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Writing essays in French Cheat Sheet by JAM

Useful expressions to help structure your A level French essay.

Introd­ucing the first argument

Adding and listing arguments, listing arguments - start, listing arguments - middle, listing arguments - end, indicating the reason for something, expressing contrast / concession, introd­ucing one's own point of view, in conclusion, how's your readability.

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  • Languages: English français (French)
  • Published: 21st September, 2013
  • Last Updated: 26th February, 2020
  • Rated: 5 out of 5 stars based on 9 ratings

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these are very helpful thank you


Simple et utile, j'aime.


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How to Write an Excellent French Essay (Resources Included)

Tips to write an excellent french essay.

Writing essays is challenging enough, but when you are asked to write a French essay, you are not only being asked to write in a foreign language, but to follow the conventions of another linguistic and literary tradition. Like essay-writing in any language, the essential part of writing a French essay is to convey your thoughts and observations on a certain topic in a clear and concise manner. French essays do come out of a certain tradition that is part of the training of all students who attend school in France – or at least secondary school – and when you are a French essay, it is important to be aware of this tradition.


The French philosopher Michel de Montaigne is credited with popularizing the essay form as a literary genre. His work, Essais, first published in 1580, and undergoing several subsequent publications before his death in 1592, covers a wide breadth of topics, ranging from “amitié” to “philosopher c’est apprendre à mourir”, and includes many literary references, as well as personal anecdotes. The name for this genre, essai, is the nominal form of the verb essayer, “to attempt”. We have an archaic English verb essay, meaning the same thing. The limerick that includes the phrase, “... when she essayed to drink lemonade ...” indicates an attempt to drink a beverage and has nothing to do with writing about it. But the writing form does illustrate an attempt to describe a topic in depth with the purpose of developing new insights on a particular text or corpus.

French instructors are very specific about what they would like when they ask for an essay, meaning that they will probably specify whether they would like an explication de texte, commentaire composé, or dissertation. That last essay form should not be confused with the document completed for a doctorate in anglophone countries – this is called a thèse in French, by the way. There are different formats for each of these types of essay, and different objectives for each written form.

Types of Essay

1. l’explication de texte.

An explication de texte is a type of essay for which you complete a close reading. It is usually written about a poem or a short passage within a larger work. This close reading will elucidate different themes and stylistic devices within the text. When you are completing an explication de texte, make sure to follow the structure of the text as you complete a close examination of its form and content. The format for an explication de texte consists of:

i. An introduction, in which you situate the text within its genre and historical context. This is where you can point out to your readers the general themes of the text, its form, the trajectory of your reading, and your approach to the text.

ii. The body, in which you develop your ideas, following the structure of the text. Make sure you know all of the meanings of the words used, especially the key terms that point to the themes addressed by the author. It is a good idea to look words up in the dictionary to find out any second, third, and fourth meanings that could add to the themes and forms you describe. Like a student taking an oral examination based on this type of essay writing, you will be expected to have solid knowledge of the vocabulary and grammatical structures that appear in the text. Often the significance of the language used unfolds as you explain the different components of theme, style, and composition.

iii. A conclusion, in which you sum up the general meaning of the text and the significance of the figures and forms being used. You should also give the implications of what is being addressed, and the relevance of these within a larger literary, historical, or philosophical context.

NB: If you are writing about a poem, include observations on the verse, rhyme schemes, and meter. It is a good idea to refer to a reference work on versification. If you are writing about a philosophical work, be familiar with philosophical references and definitions of concepts.

Caveat: Refrain from paraphrasing. Instead show through careful analysis of theme, style, and composition the way in which the main ideas of the text are conveyed.

2. Le commentaire composé

A commentaire composé is a methodologically codified commentary that focuses on themes in a particular text. This type of essay develops different areas of reflection through analytical argument. Such argumentation should clarify the reading that you are approaching by presenting components of the text from different perspectives. In contrast to the explication de texte, it is organized thematically rather than following the structure of the text to which it refers. The format for a commentaire composé consists of:

i. An introduction, in which you present the question you have come up with, often in relation to a prompt commenting on a thematic or stylistic aspect of the text, such as “Montrez en quoi ce texte évoque l’amour courtois” or “Qu’apporte l’absence de la ponctuation dans ce texte ?” In this section, you will be expected to delineate your approach to the text and illustrate the trajectory of your ideas so that your readers will have a clear idea of the direction these ideas will take.

ii. A tripartite body, in which you explore the question you have come up with, citing specific examples in the text that are especially pertinent to the areas of reflection you wish to explore. These citations should be explained and connected to the broad themes of your commentary, all the while providing details that draw the readers’ attention to your areas of inquiry. These different areas of inquiry may initially seem disparate or even contradictory, but eventually come together to form a harmonious reading that addresses different aspects of the text. The more obvious characteristics of the text should illuminate its subtler aspects, which allows for acute insight into the question that you are in the process of exploring.

iii. A conclusion, in which you evaluate your reading and synthesize its different areas of inquiry. This is where you may include your own opinions, but make sure that the preceding sections of your commentaire remain analytical and supported by evidence that you find in the text.

NB: Looking at verb tenses, figures of speech, and other aspects that contribute to the form of the text will help situate your reader, as will commenting on the register of language, whether this language is ornate, plain, reflects a style soutenu, or less formal patterns of speech.

Caveat: Quotations do not replace observations or comments on the text. Explain your quotations and situate them well within your own text.

3. La dissertation

The dissertation is a personal, organized, and methodical reflection on a precise question that refers to a corpus of writing. Referring to this corpus, you may be asked questions along the lines of “Que pensez-vous de l’équivalence entre l’amour et la chanson exprimée dans ces textes ?” or “Est-ce que la sagesse et la folie ont les mêmes sources?” This type of essay allows for an exploration of a question through knowledge of a corpus as well as through an individual’s cultural knowledge. The format for a dissertation consists of:

i. An introduction, in which you present the topic addressed, the significance of your argument, and the trajectory of your ideas.

ii. The body which, like a commentaire composé, consists of a tripartite development of your argument. This can follow any one of the following structures: a dialectical schema, organized into thèse, antithèse, and synthèse – an argument, its counter-argument, and its rebuttal; an analytical schema, consisting of the description of a situation, an analysis of its causes, and commentary on its consequences; a thematic schema, which consists of a reflection on a topic which you proceed to examine from different angles in an orderly fashion.

iii. A conclusion, in which you address the different ways in which you have approached the question at hand and how this deepens your insights, while placing the question within a broader context that shows room for expansion. The conclusion can open up the topic addressed to show its placement within a literary movement, or in opposition to another literary movement that follows it, for example.

NB: Approach the question at hand with as few preconceptions as possible. If you are writing on a quotation, gather all of your knowledge about its author, the work in which it appears, and the body of literature with which it is associated.

Caveat: Even for a personal reflection, such as a dissertation, avoid using the first person pronoun je. Nous or on are preferable. It is advisable not to switch from one to the other, though.

For each of these essay forms, it is a good idea to make an outline to which you can refer as you write. As your writing progresses, things may shift a bit, but having a structure on which you can rely as you gather your various ideas and information into a coherent argument provides solid foundation for a clear and well-developed essay. This also facilitates smooth transitions from one section of your essay to the next.

During your reading, you may encounter a problem, a contradiction, or a surprising turn of phrase that is difficult to figure out. Such moments in a text give you the opportunity to delve into the unique characteristics of the text or corpus to which you are referring, to propose different solutions to the problems you encounter, and to describe their significance within a larger literary, philosophical, and historical context. Essay writing allows you to become more familiar with French works, with their cultural significance, and with the French language. You can refer to the following resources to guide you in this endeavor:

Auffret, Serge et Hélène. Le commentaire composé. Paris: Hachette, 1991. Dufau, Micheline et Ellen D'Alelio. Découverte du poème: Introduction à l'explication de textes. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967. Grammont, Maurice. Petit traité de versification française. Paris: A. Colin, 2015. Huisman, Denis et L. R. Plazolles. L’art de la dissertation littéraire : du baccalauréat au C.A.P.E.S. Paris : Société d’édition d’enseignement supérieur, 1965.

The French newspaper Le Monde also has good articles on these essay forms that prepare French students for the baccalauréat exam: CLICK HERE

This is also a website with thorough information on essay writing techniques that prepare students for the baccalauréat exam: CLICK HERE

In addition, the University of Adelaide has tips for general essay writing in French: CLICK HERE

🇫🇷 Looking for More French Resources?

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french literature essay phrases

Published on October 6th, 2023 | by Adrian Lomezzo

How to Write an Essay in French Without Giving Yourself Away as a Foreigner

french literature essay phrases

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Bienvenue! Do you dream of unleashing your inner French literary genius, but worry that your writing might inadvertently reveal your foreign roots? Fret not, mes amis, as we have the ultimate guide to help you master the art of essay writing en Français!

Within these pages, we’ll navigate the intricate waters of linguistic nuances, cultural subtleties, and grammatical finesse, allowing you to exude the aura of a native French speaker effortlessly. Many students like you have embarked on this journey, seeking academic assistance from platforms like  to conquer their writing pursuits.

From crafting a compelling introduction to fashioning impeccable conclusions, we’ll unveil the secrets that will leave your professors applauding your newfound linguistic prowess. So, bid adieu to those awkward linguistic giveaways and embrace the sheer elegance of French expression – all while keeping your foreign identity beautifully concealed! Let’s embark on this adventure together and unlock the true essence of writing like a native French virtuoso.

french literature essay phrases

1.   Mastering French Grammar and Vocabulary: Building a Strong Foundation

To create a compelling French essay, it’s essential to lay a solid groundwork. Ensure that your French grammar is accurate and that you possess a rich vocabulary. Avoid relying on online translators, as they may yield awkward or incorrect sentences. Instead, embrace reputable dictionaries and language resources to enhance your language skills effectively.

2.   Mimic Sentence Structures: The Art of Authentic Expression

To truly immerse yourself in the French language, observe and mimic the sentence structures used by native speakers. Analyzing essays written by experienced writers can prove invaluable in grasping the authentic style required to compose a captivating essay.

3.   Use Transition Words: Crafting a Smooth Flow of Ideas

In French essays, the use of transition words and phrases plays a pivotal role in connecting ideas seamlessly. Incorporate expressions like “de plus,” “en outre,” “en conclusion,” “tout d’abord,” and “par conséquent” to add coherence and elegance to your writing.

4.   Embrace French Idioms and Expressions: Unveiling Cultural Fluency

Demonstrate a deeper understanding of the French language and culture by incorporating idioms and expressions where appropriate. However, remember to use them sparingly to avoid overwhelming your essay.

5.   Pay Attention to Formality: Striking the Right Tone

Tailor the formality of your writing to suit the context of your essay. Whether you are crafting an academic piece or a more personal creation, be mindful of your choice of vocabulary and sentence structures to match the required tone.

6.   Research Cultural References: The Power of In-depth Knowledge

If your essay touches upon French culture, history, or literature, extensive research is key. Delve into your subjects to avoid mistakes and showcase your genuine interest in the matter at hand.

7.   Avoid Direct Translations: Let French Be French

To avoid awkward phrasing, strive to think in French rather than translating directly from your native language. This will lead to a more natural and eloquent essay.

8.   Practice Writing Regularly: The Path to Proficiency

Mastering the art of French writing requires regular practice. Embrace writing in French frequently to grow more comfortable with the language and refine your unique writing style.

9.   Read French Literature: A Gateway to Inspiration

Explore the world of French literature to expose yourself to diverse writing styles. This practice will deepen your understanding of the language and immerse you further in French culture and history.

10.   Connect with French Culture: Bridges of Cultural Resonance

Incorporate cultural references that resonate with French readers, such as art, cuisine, festivals, historical figures, or social customs. Authenticity is key, so avoid relying on stereotypes.

french literature essay phrases

11.   Use a French Thesaurus: Expanding Your Linguistic Palette

Discovering new contextually appropriate words can elevate your writing. Embrace a French thesaurus to find synonyms that may not be apparent through direct translations.

12.   Master French Punctuation: The Finishing Touch

Take care to use correct French punctuation marks, such as guillemets (« ») for quotes and proper accent marks. These subtle details add a professional touch to your essay.

13.   Practice French Rhetorical Devices: Crafting Eloquent Prose

Experiment with rhetorical devices like parallelism, repetition, and antithesis to lend depth and sophistication to your writing.

14.   Pay Attention to Word Order: Unlocking French Sentence Structure

French boasts a unique sentence structure distinct from English. Dive into the intricacies of subject-verb-object order and grasp the art of organizing sentences to sidestep common foreign mistakes. Embracing this essential aspect will elevate your writing to a truly native level.

15.   Use French Idiomatic Expressions: Infuse Cultural Flair

Enrich your prose with the colorful tapestry of French idioms, reflecting the vibrant essence of the culture. Yet, a word of caution – wield them with finesse, for the strategic placement of an idiom can imbue your essay with unparalleled flair and authenticity.

16.   Master Pronouns and Agreement: The Dance of Language

The dance of pronouns, nouns, and adjectives requires your keen attention. Like a skilled performer, ensure their seamless alignment to avoid inadvertently revealing your non-native status. Mastering this harmony is key to writing like a true Francophone.

french literature essay phrases

17.   Understand Subtle Connotations: Unveiling Linguistic Shades

Delve into the labyrinth of French words, where subtle connotations diverge from their English counterparts. Familiarize yourself with these delicate nuances, for it is in their mastery that your writing shall find refinement.

18.   Study Formal and Informal Registers: Tailoring Language to Purpose

Akin to selecting the perfect outfit for each occasion, comprehend the art of using formal and informal language. Consider your essay’s purpose and audience, and with this knowledge, enhance your authenticity, seamlessly aligning with the appropriate linguistic register.

19.   Practice Dialogue Writing: Conversing with Eloquence

Embark on the journey of dialogue writing to enrich your linguistic repertoire. As you hone your conversational skills, watch as authenticity gracefully weaves itself into your written work, enchanting readers with its charm.

20.   Seek Feedback: A Second Set of Eyes

To refine your essay further, seek the guidance of a native French speaker or language tutor from the  best cheap essay writing services . Their valuable feedback can uncover any language or cultural mistakes you may have made, allowing you to make necessary improvements.

Equip yourself with these priceless tips and set forth on your quest to master the art of French writing. Embrace the language’s allure, immerse in its rich culture, and watch your words flow with grace and poise. À la plume! Let the pen become your ally in crafting captivating prose that echoes with authenticity and charm. 

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About the Author

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Adrian Lomezzo is a content writer and likes to write about technology and education. He understands the concern of parents due to the evolving technology and researches deeply in that area. When he is not researching, he buries himself in books along with his favorite cup of hot chocolate.

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french literature essay phrases

Writing an essay- guidance

As and a level french, essay writing.

As a rough guide you should spend about 10 minutes planning your essay, 45 minutes writing it and 5 minutes checking it.

I. Planning your essay:

It is important to plan your essay well. Make points clearly and logically so that the examiner can follow your argument. Take time to devise a plan before you start writing. This avoids rambling account and allow a structure which is easy to follow. You might find that the following points help you to plan your essay well:

· Read the question carefully. Make sure you have understood what you are being asked to do (the question may be in two parts)

· If you are completing an AS examination, the question will also have a list of bullet points to help you focus on the question. Make sure you engage with this guidance points BUT be aware that they do not in themselves give you the structure of the essay!

· It is sensible to plan your essay in French. This will prevent you writing ideas you are not able to express in the target language.

· Focus on the key words. For example, you may be asked to analyse, evaluate, explore or explain.

· Select the main point you want to make in your essay and then break this down into 3 or 4 sub-sections. They will become your paragraphs.

· Choose relevant information only!

· Decide on the order of your paragraphs. It might be a good idea to keep your strongest idea for your last paragraph. Note down linking words or phrases you can use between paragraphs to make your essay flow as a coherent and logical argument.

· Select one or two relevant and concise quotations which you can use to illustrate some of the points you make.

· Think about the suggested word count for the essay. It should always be possible to write a meaningful essay within the allocated number of words. So try to answer concisely.

· Think about how to introduce and conclude your essay, ensuring that you have answered the question set.

You might find the following template helpful to plan your essay:

french literature essay phrases

II. Writing the essay:

· Remember that you are writing for a person who is reading your essay: the content should be interesting and should communicate your meaning with clarity and coherence.

· Stick to your plan and do not get side tracked into developing an argument or a point that is not relevant to the question set.


· It should be a single paragraph (approx. 5 lines)

· You can use a short sentence to introduce the film or the text you have studied.

· Show your understanding of the question: you should explain to your reader what you understand the question to mean, identify the issue it raises and how you are going to tackle them.

Question: Examinez le personnage de Saïd dans le film La Haine.

Introduction :

Development :

· This part will be divided into a number of interconnected paragraphs, each of which will pick up and develop the points raised in your introduction.

· Each paragraph should be introduced with a sentence stating what the paragraph is about.

· Make sure you are following a clear pathway through your paragraphs leading to your conclusion. You should move from one facet of your argument to the next, linking them conceptually by, for example, contrast, addition or comparison.

· Each paragraph must have an internal logic whereby you examine a separate point, making your argument, supporting it with evidence and possibly quotations and drawing conclusions.

· Try to have balanced paragraphs (with about the same amount of content).

Example (last paragraph):

Conclusion :

· Read through what you have written again and THEN write your conclusion.

· It should summarise your arguments succinctly

· Be careful not to simply lift passages from your development!

III. Check your work :

· Review your essay carefully and check for errors of: grammar, punctuation, accents and spelling.

· Check especially: verb endings, tenses and moods, and adjectival agreements.

· You should employ a good range of vocabulary and include terminology related to film and literature.

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How to Write an Essay in French Without Giving Yourself Away as a Foreigner

Have something to say?

When it comes to expressing your thoughts in French , there’s nothing better than the essay.

It is, after all, the favorite form of such famed French thinkers as Montaigne, Chateaubriand, Houellebecq and Simone de Beauvoir.

In this post, I’ve outlined the four most common types of essays in French, ranked from easiest to most difficult, to help you get to know this concept better. 

Why Are French Essays Different?

Must-have french phrases for writing essays, 4 types of french essays and how to write them, 1. text summary (synthèse de texte).

  • 2. Text Commentary (Commentaire de texte)

3. Dialectic Dissertation (Thèse, Antithèse, Synthèse)

  • 4. Progressive Dissertation (Plan progressif)

And one more thing...

Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. (Download)

Writing an essay in French is not the same as those typical 5-paragraph essays you’ve probably written in English.

In fact, there’s a whole other logic that has to be used to ensure that your essay meets French format standards and structure. It’s not merely writing your ideas in another language .

And that’s because the French use Cartesian logic (also known as Cartesian doubt) , developed by René Descartes , which requires a writer to begin with what is known and then lead the reader through to the logical conclusion: a paragraph that contains the thesis. Through the essay, the writer will reject all that is not certain or all that is subjective in his or her quest to find the objective truth.

Sound intriguing? Read on for more!

Before we get to the four main types of essays, here are a few French phrases that will be especially helpful as you delve into essay-writing in French:

Introductory phrases , which help you present new ideas.

Connecting phrases , which help you connect ideas and sections.

Contrasting phrases , which help you juxtapose two ideas.

Concluding phrases , which help you to introduce your conclusion.

The text summary or synthèse de texte  is one of the easiest French writing exercises to get a handle on. It essentially involves reading a text and then summarizing it in an established number of words, while repeating no phrases that are in the original text. No analysis is called for.

A  synthèse de texte  should follow the same format as the text that is being synthesized. The arguments should be presented in the same way, and no major element of the original text should be left out of the  synthèse.

Here is an informative post about writing a synthèse de texte , written for French speakers. 

The text summary is a great exercise for exploring the following French language elements:

  • Synonyms , as you will need to find other words to describe what is said in the original text.
  • Nominalization , which involves turning verbs into nouns and generally cuts down on word count.
  • Vocabulary , as the knowledge of more exact terms will allow you to avoid periphrases and cut down on word count.

While beginners may wish to work with only one text, advanced learners can synthesize as many as three texts in one text summary. 

Since a text summary is simple in its essence, it’s a great writing exercise that can accompany you through your entire learning process.

2. Text Commentary  (Commentaire de texte)

A text commentary or commentaire de texte   is the first writing exercise where the student is asked to present an analysis of the materials at hand, not just a summary.

That said, a  commentaire  de texte  is not a reaction piece. It involves a very delicate balance of summary and opinion, the latter of which must be presented as impersonally as possible. This can be done either by using the third person (on) or the general first person plural (nous) . The singular first person (je) should never be used in a  commentaire de texte.

A commentaire de texte  should be written in three parts:

  • An introduction , where the text is presented.
  • An argument , where the text is analyzed.
  • A conclusion , where the analysis is summarized and elevated.

Here is a handy in-depth guide to writing a successful commentaire de texte,  written for French speakers.

Unlike with the synthesis, you will not be able to address all elements of a text in a commentary. You should not summarize the text in a commentary, at least not for the sake of summarizing. Every element of the text that you speak about in your commentary must be analyzed.

To successfully analyze a text, you will need to brush up on your figurative language. Here are some great resources to get you started:

  • Here’s an introduction to figurative language in French.
  • This guide to figurative language  presents the different elements in useful categories.
  • This guide , intended for high school students preparing for the BAC—the exam all French high school students take, which they’re required to pass to go to university—is great for seeing examples of how to integrate figurative language into your commentaries.
  • Speaking of which, here’s an example of a corrected commentary from the BAC, which will help you not only include figurative language but get a head start on writing your own commentaries.

The French answer to the 5-paragraph essay is known as the  dissertation .  Like the American 5-paragraph essay, it has an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. The stream of logic, however, is distinct.

There are actually two kinds of  dissertation,  each of which has its own rules.

The first form of  dissertation  is the dialectic dissertation , better known as  thèse, antithèse, synthèse . In this form, there are actually only two body paragraphs. After the introduction, a thesis is posited. Following the thesis, its opposite, the antithesis, is explored (and hopefully, debunked). The final paragraph, what we know as the conclusion, is the  synthesis , which addresses the strengths of the thesis, the strengths and weaknesses of the antithesis, and concludes with the reasons why the original thesis is correct.

For example, imagine that the question was, “Are computers useful to the development of the human brain?” You could begin with a section showing the ways in which computers are useful for the progression of our common intelligence—doing long calculations, creating in-depth models, etc.

Then you would delve into the problems that computers pose to human intelligence, citing examples of the ways in which spelling proficiency has decreased since the invention of spell check, for example. Finally, you would synthesize this information and conclude that the “pro” outweighs the “con.”

The key to success with this format is developing an outline before writing. The thesis must be established, with examples, and the antithesis must be supported as well. When all of the information has been organized in the outline, the writing can begin, supported by the tools you have learned from your mastery of the synthesis and commentary.

Here are a few tools to help you get writing:

  • Here’s a great guide to writing a dialectic dissertation .
  • Here’s an example of a plan for a dialectic dissertation , showing you the three parts of the essay as well as things to consider when writing a dialectic dissertation.

4. Progressive Dissertation ( Plan progressif)

The progressive dissertation is slightly less common, but no less useful, than the first form.

The progressive form basically consists of examining an idea via multiple points of view—a sort of deepening of the understanding of the notion, starting with a superficial perspective and ending with a deep and profound analysis.

If the dialectic dissertation is like a scale, weighing pros and cons of an idea, the progressive dissertation is like peeling an onion, uncovering more and more layers as you get to the deeper crux of the idea.

Concretely, this means that you will generally follow this layout:

  • A first, elementary exploration of the idea.
  • A second, more philosophical exploration of the idea.
  • A third, more transcendent exploration of the idea.

This format for the dissertation is more commonly used for essays that are written in response to a philosophical question, for example, “What is a person?” or “What is justice?”

Let’s say the question was, “What is war?” In the first part, you would explore dictionary definitions—a basic idea of war, i.e. an armed conflict between two parties, usually nations. You could give examples that back up this definition, and you could narrow down the definition of the subject as much as needed. For example, you might want to make mention that not all conflicts are wars, or you might want to explore whether the “War on Terror” is a war.

In the second part, you would explore a more philosophical look at the topic, using a definition that you provide. You first explain how you plan to analyze the subject, and then you do so. In French, this is known as  poser une problématique  (establishing a thesis question), and it usually is done by first writing out a question and then exploring it using examples: “Is war a reflection of the base predilection of humans for violence?”

In the third part, you will take a step back and explore this question from a distance, taking the time to construct a natural conclusion and answer for the question.

This form may not be as useful in as many cases as the first type of essay, but it’s a good form to learn, particularly for those interested in philosophy. Here’s an in-depth guide  to writing a progressive dissertation.

As you progress in French and become more and more comfortable with writing, try your hand at each of these types of writing exercises, and even with other forms of the dissertation . You’ll soon be a pro at everything from a synthèse de texte to a dissertation!

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french literature essay phrases

A Vos Plumes! - The French Writing Center

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These pages explain how to write certain kinds of essays in French, as well as how some ways that professors grade writing assignments.

Writing college French essays , by Alison Levine.

How to write an essay for an upper-level French literature, culture, or film class.

Writing college response/reaction papers , by Cheryl Krueger.

How to write a response paper or reaction paper at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level.

Writing business letters in French , by Alison Levine.

How to lay out and formulate job application letters, requests for information, and other professional correspondence.

How professors grade upper-level French essays , by Alison Levine.

Descriptions of what makes an A paper, a B paper, etc. for the argumentative essay in French at UVA.

How professors grade intermediate French essays , by Alison Levine.

Descriptions of an A, B, paper, etc. for the intermediate level at UVA.

How to improve your grammar , by Alison Levine.

In this carnet de corrections , you can keep track of the grammar errors you make and how to correct them, as your professor goes over your work through the semester. A useful tool to help you avoid repeating errors.

Erreurs à éviter , by Mary McKinley.

A short list of common errors at the intermediate level. We are working on a more advanced list.

Handouts on French essay writing, explanations of how many instructors grade writing

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Theme-specific vocabulary (beginners); poetry, prose, theater, cinema terms (intermediates)

Grammar videos

Video grammar lessons and handouts, to prepare for the exercises.

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Hand-picked from all over the internet, these are my pick of the most pretentious, most sophisticated-sounding essay phrases. When used sensibly and embellished with decent points about the topic itself, they will secure you a decent grade in your writing exam. Enjoy! :P

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french literature essay phrases

20 French Phrases You Should Be Using

By paul anthony jones | dec 17, 2018.

According to some estimates, 30 percent of the English language—or roughly one in three English words—is derived directly from French. It’s a surprisingly high figure due in part to the Norman Conquest of 1066, which made French the language of the law, finance, government, the military, and the ruling classes in England, and effectively doubled our vocabulary overnight. But the popularity of French culture and French literature among English speakers has also given our language a whole host of other words and phrases—like mardi gras , avant garde , déjà vu , and femme fatale —that are now so naturalized in English that they can be used without a second thought.

Alongside everyday examples like these, however, English has also adopted a number of much less familiar French phrases that, despite their potential usefulness, go tragically underused. So why not add a little je ne sais quoi to your everyday conversation with these 20 little-known French expressions?

1. À la débandade

The phrase à la is well-known to English speakers for meaning “in the style of” or “according to,” and is seen in phrases like à la mode (“according to the fashion”), and à la carte (“on the menu”). À la débandade —literally “like a stampede”—was originally a military term that in English dates from the 18th century, when it was first used to refer to an informal or random course of action, or else a disorderly, scattering retreat or rout. More recently it’s come to be used figuratively in English to describe a disorderly or chaotic mess.

2. Amour fou

Used in English since the early 1900s, an amour fou is an uncontrollable and obsessive passion for someone, and in particular one that is not reciprocated. It literally means “insane love.”

3. L’appel du vide

Alongside l’esprit de l’escalier (more on that later), the French expression l’appel du vide often makes its way onto lists of foreign words and phrases that have no real English equivalent. It literally means “the call of the void,” but in practice it’s usually explained as the bizarre inclination some people have for doing something dangerous or deadly, no matter how foolish they know it is. So when you’re standing on a beach, l’appel du vide is the voice that tells you to swim away and never come back. When standing on a clifftop, l’appel du vide tells you to throw yourself off. There might not be an obvious English equivalent, but the concept of l’appel du vide is related to the psychological notion of intrusive thoughts , and the mythological song of the Siren blamed for luring sailors to their doom.

4. Après moi, le déluge

Après moi, le déluge means “after me, the flood,” and is used to refer to a person’s irresponsible or selfish lack of concern about what will happen after they have gone or moved on. Today it’s often associated with politicians and CEOs looking to secure their own interests at the expense of other people’s, but popular (and likely apocryphal) history claims the words were first used by the French king Louis XV, who repeatedly disregarded warnings of discontent among the French people in the lead up to the French Revolution. When the Revolution finally broke out in 1789 (15 years after Louis’s death), it eventually led to the execution of his grandson, King Louis XVI, in 1793.

5. Cherchez la femme

Literally meaning “look for the woman,” cherchez la femme is used in English to imply that if a man is seen acting out of character, then a woman will likely be the cause of it—find her, and the issue will be resolved. Although the origins of the phrase are a mystery, it’s often credited to the French author Alexandre Dumas, père, and his crime story Les Mohicans de Paris (1854-9). Most famously, when the story was later adapted to the stage, a character announced: “ Il y a une femme dans toutes les affaires; aussitôt qu'on me fait un rapport, je dis: 'Cherchez la femme .'” (“There is a woman in all cases; as soon as a report is brought to me I say, ‘ Cherchez la femme !’”)

6. Coup de foudre

Coup de foudre is the French term for a strike of lightning, and it’s been used figuratively in English since the late 1700s to mean love at first sight.

7. L’esprit de l’escalier

Known less romantically as “staircase wit” in English, l’esprit de l’escalier is the frustrating phenomenon of coming up with the perfect observation or comeback after the opportunity to use it has passed. The phrase was apparently coined by the 18th century French writer Diderot, who wrote that while visiting the French statesman Jacques Necker, a comment was made to which Diderot was unable to respond. “A sensitive man […] overcome by the argument leveled against him,” he wrote, “becomes confused and can only think clearly again at the bottom of the staircase.”

8. Honi soit qui mal y pense

“Shame on him who thinks badly of it,” warns the old Norman French saying honi soit qui mal y pense , which has been used in English to discourage preemptively or unjustly talking something down since the Middle Ages. The saying has been the motto of The Order of the Garter , the oldest and most prestigious honor awarded in Great Britain, since it was introduced in 1348.

9. Mauvais quart d’heure

As well as having your 15 minutes of fame, you can also have your mauvais quart d’heure (or your “bad quarter of an hour”)—a brief but embarrassing, upsetting, or demoralizing experience.

10. Mauvaise honte

Mauvaise honte literally means “bad shame.” In English it’s often used simply to mean bashfulness or extreme shyness, but in its earliest and original sense mauvaise honte has been used since the 18th century to refer to false or affected modesty, in which someone pretends to have a low opinion of themselves or their abilities.

11. Mise en abyme

The French word mise essentially means “that which is put,” and as such appears in a number of phrases that refer to things being deliberately placed or arranged: a mise en scène is the dressing of a theatrical stage, a mise en page is the design or layout of a book or page of text, and mise en place is now widely known as the preparation and organization of all of your ingredients before you start to cook. Mise en abyme is a much less familiar expression that was originally only used in heraldry: the abyme is the center segment of a shield or a coat of arms, and in a mise en abyme this central section is decorated with a smaller image of the same shield. So because this means that this small central image must—in theory, though rarely in practice—in turn also contain a small central image of itself (which must in turn also contain the same image, and so on, and so on), the phrase mise en abyme (“put into the abyss”) is used to refer to the mind-boggling visual effect of a recurring image containing itself into infinity—like a mirror reflected in a mirror, or, more literarily, a story within a story or a play within a play.

12. Nostalgie de la boue

The phrase nostalgie de la boue was coined by the French dramatist Émile Augier in 1855, who used it to refer to a fondness for cruel, crude, depraved, or humiliating things. Its meaning has extended over time, however, so that today a nostalgie de la boue is often used more loosely to refer to a desire to live a simpler, downsized, or less indulgent life—it literally means “a yearning for the mud.”

13. Plus ça change

In 1849 an article appeared in a satirical French magazine that denounced the country’s current political situation. Written by a French journalist named Alphonse Karr, the article pessimistically concluded that plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose , or “the more it changes, the more it is the same thing.” Karr’s words soon stuck and by the early 1900s plus ça change had even been adopted into English as a motto indicating a world-weary acceptance of the current state of affairs—although things might appear to change or improve, beneath it all they remain just as bad as before.

14. Pour encourager les autres

The ironic expression pour encourager les autres —meaning “so as to encourage the others”—actually refers to an action carried out to discourage any future unrest or rebellion. It was first used in this context by French journalists—and Voltaire—in the 18th century following the execution of an English admiral named John Byng. After a long and well-respected naval career, Byng was court-martialed by the Royal Navy in 1757 for having apparently failed to do his utmost in preventing the French from invading the British-held island of Minorca in the western Mediterranean. Although the charges brought against Byng were trumped-up (and, according to some, politically motivated )—and despite even King George II himself being petitioned to overturn Byng’s death sentence—he was executed by firing squad on board his own ship in Portsmouth Harbour on March 14, 1757. Understandably, the entire situation proved hugely controversial in England, and at the height of Britain’s Seven Years’ War against France became a major news story and source of much anti-British propaganda all across Europe.

15. Reculer pour mieux sauter

If you reculer pour mieux sauter , then you literally “draw back in order to leap better.” Derived from an old French proverb, the phrase is used figuratively in both French and English to refer to a temporary withdrawal or pause in action that allows for time to regroup or reassess a situation, and therefore make a better attempt at it in the future.

16. Revenons à nos moutons

You’d be forgiven for not quite understanding why someone might say “let us return to our sheep” mid-conversation, but revenons à nos moutons has been used figuratively in English for more than 400 years to mean “let us return to the matter at hand.” The phrase comes from a 15th century French farce, La Farce de Maître Pierre Pathelin , that became one of the most popular stage comedies of its day. It’s this popularity that no doubt helped this line—taken from a central courtroom scene in which one character, accused of stealing sheep, is advised by his lawyer to answer all of the prosecutor’s questions by baaing —to catch on in the language.

17. Foi fainéant

Fainéant is basically the French equivalent of someone who’s lazy or do-nothing, which makes a roi fainéant literally a “do-nothing king.” The term dates back at least to the 16th century in France and in English has been used since the 1700s. Originally, it referred to the Merovingian kings, who near the end of their dynasty increasingly served as figureheads with no real power. By the 19th century it extended to any ruler in a similar situation.

18. Tant bien que mal

Tant bien que mal has been used in English since the 18th century to describe anything that is only partly or moderately successful. It literally means “as well as badly.”

19. Ventre à terre

Ventre à terre literally means “belly to the ground” in French, and so, taken literally, it can be used simply to describe someone or something lying face-down (in the early 19th century it was used to refer to asking for a “pardon in a most abject position”). The modern English meaning, however, was a term from horse racing, and referred to a horse going at full gallop—so fast that its forelegs are thrown out in front, its hind legs are thrown out backwards, and its belly is directly above the ground. Doing something ventre à terre , ultimately means doing it at full speed.

20. Violon d’Ingres

Oscar-winning actor Forest Whitaker is also a trained operatic tenor. Condoleezza Rice is also a concert pianist . And the acclaimed 18th-19th century French painter Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres also just happened to be an exceptionally talented violinist. Because he was so skilled in two entirely different fields, Ingres inspired the French expression violon d’Ingres (literally “Ingres’s violin”), which refers to a hidden talent or pastime, far outside of what you are best known for, and in which you are just as knowledgeable or adept.

This story originally ran in 2014.

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A level French Essay Sentence Starters

A level French Essay Sentence Starters

Subject: French

Age range: 16+

Resource type: Worksheet/Activity

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Last updated

26 May 2020

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french literature essay phrases

A document useful for helping A/AS level students write the main body to essays on various topics. This is suitable for any exam board.

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French Essay Topics 2023: Tips and Examples to Help You Succeed

French Essay Topics 2023: Tips and Examples to Help You Succeed

Are you planning to write a French essay in 2023? If so, this article is here to help! When it comes to choosing a topic, there are plenty of options to explore. From analyzing the works of famous French writers, to discussing cultural differences between France and other countries, the possibilities are endless. Whether you’re an academic or a foreigner looking to improve your French language skills, this article will provide you with tips and examples to support your essay writing.

One of the most common types of essays in French is the “dissertation” or “composition.” These essays usually focus on a specific topic and require you to analyze and synthesize ideas from various sources. For example, you could explore the impact of the French Revolution on the system of holidays in France. Or, you could compare the dialectic between freedom and order during the Napoleonic period. The key is to choose a topic that interests you and allows you to showcase your research and analytical skills.

How to Choose the Right French Essay Topic?

  • Consider your interests: Choose a topic that you are passionate about and enjoy exploring. This will make the writing process more enjoyable and you will be motivated to research and learn more about the subject.
  • Brainstorm ideas: Take some time to brainstorm different ideas and themes that you can write about. Consider your personal experiences, current events, historical events, or any other topic that you find intriguing.
  • Read and gather information: Read widely to gather information and ideas for your essay. Utilize resources such as books, articles, magazines, and online sources to find inspiration and gather facts and evidence to support your arguments.
  • Consider your target audience: Think about who will be reading your essay. Are they fellow students, teachers, or a general audience? Tailor your topic to suit the interests and knowledge level of your readers.
  • Explore different essay types: There are various types of essays you can write in French, such as descriptive, narrative, argumentative, or expository essays. Explore the different essay types and choose the one that aligns with your topic and objectives.
  • Analyze texts and examples: Look for sample essays and texts that relate to your chosen topic. Analyze them to understand how the writers have approached the subject, structured their arguments, and used relevant phrases and vocabulary.
  • Choose a manageable topic: Ensure that your topic is specific and focused enough to be covered in the length of your essay. Avoid broad or vague topics that would require a lengthy discussion.
  • Consider cultural and historical contexts: If you are writing about a specific period in French history or a famous French figure, consider the cultural and historical contexts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the topic.
  • Stay updated: Choose a topic that is relevant and up-to-date. This shows your ability to stay informed and engage with current issues and debates.
  • Seek inspiration from various sources: Watch French movies, read French literature, listen to French podcasts, or engage in conversations to expose yourself to different ideas and perspectives.

Remember, the most important thing is to choose a topic that you are genuinely interested in and passionate about. This will not only make the writing process more enjoyable but also allow you to showcase your knowledge and enthusiasm in your essay.

Exploring French Literature: Essay Ideas and Examples

Choosing the right topic.

When it comes to writing an essay on French literature, it’s important to choose a topic that interests you and aligns with your academic goals. Here are some interesting essay topics to consider:

  • Exploring the role of women in French literature
  • Analyze the use of symbolism in a specific French novel
  • Discuss the theme of love and loss in French poetry
  • Examine the influence of French literature on other European literary movements
  • Compare and contrast the writing styles of two French authors
  • Discuss the impact of the Napoleonic era on French literature

Developing a Solid Outline

Before you start writing your essay, it’s essential to create a clear outline to organize your thoughts and arguments. Here’s a simple outline that can guide you:

  • Introduce the topic and provide background information
  • Present your thesis statement or research question
  • Discuss the main points and provide evidence or examples
  • Analyze the literary techniques used in the selected text
  • Summarize your main arguments
  • Offer a final thought or comment

Showcasing Your Language Skills

An essay on French literature is not just about analyzing the text; it’s also an opportunity to showcase your language skills. Here are some tips to help you excel in this aspect:

  • Use a variety of vocabulary and phrases to convey your ideas
  • Show your proficiency in using complex sentence structures
  • Incorporate literary terms and figures of speech in your commentary
  • Include French quotations with proper citations

By applying these tips and strategies, you can write an impressive essay that demonstrates your understanding of French literature and your language abilities.

Examples of French Literature Essays

“In the tumultuous times of the 19th century, several European countries experienced great social and political upheavals. French literature of that era reflects these turbulent times, especially through the representation of revolutions. In this essay, we will analyze how French novels of the 19th century depict revolutions, the motivations behind these portrayals, and the impact they had on society.”

Remember, each essay will have its own unique style and approach, so feel free to tailor your writing to meet the requirements of your assignment or exam.

Exploring French literature through essays can be a rewarding and enriching experience. So grab a pen, pick a topic that sparks your interest, and dive into the captivating world of French literature!

The Influence of French Culture: Essay Topics for Cultural Studies

1. the french revolution: a turning point in european history.

Examine the causes, events, and consequences of the French Revolution. Analyze its impact not only on France but also on other European countries. Discuss the role of key revolutionaries such as Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI.

2. The Birth of French Cinema: Its Evolution and Impact

Explore the history and development of French cinema from its early beginnings to the present day. Discuss how French filmmakers have shaped the industry and influenced the art of filmmaking worldwide. Provide examples of notable French movies and their cultural significance.

3. French Dialects: Regional Variations and Societal Implications

Investigate the different dialects spoken in France and the cultural and social factors that influence their usage. Discuss the challenges and benefits of dialect preservation in a globalized world. Analyze the impact of dialects on French society and identity.

4. French Cuisine: A Culinary Journey

Delve into the rich and diverse world of French cuisine. Explore the origins of iconic dishes, the use of regional ingredients, and the cultural significance of food in French society. Discuss how French culinary traditions have influenced global gastronomy.

5. The Influence of French Fashion and Haute Couture

Analyze the impact of French fashion on the global industry. Discuss the evolution of French fashion houses, their iconic designers, and their contributions to the world of haute couture. Explore how French fashion has shaped trends and influenced other cultures.

6. The Cultural Exchange between France and Britain

Examine the historical and cultural ties between France and Britain. Discuss the impact of these exchanges on literature, art, music, and lifestyle. Analyze the similarities and differences in cultural values and traditions.

These are just a few essay topics to help you start your exploration of French culture. Remember to choose a topic that interests you the most and aligns with your academic goals. Good luck with your essay!

Examining Politics and History: Essay Topics on the French Revolution

1. the causes of the french revolution.

One of the most interesting aspects of the French Revolution is examining the various causes that led to its occurrence. Write an essay analyzing the political, social, and economic factors that contributed to the revolution. Discuss how these factors interacted and the role each played in precipitating the events of 1789.

2. The Role of the French Revolutionaries

Another fascinating aspect of the French Revolution is the role played by the revolutionaries. Write an essay discussing the different groups and individuals involved in the revolution. Analyze their goals, strategies, and ideologies. Discuss how they influenced the course of the revolution and the impact they had on French society.

3. The French Revolution and the Enlightenment

The French Revolution was strongly influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment. Write an essay exploring the connections between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. Discuss how Enlightenment ideas such as liberty, equality, and democracy shaped the goals and ideals of the revolutionaries.

  • What were the key Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas?
  • How did these ideas inspire the revolutionaries?
  • In what ways did the revolutionaries try to put these ideas into practice?

4. The Impact of the French Revolution

The French Revolution had a profound impact on France and the rest of the world. Write an essay discussing the legacy of the French Revolution. What were its short-term and long-term effects? How did it change France politically, socially, and economically? How did it inspire or influence other revolutionary movements?

5. The Reign of Terror

One of the darkest chapters of the French Revolution was the Reign of Terror. Write an essay analyzing this period and its significance. Discuss the reasons for the Reign of Terror, the actions taken by the revolutionaries, and the impact it had on French society and the revolution as a whole.

Good luck with your essay!

French Art and Architecture: Essay Ideas for Art History Assignments

  • Explore the influence of the French Revolution on art and architecture in the 18th and 19th centuries. How did political and social upheaval shape artistic expression during this time?
  • Discuss the significance of French literature in shaping French art and architecture. Analyze the works of influential French writers such as Victor Hugo or Emile Zola and their impact on the visual arts.
  • Examine the works of iconic French artists, such as Claude Monet or Auguste Rodin, and their contributions to the development of French art and architecture.
  • Compare and contrast different architectural styles in France, such as Gothic, Baroque, and Art Nouveau. Discuss the historical context in which these styles emerged and the overarching themes they represent.
  • Write a paragraph analysis of a famous French artwork or architectural landmark, describing its key features and the message it conveys.
  • Explore the use of color, light, and perspective in French art and architecture. How do these elements contribute to the overall aesthetic experience?
  • Discuss the relationship between French art and architecture and other cultural aspects, such as fashion, music, or cinema. How do different art forms interact and influence one another?
  • Explain the use of French architectural phrases and vocabulary in discussing art and architecture. Provide examples of commonly used terms and their meanings.
  • Examine how French art and architecture have evolved over time. Discuss the impact of modernism and postmodernism on artistic movements in France.
  • Write a synthesis of different scholarly perspectives on a specific topic within French art and architecture. What are the main arguments and how do they contribute to our understanding of the subject?

So, get ready to dive into the captivating world of French art and architecture and enjoy the process of writing your essay!

🎓 Simple French Revolution Essay Topics

Enjoy exploring this captivating period in French and European history and have fun writing your essay!

The Causes of the French Revolution: A Historical Analysis

Understanding the causes of the French Revolution is essential to grasp the complexities of this historical event. Both internal and external factors contributed to the outbreak of the revolution. In this historical analysis, we will explore some of the most significant causes and their impact on French society.

Social Inequality

One of the key factors that led to the French Revolution was the extreme social inequality prevalent in France at that time. The French society was divided into three estates – the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The first two estates enjoyed privileges and exemptions from taxation, while the burden of taxation fell heavily on the third estate. This stark social disparity created widespread discontent and resentment among the commoners, fueling revolutionary fervor.

Economic Crisis

Enlightenment ideals.

The intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment had a profound impact on the revolutionary spirit in France. Enlightenment thinkers, such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu, espoused ideas of liberty, equality, and popular sovereignty. These principles inspired the revolutionaries and served as a rallying cry for change. The desire for individual rights, representative government, and the eradication of absolute monarchy were central to the revolutionary ideology.

What are some tips for writing French essays in 2023?

Some tips for writing French essays in 2023 are to start with a strong introduction, follow a clear structure, use a variety of vocabulary and grammar, and support your arguments with evidence and examples.

Can you give me an example of a French essay topic for 2023?

One example of a French essay topic for 2023 could be “L’impact des réseaux sociaux sur la société” (The impact of social media on society). This topic allows you to discuss the positive and negative effects of social media on various aspects of society.

What should I include in the conclusion of a French essay?

In the conclusion of a French essay, it is important to summarize your main points, restate your thesis statement, and leave the reader with a thought-provoking idea or a call to action.

How can I improve my French essay writing skills?

To improve your French essay writing skills, you can practice writing regularly, read French literature and essays to expand your vocabulary and understanding of grammar, seek feedback from teachers or native speakers, and analyze the structure and style of well-written essays.

Alex Koliada, PhD

By Alex Koliada, PhD

Alex Koliada, PhD, is a well-known doctor. He is famous for studying aging, genetics, and other medical conditions. He works at the Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics. His scientific research has been published in the most reputable international magazines. Alex holds a BA in English and Comparative Literature from the University of Southern California , and a TEFL certification from The Boston Language Institute.

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french literature essay phrases

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french literature essay phrases

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  1. 30 Useful French Essay Phrases and Transition Words in French

    french literature essay phrases

  2. A level French Essay Sentence Starters

    french literature essay phrases

  3. French A Level

    french literature essay phrases

  4. 30 Useful French Essay Phrases in French

    french literature essay phrases

  5. 50 Common French Phrases Every French Learner Should Know

    french literature essay phrases

  6. 30 Useful French Essay Phrases

    french literature essay phrases




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  5. French Revolution Narrative Essay

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  1. 30 Useful French Essay Phrases and Transition Words in French

    30 Useful French Essay Phrases and Transition Words in French

  2. Writing essays in French Cheat Sheet

    Useful expressions to help structure your A level French essay.

  3. How to Write an Excellent French Essay (Resources Included)

    1. L'explication de texte. An explication de texte is a type of essay for which you complete a close reading. It is usually written about a poem or a short passage within a larger work. This close reading will elucidate different themes and stylistic devices within the text. When you are completing an explication de texte, make sure to follow ...

  4. A-Level French literature

    Verified answer. vocabulary. Look at the underlined verb in each sentence and find its subject. Then write the letter of the explanation that gives the reason for the subject-verb agreement. a A compound subject joined by and is plural unless its parts refer to the same person or thing. b With compound subjects joined by or or nor, the verb ...

  5. How to Write an Essay in French Without Giving Yourself Away as a

    Mastering the art of French writing requires regular practice. Embrace writing in French frequently to grow more comfortable with the language and refine your unique writing style. 9. Read French Literature: A Gateway to Inspiration. Explore the world of French literature to expose yourself to diverse writing styles.

  6. A-Level French (AQA)

    This will prevent you writing ideas you are not able to express in the target language. · Focus on the key words. For example, you may be asked to analyse, evaluate, explore or explain. · Select the main point you want to make in your essay and then break this down into 3 or 4 sub-sections. They will become your paragraphs.

  7. How to Write an Essay in French Without Giving Yourself Away ...

    1. Text Summary (Synthèse de texte) The text summary or synthèse de texte is one of the easiest French writing exercises to get a handle on. It essentially involves reading a text and then summarizing it in an established number of words, while repeating no phrases that are in the original text.

  8. A-Level French literature

    A-Level French literature - essay phrases. Il importera d'analyser dans quelle mesure. Click the card to flip 👆. Let's analyse to what extent. Click the card to flip 👆. 1 / 22.

  9. A Vos Plumes! » Students » Write Better

    Descriptions of what makes an A paper, a B paper, etc. for the argumentative essay in French at UVA. How professors grade intermediate French essays, by Alison Levine. Descriptions of an A, B, paper, etc. for the intermediate level at UVA. ... UVA Department of French Language and Literature 302 Cabell Hall P.O. Box 400770, Charlottesville, VA ...

  10. French essay phrases

    French essay phrases. Hand-picked from all over the internet, these are my pick of the most pretentious, most sophisticated-sounding essay phrases. When used sensibly and embellished with decent points about the topic itself, they will secure you a decent grade in your writing exam. Enjoy! :P.

  11. 20 French Phrases You Should Be Using

    9. Mauvais quart d'heure. As well as having your 15 minutes of fame, you can also have your mauvais quart d'heure (or your "bad quarter of an hour")—a brief but embarrassing, upsetting ...

  12. French-A-level-Essay Phrases Flashcards

    A Level French Essay Vocab. 104 terms. ciarariv. Preview. AQA French - Global issues (Foundation Tier) Teacher 31 terms. ... DPearson72. Preview. A-level French High Frequency words. 314 terms. tessa0786. Preview. A-level French Speaking Phrases. 33 terms. Digger17. Preview. les medias - online. 24 terms. la_la_ra_ra. Preview. New GCSE Edexcel ...

  13. PDF Example answers and examiner commentaries: Paper 2

    This resource contains an essay on each of three prescribed works for A-level French (7652) Paper 2. Each essay is accompanied by the relevant mark scheme extract and by a commentary to explain the marks awarded. The commentary shows teachers how the mark scheme is applied to students' essays. The works covered are Bonjour Tristesse, Un sac ...

  14. A level French Essay Sentence Starters

    File previews. A document useful for helping A/AS level students write the main body to essays on various topics. This is suitable for any exam board. This can be used in conjunction with the 'essay introduction' sentence starters resource free on my page.

  15. French Essay Topics 2023: Tips and Examples to Help You Succeed

    By applying these tips and strategies, you can write an impressive essay that demonstrates your understanding of French literature and your language abilities. Examples of French Literature Essays "In the tumultuous times of the 19th century, several European countries experienced great social and political upheavals.

  16. French literature

    French literature, the body of written works in the French language produced within the geographic and political boundaries of France.The French language was one of the five major Romance languages to develop from Vulgar Latin as a result of the Roman occupation of western Europe.. Since the Middle Ages, France has enjoyed an exceptional position in European intellectual life.

  17. French Literature Essay Phrases

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  18. A Level French Essay Phrases (La Haine) Flashcards

    whether one likes it or not. il va de soi que. it goes without saying that. c'est du pur délire. it's sheer lunacy. l'argument ne rime à rien. the argument doesn't add up. il est illusoire de s'imaginer que. it's fanciful to imagine that.

  19. French Literature Essay Phrases

    Curie Ju. French Literature Essay Phrases, Popular Cover Letter Ghostwriters Sites For Masters, Editing Services Writing, Analysis Chapter Thesis, Good Writing, Essay On Helping Others By Donatin, 5th Grade Book Report Suggestions. Translate ».

  20. French Literature Essay Phrases

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  21. French Literature Essay Phrases

    EssayBot is an essay writing assistant powered by Artificial Intelligence (AI). Given the title and prompt, EssayBot helps you find inspirational sources, suggest and paraphrase sentences, as well as generate and complete sentences using AI. If your essay will run through a plagiarism checker (such as Turnitin), don't worry.

  22. french essay phrases Flashcards and Study Sets

    9 studiers today. Higher French essay phrases. 157 terms 5 (1) Mrs_Broon Teacher. Preview. French essay phrases, Education. 195 terms. morganzf05. Preview.

  23. French Literature Essay Phrases

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