945 in the aftermath of World War II, the UN was created to promote peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, and achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems. Today, the UN has 193 member states and is supported by a range of specialized agencies, programs, and funds, including the World Health Organization, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

One of the primary roles of the UN in shaping global diplomacy is to facilitate dialogue and negotiation among nations. The UN provides a platform for nations to come together to discuss and address common challenges, such as climate change, nuclear disarmament, and the refugee crisis. The General Assembly, which consists of representatives from all member states, is the main forum for multilateral diplomacy at the UN. Through the General Assembly, nations can voice their concerns and priorities, and work together to develop common solutions to global challenges.

Another important role of the UN in shaping global diplomacy is to promote human rights and advance social justice. The UN has established a range of bodies and initiatives to protect human rights and promote equality, including the Human Rights Council and the Commission on the Status of Women. These organizations provide a platform for governments and civil society to come together to address issues such as gender inequality, racial discrimination, and the rights of marginalized communities. The UN also plays a critical role in providing humanitarian aid to people affected by natural disasters, conflicts, and other crises around the world.

International organizations also play a critical role in promoting economic growth and prosperity around the world. The World Trade Organization (WTO), for example, works to promote free and fair trade among nations, while the International Monetary Fund (IMF) provides financial assistance and support to countries facing economic challenges. The WTO’s trade agreements, which cover everything from agriculture to intellectual property, help to promote economic growth and development by reducing barriers to trade and increasing access to markets. The IMF provides loans and technical assistance to countries facing economic difficulties, helping to stabilize economies and promote sustainable growth.

In addition to the UN and the WTO, there are many other international organizations that play a critical role in shaping global diplomacy. The International Criminal Court (ICC), for example, is an independent judicial body that investigates and prosecutes individuals for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. The ICC helps to promote accountability and deterrence for serious international crimes, and sends a strong message that impunity will not be tolerated.

Another important international organization is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which works to promote the safe, secure, and peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA helps to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, promotes nuclear safety and security, and supports the development of peaceful nuclear technologies.

International organizations also play a vital role in promoting peace and security around the world. The UN has established a range of initiatives and programs to prevent conflict and promote peace, including peacekeeping operations, mediation and arbitration, and disarmament and arms control efforts. These initiatives help to prevent conflict and promote peace by promoting dialogue, reducing tensions, and building trust among nations.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is another important international organization that plays a critical role in promoting peace and security. NATO is a political and military alliance of 30 countries in North America and Europe that is committed to collective defense and promoting stability in the Euro-Atlantic area. NATO’s activities include crisis management, peacekeeping, and disaster relief, as well as efforts to combat terrorism and promote stability in regions such as the Balkans and Afghanistan.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is another international organization that plays a critical role in shaping global diplomacy. The WHO is responsible for promoting health and preventing disease worldwide, and works with governments and other stakeholders to improve health outcomes and address global health challenges such as pandemics, outbreaks, and non-communicable diseases. The WHO has played a key role in coordinating the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic, providing guidance to governments and health systems on how to prevent and control the spread of the virus, and supporting efforts to develop and distribute vaccines.

International organizations also play an important role in promoting environmental sustainability and addressing global challenges such as climate change. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty that aims to prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system. The UNFCCC sets out a framework for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change, and provides a platform for countries to negotiate and agree on common targets and strategies for addressing this critical global challenge.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is another international organization that plays a critical role in shaping global diplomacy on issues related to energy and climate change. The IEA is an intergovernmental organization that works to promote energy security, economic development, and environmental sustainability worldwide. The IEA provides policy guidance and technical support to governments and other stakeholders to help them develop and implement strategies for transitioning to a low-carbon energy future.

In conclusion, international organizations play a critical role in shaping global diplomacy by promoting peace, security, cooperation, and prosperity among nations. Through their work, these organizations help to address a wide range of global challenges, from human rights violations and economic inequality to climate change and pandemics. By providing a platform for dialogue and negotiation among nations, promoting human rights and social justice, and supporting efforts to address global challenges, international organizations help to create a more stable, secure, and prosperous world for all.

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The Role of International Organisations in World Politics

During his millennium commencement speech, the Former Secretary-General Kofi Annan spoke about how the challenges of the twenty first century would not be conquered if it weren’t for international organizations. “More than ever before in human history, we share a common destiny. We can master it only if we face it together. And that, is why we have the United Nations.” (Annan: 2001) It is widely believed that international organizations should be responsible for the maintenance of international peace and stability, be this economic, social or political, and that they should act in the interest of the international community. According to critics of these institutions, there should be greater transparency, regulation and control within these organizations so that they reflect more than just the interest of the powerful States.

The creation of an international forum for multi-lateral negotiations came about with the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) in 1889, which is still active today and has membership of 157 national parliaments. The IPU was the predecessor to the League of Nations, created in 1919 after the end of the First World War; this later became the United Nations after the failure of the League to prevent international conflicts. (Thompson and Snidal: 1999: 693) The legacy of the IPU, the League of Nations, and other early international alliances was not the institutions’ effectiveness as an actor, but rather as a forum, for nations to voice their opinions and promote dialogue. This was arguably their greatest achievement, as even after the failure of the League, nation States still felt the need for an institution that would allow them to share their ideas and provide an opportunity to settle disputes peacefully. Thus, emerged the United Nations, which to this day remains the only institution with universal membership. It is the largest of all international organisations, which is why it will be analysed for the purpose of this paper.

The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of an international institution as a stage for States to bring matters to the attention of the international community and how this is a victory in itself for international relations. This assertion will be verified by firstly examining the critiques of international institutions by using international relations theory, namely neo-realism, highlighting its limitations and breaking down its core assumptions. The paper will then follow with an analysis of neoliberal institutionalism and its discourses as an alternative to neorealism, as well as constructivism, and its theory of institutions being a socially constructed concept determined by the sharing of ideas; it will finally conclude with the idea that institutions play a crucial role in the international system.

On the other hand, Neo-liberal institutionalism prides itself on the Kantian version of the international system. While the UN attempts to coordinate the actions of States and harmonize the world community, it becomes increasingly geared towards this ‘utopian’ model, even though it faces innumerous challenges when rallying Member States to follow its general principles and vision. It is also argued that the United Nations has been vital in furthering decolonization, human rights, environmental protection and international law. Neo-liberal institutionalism stresses the importance of the UN’s work with regional organizations, as they become indispensable in the international diplomatic process predicting, “the international community will increasingly direct itself towards combined action of the universal Organization with regional bodies.” (Cassese: 2005: 338) This can be observed in the recent links between the UN and regional organizations such as the Organisation of American States (OAS), the African Union (AU), the European Union (EU), the Arab League, and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). It is widely regarded by theorists in this field that the failure of neo-realism resides in its ontology of institutions, as they believe it has the capacity to redefine the behaviour of States. This is further discussed in their reasoning to how institutions influence State conduct by both creating strong incentives for cooperation whilst at the same time implementing disincentives, like trade sanctions. Scholars of this theory believe that once cooperation amongst States is institutionalised, States would be reluctant to leave it, in fear of what could happen. (Navari: 2009: 39) This is particularly true for members of the European Union, as once States enter into the formal membership they almost never abandon it. By bridging the gap between States and giving them this forum for debate, institutions help trigger important coalitions, and with its congenial approach to weaker States, aids in their pursuit of linkage strategies. Hence, States feel welcome in what was previously a hostile international environment. (Nye and Keohane: 1989: 36).

Reflecting on this, one could easily make a case in favour of institutions, but it seems prudent not to jump into generalisations of the relative successes of the UN system, as a careful empirical analysis of its record is necessary before making sweeping statements. It is also important to determine what constitutes success and failure as we can approach the United Nations system in different ways, either as an international forum or as a ‘global policing force’ and regardless of what approach one may take, they both have their virtues and drawbacks. This is why the neo-liberal institutionalist approach is misleading as it accounts for some of the weaknesses of institutions, but does not include enough critical analysis of its premises and actions, or lack thereof. Thereby, the role of institutions becomes a more ideological and normative one, where they infuse Member States’ policies with their liberal values and principles.

In contrast, conventional constructivism challenges both neo-realism and neo-liberal institutionalism by claiming that anarchy is not inherent in the state system, as affirmed by neo-realists, neither is it inexistent, as affirmed by neo-liberal institutionalists, it is, in truth, what States make of it. It asserts that institutions and structures, within the international system, are mutually constructed concepts by actors that employ social practice to define the ‘international realm.’  The previous theories, neo-realism and neo-liberal institutionalism, take for granted the idea that economic and military power is the primary source of influence in world politics. Constructivist theorists counter this, as they believe discursive power also plays a fundamental role in the understanding of the global political system. (Hopf: 1998: 177) Constructivists deviate from the neorealist assumption that anarchy plays a crucial role in the behaviour of institutions, and alternately create a carefully depicted discourse of the role identity and interest in the shaping of international actors. Thus, now that they have deconstructed this claim, it appears that the behaviour of institutions can no longer be objectively analysed by quantifiable forces, as social interaction now gives different meanings to ideas, actors and objects. For this reason, the theoretical model proves these interactions can affect collective decisions in a global context. (Deitelhoff: 2009: 35) The idea of anarchy and power politics has been essentially reduced, and according to notable constructivist Alexander Wendt, “if today we find ourselves in a self-help world, this is due to process, not structure. There is no ‘logic’ to anarchy apart from the practices that create and instantiate one structure of identities and interests rather than another; structure has no existence or causal powers apart from process.” (Wendt: 1992: 394) Demonstrably, many of the assertions made by the constructivist theory were intended to focus not on the improvements and the successes of international institutions, but rather on the questioning of core assumptions of neo-liberalism and neo-liberal institutionalism, and deviate from their materialistic approaches. They draw attention to the relationship between the structure and the agency, as well as the construction of state and institutional interests.  Thus, the theory holds that the role of international organizations is to uphold their carefully constructed values and ideologies to States, determining their behaviour.

Another interesting factor to note is the portrayal of the Secretary-General (SG) within the United Nations. The SG’s initial role of entrepreneurship and chief of all administrative matters within the organization was a political decision, as nations did not want to transmit the notion of a global governance to the world community. However, it has been extremely debated amongst scholars and internationalists that the changing roles and duties of the ‘head’ of the UN has signified a symbolic change for the international system. This was observed especially during the Kofi Annan years, when the Secretary General’s duties expanded to unforeseeable dimensions, largely opposed by the United States. (Traub: 2007: 197) It is claimed that the Secretary General is the world’s prime example of responsibility without power, which is not always understood. The fact that he has no sovereign rights, duties or resources could signify that he becomes a reflection of the organization itself. The licence granted to the Secretary-General by Member-States is for mediation, rallying of nations, and generating awareness to pressing issues, which can be further extended to many of the acting organs of the organization. The increase in the Secretary-General’s powers is a matter of grave concern among the major power players of the UN, and this essentially shows that States are not, in fact, moving towards a ‘global government’ and that the role of the United Nations as an international institution is to promote dialogue and discussions in a multilateral framework and not to intervene in Sovereign territory. An example of this was in the Secretary-General’s Millennium Report where he ensured States that the Secretariat was fully accountable to them and the founding principles of the United Nations as “an Organization dedicated to the interests of its Member States and of their peoples” would be preserved. (Annan: 2000: 73) In light of this, the role of the United Nations is to serve as a facilitator for cooperative action between Member States and non-state actors.

In conclusion, this paper revealed that the role international organizations should play in world politics is dependent on the theoretical framework and interpretation of what the institutional system entails. For neo-realists, international institutions are and will always be ineffective, as they cannot alter the anarchic structure of the international system, neo-liberal institutionalists argue the opposite as they believe institutions greatly influence State conduct by both creating strong incentives for cooperation whilst at the same time implementing disincentives, as observed in the case of nuclear proliferation; constructivists take a very different approach by questioning the core assumptions of the other theories and drawing attention to the relationship between the structure and the agency, as well as the construction of state and institutional interests. This essay has sought to argue that we should look at the United Nations system objectively as a forum for nations to come together and tackle issues that are of concern to the international community. This was the primary objective of the institution in 1945, which is why forcing it to develop into an impartial effective governing force seems quite naïve and unrealistic. As stated by former Assistant Secretary-General Robert Orr, “as an actor, there is so little we can do, and often the people accusing us are the same ones who prevent us from being able to act.” (Weiss: 2008: 8) For this reason, perhaps instead of focusing on the failures and reform within the UN, we should concentrate on the attributes and virtues that it has as an effective centre for harmonizing discussions and developing common goals for States. Rather than reducing the solution to problems of structural reform and widening participation efforts, we could look at promoting the UN as the prime setting for diplomacy and negotiation, as this has undeniably been its role since the beginning.

Cassese, Antonio. International Law. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Navari, Cornelia. “Liberalism.” In Security Studies: An Introduction , by Paul D. Williams, 29-43. New York, NY: Routledge, 2009.

Newman, Edward. A Crisis of Global Institutions? Multilateralism and international security. New York, NY: Routledge, 2007.

Nye, Joseph S., and Robert O. Keohane. Power and Interdependence. United States of America: HarperCollins Publishers, 1989.

Weiss, Thomas G. What’s Wrong With the United Nations (and How to Fix It). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008.

Traub, James. “The Secretary-General’s Political Space.” In Secretary or General? , by Simon Chesterman, 185-201. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Journal Articles

Deitelhoff, Nicole. “The Discursive Process of Legalization: Charting Islands of Persuasion in the ICC Case.” International Organization (Cambridge Journals) 63, no. 1 (2009): 33 – 65.

Hopf, Ted. “The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory.” International Security 23, no. 1 (1998): 171-200.

Keohane, Robert O., and Lisa L. Martin. “The Promise of Institutionalist Theory.” International Security 20, no. 1 (1995): 39-51.

Mearsheimer, John J. “A Realist Reply.” International Security 20, no. 1 (1995): 82-93.

Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19, no. 3 (1994): 5-49.

Wendt, Alexander. “Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics.” International Organization (Cambridge Journals) 46, no. 2 (1992): 391-425.

Other Resources

Annan, Kofi. We The Peoples: Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century. Millenium Report of the Secretary-General, United Nations, New York: United Nations Department of Public Information, 2000.

Thompson, Alexander, and Duncan Snidal. International Organizations. Report at the University of Chicago , Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1999.

Written by: Sophie Crockett Written at: Royal Holloway, University of London Written for: Dr. Doerthe Rosenow Date written: November 2011

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role of international organizations essay

15.3 The United Nations and Global Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)

Learning outcomes.

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Define intergovernmental organizations and discuss their role in global governance.
  • Discuss the purpose and history of the United Nations.
  • Describe the structure of the United Nations.
  • Explain the role of peacekeepers.
  • Analyze the sources and limits of the power of the United Nations.

Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are groups made up of member states that are held together by formal agreement. The number of intergovernmental organizations has increased dramatically since World War II. IGOs help the international community focus on issues and coordinate actions even when individual states’ interests may push them to act in ways that are incompatible with common goals. Each member state’s government selects delegates to represent its interests at IGO meetings.

There are dozens of IGOs. This section focuses on global IGOs—that is, IGOs whose membership is open to states around the world. The scope of global IGO activity varies widely, from technical organizations such as the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Hydrographic Organization to organizations with a specific, narrow focus, such as the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission . While some global IGOs have a relatively small number of members, 193 out of 195 recognized sovereign countries in the world are members of the largest global IGO, the United Nations , 16 and 164 are members of the World Trade Organization . 17

With its worldwide reach, the United Nations contributes to global governance more than any other IGO. Since its beginning in 1945, its membership has grown as the number of sovereign states has increased. The newest members are Montenegro and South Sudan. The Holy See and Palestine are nonvoting “observer” members. 18 The UN addresses every conceivable issue in international relations, from peace and security to migration and refugees, law, food, development, energy, and human rights, among others. Dozens of smaller global IGOs are housed within the UN framework.

Where Can I Engage?

Virtual tour of the un.

If you can’t visit the UN in person, this video can take you on a virtual tour of the UN Headquarters in New York.

Headquartered in New York City, the UN is a hub of international activity, with representatives from member countries participating in General Assembly and committee meetings and engaging in forums on issues of international concern. You can visit the UN , where tours are conducted in multiple languages.

The Founding and Mission of the UN

The United Nations was created after World War II to ensure international peace and stability. In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles , which ended World War I, established a global IGO called the League of Nations . The purpose of the League was to facilitate good relations among countries of the world and to punish aggression. To deter aggression, the League used the principle of collective security , requiring member states to jointly retaliate against any aggressive action of another state. Because the United States Senate refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, the United States did not join the League of Nations. Ultimately, the League was ineffective in punishing aggressive states, and expansionist powers Japan, Germany, and Italy all withdrew from the League prior to World War II.

While some might view the outbreak of World War II less than 20 years after the conclusion of the First World War as a failure of the idea behind the League, the leaders of the WWII Allied states saw the outbreak as evidence of the need for an even stronger global organization, and in response they created the United Nations. United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt committed US membership and backing, and the US Congress agreed to join the United Nations. While the League had required unanimous agreement among its members to take action, the UN requires only a majority vote for most resolutions. A two-thirds majority was required for issues of peace and security, admission of new members, and budgetary matters. Initially, the United Nations had 51 member states, mostly from Europe.

Because the United Nations was founded in part on the principle of the sovereignty of member states, it is not and cannot become a “world government” with ultimate authority over its members. UN decisions are not binding on member states without the consent of those states. Like international law, the UN contributes to global governance by setting obligations and rules of behavior for member states. The United Nations Charter recognizes the rights of sovereign states and their obligations as members of the international community while emphasizing the importance of multilateral cooperation as the cornerstone to peace and prosperity for all. Member states commit to use peaceful means to settle disputes and to uphold and support UN decisions. The Charter specifies that the UN may intervene to stop acts of aggression or threats to the peace and that member states are only to use force in self-defense.

The UN website displays the organization’s slogan: “peace, dignity and equality on a healthy planet.” The three overarching goals of the United Nations are promoting peace, ensuring human rights, and achieving sustainable development with a focus on protecting the environment—all collective goods that can be elusive in a system of sovereign states each concerned only with its own survival and well-being.

In service of the goal to “save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,” 19 the UN has been involved in peacekeeping activities in areas of interstate conflict since the late 1940s.

In 1948, UN member states signed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR), which lays out principles such as the right to freedom of religion, freedom of family choices, and freedom to travel. It became the foundational document for the protection of human rights worldwide. 20

Recognition of the dignity of each person and their inalienable rights sets the stage for many other UN activities. The UN’s ability to coordinate international solutions to problems and to marshal funds and expertise has helped many states, especially in the developing world, achieve better economic, educational, health, and environmental outcomes.

How Is the UN Structured?

The UN is organized into six main bodies: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the Trusteeship Council, and the International Court of Justice. In addition, dozens of related IGOs work on issues in conjunction with or under the auspices of the United Nations. 22 The International Court of Justice was discussed above. This section turns to the other five main UN bodies.

The General Assembly

Each of the 193 UN member states has equal representation, regardless of its size or wealth, in the primary deliberative organ of the United Nations, the General Assembly (GA). The GA serves as a venue for states to discuss the most pressing international challenges, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, armed conflict, illicit trade, poverty, and hunger, as well as systemic problems such as wealth inequality and intolerance. Every state in the world faces these troubles to varying degrees, and thus the quest for solutions is a quest to provide collective goods. At its annual meeting, GA members deliberate policies and goals for the international community, elect members to the Security Council, and discuss reports from other UN organs.

The Security Council

The Security Council performs the UN’s most crucial peacemaking work. Fifteen member states sit on the Security Council. Ten are elected by the General Assembly to two-year terms, while the other five seats, known as the Permanent Five (P5) , belong to the victors of World War II and the primary architects of the United Nations—the United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the People’s Republic of China (PRC). The P5 have veto power over any Security Council action. Even if the other 14 states on the Council agree with a given action, the veto of any one of the P5 will block the action. Admission to membership in the United Nations requires the affirmative vote of nine Security Council members and no vetoes from within the P5.

Though the General Assembly has more than tripled in size, the structure of the Security Council has only changed once, when in 1965 the number of members was expanded from 11 to 15. There is ongoing discussion about increasing the size of the Security Council beyond 15 states, and some advocate for expanding the P5 since the Security Council has no permanent representative from Latin America, Africa, or the Middle East.

The Security Council monitors international conflict, facilitates diplomatic resolutions to disputes, and may place sanctions on member states engaged in violence. To stop ongoing or impending conflict or violations of international law, the Security Council has authorized military intervention (e.g., in response to North Korea’s aggression against South Korea in 1950 and in response to Iraq’s 1990 invasion of Kuwait), levied sanctions (e.g., in 2006 against Iran for refusing to stop its uranium enrichment process in its quest for nuclear weapons), and imposed arms embargoes (e.g., against Serbia in 1998 for ongoing aggression against Kosovo). The Security Council also provides a space for multilateral discussion about transnational threats to international security such as terrorism, poverty, migration and refugees, and trafficking of goods and people.

The Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is a primary driver of global governance policy aimed at dealing with the collective problems facing the world community. Former Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld explained, “While the Security council exists primarily for settling conflicts . . . the Economic and Social Council exists primarily to eliminate the causes of conflicts.” 23 ECOSOC’s responsibilities span economic and social issues. Dozens of subagencies are housed under the ECOSOC umbrella, including regional development agencies and issue-specific organizations. In particular, ECOSOC focuses on “development,” or raising the standard of living for people around the world through economic expansion and improved access to resources common throughout wealthier states, such as electricity, sanitation, education, and health care. In recent years ECOSOC has focused on how to incorporate care for the environment in the drive for economic prosperity, a concept known as sustainable development .

Since 2015, the United Nations has focused on helping member states achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) , a set of 17 objectives that broadly address “ending poverty, protecting the planet and improving the lives and prospects of everyone, everywhere.” 24 These goals are part of the UN’s “2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” ECOSOC coordinates the work on these goals and collects the data required to measure progress toward their achievement.

The Secretariat

The UN Secretariat performs administrative work. Upon the recommendation of the Security Council, the General Assembly elects the head of the Secretariat, the Secretary-General , for a five-year renewable term. The Secretary-General engages in leadership, diplomacy, and public outreach to promote the UN; to draw international attention to urgent issues; and to raise money for UN activities.

The Trusteeship Council

At the time of the founding of the UN in 1946, much of the world was under European colonial control. The Trusteeship Council was formed to allow the UN to administer the former colonial territories that had belonged to the defeated powers of World War II: Germany, Italy, and Japan. All territories placed in trust to the United Nations subsequently attained independence. While it still exists per the UN Charter, the Trusteeship Council is currently inactive.

What Tools Does the UN Have to Help Keep Peace?

The main mission of the UN is to keep the peace by enhancing transparency, providing countries with a forum in which to peacefully resolve disputes, and engaging in projects aimed at alleviating the causes of conflict. The Security Council can send UN representatives—troops, police, observers, and civilians—to conflict zones. UN peacekeepers are deployed at the request of the warring parties and with the authorization of the Security Council. Three guiding principles undergird the UN deployment of peacekeepers: 1) consent of the parties, 2) impartiality, and 3) non-use of force except in self-defense or in defense of a Security Council mandate. 25

In 2020, there were approximately a dozen ongoing UN peacekeeping missions , mostly in the Middle East and Africa. The first UN peacekeeping mission was in 1948, monitoring the armistice between Israel and its Arab neighbors. In 1949, peacekeepers were sent to the border between India and Pakistan to monitor a ceasefire agreement in Kashmir. Both of those missions were small in scale—unarmed peacekeepers were sent to monitor an existing ceasefire. Both are still active. More than 3,000 UN peacekeepers from 120 countries have died in this service. 26

UN Specialized Agencies and Related IGOs

Numerous IGOs work to address specific global issues. Some, like the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), operate independently but share information with the UN and help support the UN’s mission. Global IGOs such as the Universal Postal Union (UPU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are specialized agencies operating within the UN framework . These agencies act autonomously, with their own constitutions, leaders, headquarters, and bureaucratic organizations.

Table 15.1 highlights the mission, accomplishments, and goals of the three most significant global IGOs: the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank , and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Working on the collective good issues of global health, economic development, and international trade, respectively, these organizations provide guidelines for state behavior, encourage and enable countries to share information and data, and collaborate on policy making.

Show Me the Data

The World Bank Open Data website provides free and open access to innovative visuals that tell the stories of global development data. You can explore a walkthrough of the 2020 Sustainable Development Goals at the World Bank Data blog , where you can see examples of these detailed and interactive data visualizations.

What Constrains the Effectiveness of the UN and Global IGOs?

In IGOs, sovereign states represent their own interests, bringing their own cultures and ideas to discussions of global governance, and IGOs are limited in their ability to intervene in the domestic affairs of member states. Although the purpose of IGOs is to help states work cooperatively, and though they strive to help states coordinate activities in pursuit of collective goods, in most circumstances, states place their own desires and interests above those of the broader international community. For example, ideally all states would work together to promote collective security by punishing aggressor states; in practice, states often cannot agree on what constitutes aggression or are unwilling to hold their allies accountable. Similarly, global poverty might be more easily eliminated if all countries worked together and pooled resources, but most countries are anxious to keep the gains of prosperity to themselves and dedicate only a small percentage of their wealth to help other countries. Countries that refused to lock down or promote vaccination might prolong the COVID-19 pandemic despite the actions of other states following WHO guidelines to control it.

Funding is another limitation on the effectiveness of the United Nations. UN member states pay dues based on their wealth relative to other member states. The United States pays 22 percent of the operating expenses of the United Nations and almost 28 percent of its peacekeeping budget. China now pays the second highest amount toward the peacekeeping budget, at 15 percent. 33

Let’s Talk WTO

The World Trade Organization establishes rules governing international trade and provides a venue for trade negotiations between countries.

Another limit on the UN is its inability to enforce its decisions or rules. In many ways, it is an aspirational body. The General Assembly passes resolutions, but often without any real expectation that they will be implemented and without the ability to impose consequences if they are not. Sometimes the Security Council or others working on treaties or building international law use those resolutions to help justify sanctions or other punitive measures against states. According to the United Nations, GA resolutions “have been a constant driver for the development of space law and international cooperation of Member States in their space activities . . . Many provisions of the General Assembly resolutions related to outer space have become widely accepted by the international space community.” 34

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The main reason behind the formation of the international organisations in the post war era was because of what had transpired in the 1930’s. The nations of the world had reviewed the events that had almost bankrupted and devastated nations, the war had caused a disruption at a scale which had never been contemplated. The large scale destruction had urged many countries to rethink war, its pros and cons, it was then realised that the world needed an organisation that would help resolve disputes between nations, help build strong, new and independent nations.

 Now what do international organisations actually mean? International organisation as defined in the Farlex English Dictionary is an international alliance involving many different countries. The definition more suited to this context would be, an International Organisation is an organisation which has different nations as its members and performs a certain activity which is in the common interest of all those member nations. The main jobs of these International Organisations is to help maintain peace between nations, but this is only half the job; Wars generally create a lot of political and financial instability/hardships for the nations directly or indirectly involved, International Organisations help overcoming these difficulties by providing assistance through cooperation of other better situated nations.

The sudden need for an international organisation was felt after the First World War. The widespread destruction and the far reaching consequences had made the nations realize that they needed to help themselves or there would be no end to global unrest and instability. After the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War an intergovernmental organisation was formed which came to be known as The League of Nations. It was the first permanent international organisation whose mission was to maintain world peace. League of Nations and other important International Organisations and their roles in the present International System will be discussed in detail in the paper.

What role do International Organisations play in the International System is a question that first comes to the minds of people when International Organisations are being discussed. International Organisation play a very important role in the world today; In the globalised world we live in today, everything ranging from world peace to the clothes we wear have an important link to various International Organisations. In order to understand this statement we have to go down the timeline of International Organisations;

The League of Nations was the first International Organisation in the true sense, it was an organisation whose primary objective was to maintain peace between nations. Its goals as stated in its Covenant included preventing war through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. The League of Nations had 58 members in its greatest extent, but it was soon realised that  the League lacked its own armed force and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, or provide an army when needed. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them. Numerous reasons like this led to the downfall of the League of Nations. The onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war. The United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the war and inherited a number of agencies and organizations founded by the League.

The United Nations is an international organisation which aims to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The United Nations currently has 193 member states, including every internationally recognised sovereign state other that the Vatican City. The organization has six principal organs:

  • General Assembly- The main deliberative assembly;
  • The Security Council- For deciding certain resolutions for peace and security;
  • The Economic and Social Council- For assisting in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development;
  • The Secretariat- For providing studies, information, and facilities needed by the UN;
  • The International Court of Justice - The primary judicial organ;
  • The United Nations Trusteeship Council (which is currently inactive).             

Other prominent UN System agencies include the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

The United Nations has been credited with negotiating 172 peaceful settlements that have ended regional conflicts. Recent cases include an end to the Iran-Iraq war, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, and an end to the civil war in El Salvador. The United Nations has used quiet diplomacy to avert imminent wars. The United Nations also has helped in promoting democracy in various countries, it has enabled people in over 45 countries to participate in free and fair elections, including those held in Cambodia, Namibia, El Salvador, Eritrea, Mozambique, Nicaragua and South Africa. The United Nations has also taken various steps to prevent nuclear proliferation; Through the International Atomic Energy Agency, United Nations has helped minimize the threat of a nuclear war by inspecting nuclear reactors in 90 countries to ensure that nuclear materials are not diverted for military purposes. The above mentioned facts clearly show how the United Nations has been successful in addressing the various issues of the International System. The importance of United Nations in regard to the maintenance of  a social order in the world cannot be stressed enough, but there are other International Organisations too which have an equal importance in ensuring growth and peace in the world.

Another important Organisation is the World Trade Organisation, The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. The World Trade Organisation has a major role in liberalising the markets of many nations and convincing the nations to open up their markets to the rest of the world. This has been very advantageous because this had expanded the horizons of commerce and business in a way that has changed our outlook of the world.

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation or NATO, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO had helped in ending the Cold War Lines of division which proved to be an incentive for the countries of western and central Europe to overcome long standing differences. NATO has created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council to give a stronger political dimension to various military partnerships and has made the Partnership for Peace more operational, in order to enhance the pool of resources for joint crisis management, the benefits of which can already be seen in Bosnia and Kosovo.

It can very clearly be inferred from the text that the International Organisations have played a very important role in making the world what it is today. The International Organisations have dealt with a lot of important and pressing issues and have provided a forum for countries to come together and address and resolve disputes and issues that would have had huge implications in the future.

International Organisations are helping shape the world into a much better place. International Organisations are helping overcome challenges like poverty, disease, hunger, social unrest, ensuring equitable distribution of resources, etc. by urging nations to cooperate with one another and it undeniable that the International Organisation plays a huge role in the smooth functioning of the International System. The whole International System is dependent on the functioning of the Organisations so that we can strive to make the world our true utopian dream.

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Cover Responsibility of International Organizations

Responsibility of International Organizations

Essays in memory of sir ian brownlie.

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  • Preliminary Material Editor(s): Maurizio Ragazzi Pages: i–vli
  • 1. Some Reflections on Basic Issues Concerning the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade Pages: 1–13
  • 2. The Processes of Law-Making: Τhe Law Relating to International Organizations as an Example By: Kenneth Keith Pages: 15–27
  • 3. Codification, Progressive Development, or Scholarly Analysis? The Art of Packaging the ILC’s Work Product By: Sean D. Murphy Pages: 29–40
  • 4. International Organizations Are Definitely Not States. Cursory Remarks on the ILC Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Alain Pellet Pages: 41–54
  • 5. ‘Weighing’ the Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations By: Michael Wood Pages: 55–66
  • 6. An Assessment of the ILC’s Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: C.F. Amerasinghe Pages: 67–78
  • 7. International Organizations and State Responsibility By: Dan Sarooshi Pages: 79–87
  • 8. Viability of the ILC’s Articles Formulated on the Basis of the Articles on State Responsibility By: Chusei Yamada Pages: 89–93
  • 9. Parallel Worlds, Parallel Clauses: Remarks on the Relationship between the Two Sets of ILC Articles on International Responsibility and the UN Charter By: Maurizio Arcari Pages: 95–107
  • 10. An Uneasy Transition? Linkages between the Law of State Responsibility and the Law Governing the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Vincent-Joël Proulx Pages: 109–120
  • 11. Within and Beyond Mutatis Mutandis By: Tullio Scovazzi Pages: 121–132
  • 12. The Role of Lex Specialis in the Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Kristen E. Boon Pages: 133–145
  • 13. Reflections on the Scope of Application of the Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Arnold N. Pronto Pages: 147–158
  • 14. Practice as a Relevant Factor for the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Emmanuel Roucounas Pages: 159–171
  • 15. The ILC’s Articles Seen from a WHO Perspective By: Gian Luca Burci and Clemens Feinäugle Pages: 173–187
  • 16. European Exceptionalism in International Law? The European Union and the System of International Responsibility By: José Manuel Cortés Martín Pages: 189–199
  • 17. ILC Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations: Τhe Interplay between the Practice and the Rule (A View from the United Nations) By: Daphna Shraga Pages: 201–210
  • 18. United in Joy and Sorrow: Some Considerations on Responsibility Issues under Partnerships among International Financial Institutions By: Laurence Boisson de Chazournes Pages: 211–224
  • 19. Codification, Progressive Development or Innovation? Some Reflections on the ILC Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Ross Leckow and Erik Plith Pages: 225–234
  • 20. The World Bank and the ILC’s Project on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Maurizio Ragazzi Pages: 235–248
  • 21. The Responsibility of International Organizations: Selected Reflections from the Perspective of a Former Legal Counsel to the Holy See By: Robert John Araujo Pages: 249–260
  • 22. The Elusive Allocation of Responsibility to Informal Organizations: Τhe Case of the Quartet on the Middle East By: John Dugard and Annemarieke Vermeer-Künzli Pages: 261–273
  • 23. Attribution of Conduct after the Advisory Opinion on the Global Mechanism By: Rutsel Silvestre J. Martha Pages: 275–287
  • 24. Responsibility of Member States towards Third Parties for an Internationally Wrongful Act of the Organization By: Kazuhiro Nakatani Pages: 289–301
  • 25. Exploring Alternative Routes: Τhe Obligation of Members to Enable the Organization to Make Reparation By: Paolo Palchetti Pages: 303–312
  • 26. The Responsibility of International Organizations and Τheir Member States By: Pavel Šturma Pages: 313–324
  • 27. ‘Member Responsibility’ and the ILC Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations: Some Observations By: Sienho Yee Pages: 325–336
  • 28. Responsibility of International Organizations and Justiciability of Disputes By: Sergio Puig Pages: 337–350
  • 29. Responsibility of International Organizations: What Role for the International Court of Justice? By: Hugh Thirlway Pages: 351–360
  • 30. The Countermeasure of Disobedience: Implementing the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Antonios Tzanakopoulos Pages: 361–372
  • 31. Countermeasures by Member States Αgainst International Organizations By: Simone Vezzani Pages: 373–385
  • 32. The Notion of ‘Effective Control’ under the Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations By: Blanca Montejo Pages: 387–404
  • 33. United Nations Responsibility from Authorizing the Use of Force By: P.S. Rao Pages: 405–414
  • 34. International Responsibility for the Conduct of ‘Blue Helmets’: Exploring the Organic Link By: Francesco Salerno Pages: 415–427
  • Appendix 1. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 66/100, Responsibility of International Organizations (Adopted on December 9, 2011) Editor(s): Maurizio Ragazzi Pages: 429–448
  • Appendix 2. International Law Commission’s General Commentary on the Articles Editor(s): Maurizio Ragazzi Pages: 449–451
  • Bibliography Editor(s): Maurizio Ragazzi Pages: 453–465
  • Index Editor(s): Maurizio Ragazzi Pages: 467–469

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Challenges For International Organizations in the 21st Century

Essays in Honor of Klaus Hüfner

  • Martina Metzger (Lecturer) 0 ,
  • Birgit Reichenstein (Lecturer) 1

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Table of contents (11 chapters)

Front matter, involvement and detachment: looking back (and forward) on klaus hüfner’s peculiar mix of experiences, dispositions and activities.

  • Jens Naumann

Changing Economic Environment — Persistent Questions on Development

Some reflections on trade expansion as a measure of globalization.

  • H. W. Singer

With a Little Help from NTBs: Why Reducing Tariffs Does not Lead to Free Trade

  • Birgit Reichenstein

Regional Integration Among Less Developed Economies: Discordant Variations on an Evergreen

  • Waltraud Schelkle

25 Years After the Collapse of the Bretton Woods System: Still not Having Found What We Were Looking for

  • Martina Metzger

Asia and the International Monetary Fund: Reflections on the Present World Currency Crisis

Current economic and financial policies and their social consequences.

  • Louis Emmerij

The Coffers Are Not Empty: Financing for Sustainable Development and the Role of the United Nations

  • Jens Martens, James A. Paul

National Culture — International Links

New concepts of the un in maintaining peace: a discourse analysis about a producer of texts.

  • Ulrich Albrecht

Science and Global Governance: The Story of United Nations University

  • Mihály Simai

Global Culture versus Golden Cages: New Options for Cultural Policies

  • Traugott Schöfthaler

Back Matter

  • global governance
  • globalization
  • international economics
  • international organization
  • international organizations
  • international relations
  • United Nations

Martina Metzger, Birgit Reichenstein

Book Title : Challenges For International Organizations in the 21st Century

Book Subtitle : Essays in Honor of Klaus Hüfner

Editors : Martina Metzger, Birgit Reichenstein


Publisher : Palgrave Macmillan London

eBook Packages : Palgrave Economics & Finance Collection , Economics and Finance (R0)

Copyright Information : Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Hardcover ISBN : 978-0-312-22919-1 Published: 01 July 2000

eBook ISBN : 978-1-349-62715-8 Published: 30 April 2016

Edition Number : 1

Number of Pages : XXI, 267

Topics : International Economics , International Organization

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  1. Free International Organizations Essay Examples & Topics

    The role of international organizations in international relations. International organizations' history in the global economy. Thank you for reading the article till the very end. We hope it will help you in your brainstorming process for your international organizations assignment. Additionally, check the free essay samples below.

  2. The Role of International Organizations in Shaping Global Diplomacy

    The role of international organizations has become increasingly important especially with the rise of globalization and increased interconnectivity of states. The United Nations (UN) is perhaps the most well-known and influential international organization. Established in 1945 in the aftermath of World War II, the UN was created to promote ...

  3. International organization

    international organization, institution drawing membership from at least three states, having activities in several states, and whose members are held together by a formal agreement.The Union of International Associations, a coordinating body, differentiates between the more than 250 international governmental organizations (IGOs), which have been established by intergovernmental agreements ...

  4. PDF The Changing Roles of International Organizations in Global Governance

    IOS AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE. The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding of major international organizations (IOs) and their changing role in global governance. Global governance is a key organizing concept behind the book. The idea behind the term is that states, IOs, nongovern-mental organizations (NGOs), multinational ...

  5. The Role of International Organisations in World Politics

    They draw attention to the relationship between the structure and the agency, as well as the construction of state and institutional interests. Thus, the theory holds that the role of international organizations is to uphold their carefully constructed values and ideologies to States, determining their behaviour.

  6. PDF International Organizations and Institutions

    organizations, for purposes of this essay we make a distinction between the two. International organizations are associations of actors, typically states. 4 IOs have member-ship criteria, and membership may entail privileges (as well as costs). While a state may unilaterally decide to follow a set of rules - the United States, for example, can

  7. Importance of International Organizations

    Importance of International Organizations. International Organizations (IOs) are formal institutional structures transcending national boundaries which are created by multilateral agreement among nation-states. Their purpose is to foster international cooperation in areas such as: security, law, economic, social matters and diplomacy.

  8. 15.3 The United Nations and Global Intergovernmental Organizations

    The Founding and Mission of the UN. The United Nations was created after World War II to ensure international peace and stability. In 1919, the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, established a global IGO called the League of Nations.The purpose of the League was to facilitate good relations among countries of the world and to punish aggression.

  9. Roles Of International Organizations Essay

    Roles Of International Organizations Essay; ... Some international organizations have a key role to maintain peace and international ties to ensure security. Their roles could be to encourage peace and security by focusing on peacekeeping in disputed areas, promoting dispute resolution via peaceful means or diplomatic ways e.g. negotiation and ...

  10. Essay 9

    This essay explores the multifaceted role of international organizations, examining their functions, effectiveness, and challenges in navigating the complexities of the modern geopolitical landscape. Body: 1. **Promotion of Peace and Security:** International organizations, such as the United Nations (UN) and NATO, are instrumental in promoting ...

  11. Role of the International Organisations Essay Example

    Free Role of the International Organisations Essay Sample. The main reason behind the formation of the international organisations in the post war era was because of what had transpired in the 1930's. The nations of the world had reviewed the events that had almost bankrupted and devastated nations, the war had caused a disruption at a scale ...

  12. Opinion: Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in

    governmental international organizations played decisive role in the creation of global inter-connectedness which facilitated by the force of globalization especially in the last decade of the 20th

  13. Articulating a Global Social Policy: The Role of International

    Abstract. Global social policy formation and implementation has never been more important in our history than it is at this moment. The world in recent decades has metamorphosed into a global ...

  14. Responsibility of International Organizations

    Edited by Maurizio Ragazzi, a former pupil of Sir Ian, the book is an ideal companion to , a collection of essays on international responsibility which the same editor presented in 2005 in memory of Oscar Schachter, and to which Sir Ian Brownlie had contributed. The essays collected in , conveniently grouped by the editor under broad areas for ...

  15. Role Played By International Organizations Politics Essay

    Role Played By International Organizations Politics Essay. International organizations provide a forum for international co-operation in environmental issues as they play two important roles environmental policy making and the development of international environmental law. Every organization is endowed with environmental responsibilities as ...

  16. The Roles of International Organizations (IOs) in Globalizing Higher

    International organizations (IOs) are vital players in assembling a higher education global policy space. Since the 1990s, IOs already involved in higher education have increased their scope of activities (e.g., United Nations Educational, Science, and Cultural Organization [UNESCO]), while those less engaged have recently emphasized a higher education agenda (e.g., World Bank [WB]; Bassett ...

  17. Challenges For International Organizations in the 21st Century: Essays

    Essays in Honor of Klaus Hüfner. ... Financing for Sustainable Development and the Role of the United Nations. Jens Martens, James A. Paul; Pages 145-173. ... It shows that both of these drastic changes resulted in an increasing demand for regulation and guidance by international organizations, which on their side feel an increasing pressure ...

  18. The benefits of global teams for international organizations: HR

    In this introductory article we will first briefly outline how global teams are (re)shaping international organizations and specifically discuss the HR implications of (1) global teams as assisting in creating a positive climate of diversity, (2) global teams as a solution to global talent management, and (3) global teams as a means of global ...

  19. The Impact of International Organizations on Global Governance

    Abstract. The dynamic and complex nature of global governance has been significantly influenced by the emergence and evolution of international organizations. These entities play a crucial role in ...

  20. International Organization Essays (Examples)

    Since the end of WWII, there has been a strong growth of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Today, there are tens of thousands of NGOs worldwide that act to shape international affairs and the lives of individuals (Iriye). The development of international organizations has had a profound impact on today's world.

  21. Conclusion (Chapter 11)

    The legal hierarchy between international organizations and their member states is interestingly unclear. The organizations are clearly the products of state decisions, but the particular legal commitments that states make to international organizations mean that states often find themselves legally subordinated to the rules of the organizations.