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Works Cited

  • Andrei, M. (2018, March 28). Leonardo da Vinci: inventions and discoveries that changed the world. Retrieved February 2019, from ZMEScience:
  • ARTnews, T. E. (2016, May 5). Theft! Forgery! Murder!: Art History’s Greatest Crimes. Retrieved February 2019, from ARTnews:
  • Britannica, T. E. (2019, January 16). Art History. Retrieved February 2019, from Britannica:
  • Güner, F. (2017, June 12). Can you separate the artist from the art? Retrieved February 2019, from BBC:
  • Gorel, A. (2018, April 12). ICA Closes Nicholas Nixon Exhibition Amid Allegations Of Misconduct. Retrieved February 2019, from Wbur:
  • Ibrahim, A. (2018, January 8). What is Art? Why is Art Important? Retrieved February 2019, from The Artist:
  • Neuendorf, H. (2017, January 19). John Armleder on Why Art Is More Important Than Artists. Retrieved February 2019, from Artnet:
  • Radhakrishnan, S. (2017, December 15). Why art must be separated from the artist. Retrieved February 2019, from Thread:
  • Sharf, Z. (2018, August 9). Casey Affleck Admits ‘I’m Still Here’ Set Was Unprofessional, Breaks Silence on #MeToo: ‘I Need to Keep My Mouth Shut and Listen’. Retrieved 2019 February, from Indie Wire:

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Art Topics - 200+ Brilliant Ideas to Begin With

By: Nova A.

14 min read

Reviewed By: Rylee W.

Published on: Apr 23, 2019

Art Topics

Are you a student struggling to find interesting and engaging art topics for your assignments or projects?

The world of art is vast and diverse, offering countless possibilities for exploration and creative expression. However, with so many options available, it can be overwhelming to narrow down your focus. But fret not, as we're here to help you navigate this artistic maze! 

In this blog, we will provide you with a curated list of fascinating art topics that will inspire your creativity and make your assignments stand out. Whether you're interested in exploring different art movements or delving into the cultural and historical significance of art, we've got you covered.

So let’s get started!

Art Topics

On this Page

Art Topics For Students

Here are some engaging art topics to write about that will spark your creativity and deepen your understanding of the artistic world.

  • The Impressionist movement and its impact on art.
  • Exploring the use of color in abstract art.
  • The influence of nature in landscape painting.
  • The evolution of portraiture throughout history.
  • The symbolism in still life paintings.
  • The role of art in social and political activism.
  • Exploring different art mediums: painting, sculpture, photography, etc.
  • The connection between art and emotions.
  • Exploring cultural diversity in art.
  • The representation of mythology in art.

Art Topics for Elementary Students

Here's a table with three columns containing art topics suitable for grades 3, 4, and 5:

Art Topics For Elementary School Students

History Art Topics

We always turn back and refer to history in hopes of avoiding past mistakes and learning new things. The same goes for art history. It provides us with a great number of exciting subjects and topics.

You can write about any art movement, time period, and school, talk about their origin and uniqueness, etc. Following are some amazing topics related to history that can help you draft an exceptional piece of writing. 

  • Egyptians used the same art canon for 3000 years. Why?
  • The history and techniques used in printmaking.
  • What is the philosophy of art? Explain the relationship between art and philosophy.
  • African countries and the return of cultural property post World War II.
  • Discuss primeval musical instruments.
  • Stained glass in Medieval France.
  • Venetian carnival masks and their history.
  • Human sacrifice in Mayan culture and its depiction in art.
  • Components of sculptures in Ancient Greece.
  • Draw a comparison between Egyptian and Mesoamerican pyramids.
  • The history and origin of Greek theater.
  • Biblical motives in the early paintings of Leonardo da Vinci.
  • The significance of Christian symbols in Renaissance art.
  • The beauty standards of Renaissance women.
  • The significance of Raphael’s work.

Art Topics on Artist Bibliography

Artist’s bibliographies make up for interesting essay topics. You never know what you might find going deep into their personal and professional lives, struggles, childhood, and their thinking and ideas.

We have gathered a list of artists from the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, respectively, for you to choose for your upcoming art essay.

18th Century

  • William Blake
  • Francisco Goya
  • J. M. W. Turner
  • Samuel Morse
  • Jacques-Louis David
  • Eugene Delacroix
  • Thomas Gainsborough
  • Mikhail Lomonosov
  • John James Audubon
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
  • Katsushika Hokusai
  • Marie Tussaud
  • E. T. A. Hoffmann
  • Grandma Moses

19th Century

  • Vincent Willem Van Gogh
  • Claude Manet
  • Gustav Klimt
  • Rabindranath Tagore
  • Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse
  • Hilaire Germain Edgar
  • Auguste Renoir
  • Georges Seurat
  • Alfred Sisley
  • Edgar Degas
  • Paul Cezanne
  • John Everett Millais
  • Frederic Remington
  • Thomas Lawrence
  • Adolf Menzel

20th Century

  • Louise Bourgeois
  • Marcel Duchamp
  • Frida Kahlo
  • Pablo Picasso
  • Judy Chicago
  • Cindy Sherman
  • Andy Warhol
  • Henry Spencer Moore
  • Georgia Totto O’Keeffe
  • Alberto Giacometti
  • David Smith
  • Vanessa Bell
  • Frank Lloyd Wright
  • Benny Andrews

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Art Topics on Different Epochs

The 18th century was an era of lavish architecture and musicians.

  • Influence of industrial revolution on art development.
  • Late Baroque architecture.
  • Rococo interior design.
  • Importance of Denis Diderot’s critiques of French art in the 18th century.
  • Neoclassicism sculpture: A combination of new and old ideas.
  • Comparison between Baroque and Rococo art designs.
  • Well-known composers of First Viennese School.
  • Marquis de Sade and its contribution to literature.
  • Significance of Denis Diderot’s criticism of French Art.
  • History of the famous Eugene Delacroix’s paintings.

The work of the artists of the 19th century.

  • Vincent van Gogh’s The Starry Night and its colorists.
  • Why is the carving of the Veiled Virgin by Giovanni Strazza so special?
  • How were the Victorian beauty standards portrayed in their art?
  • Monet’s Sunrise: what is so special about the light?
  • Dancing paintings by Edgar Degas.
  • Changes in the methodology of Impressionism paintings.
  • Artists and their depiction of Victorian beauty standards.
  • The relation between Goya’s prints and French caricatures.
  • The historical significance of Francisco de Goya’s paintings.
  • Paul Gauguin's savage art.

20th-century movements

  • Art Deco and Art Nouveau: similarities and differences.
  • Surrealism in Salvador Dali’s sculptures.
  • Basic principles of futurism.
  • Frida Kahlo’s paintings and the most commonly used symbol in them.
  • Techniques used in Jackson Pollock’s art?
  • The Kiss by Gustav Klimt: discuss its styles.
  • Jasper Johns Flag: realistic and artificial motifs.
  • Futurism and its basic principles.
  • Unusual techniques in the art of Jackson Pollock.
  • Evolution of mannerism in Pablo Picasso’s paintings.

Art Therapy Topics

Art therapy is a worthwhile resource to explore. Here is an interesting list of art therapy topic ideas that you can consider before starting your writing process.

  • Art therapy as an industry.
  • Art Therapy a Form of Psychotherapy.
  • Art Therapy in Abused Children.
  • Art for Communities and Families.
  • Art therapy and the creative process.
  • Benefits of art therapy.
  • Art Therapy in Group Setting.
  • Art Therapy in Children and its Effectiveness.
  • Quantitative Research in Art Therapy.
  • The Power of Art Therapy.
  • Techniques Used For Art Therapy.
  • Losing Yourself in Art.
  • Art Therapy Resources.
  • Art Therapy Activities.
  • Art therapy and mental health.

Art Debate Topics

Coming up with an interesting Art debate topic can be tricky. There are a number of things that you need to consider when coming up with an interesting topic. Following are some of the unique  debate topics  ideas that you can consider choosing.

  • Should abstract be considered a type of art?
  • Should art be recognized more academically?
  • Should kids draw horror art?
  • The purpose of art.
  • Is it possible to appreciate art without liking it?
  • Art vs. Design.
  • How important is art for children's education?
  • How art affects and reflects the world.
  • Is Art Really Necessary Anymore?
  • Was Hitler’s contribution to the arts powerful?
  • Modern art and its legitimacy.
  • Critiquing styles of Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg.
  • The uniqueness of Russian artists.
  • How is primitivism real art?

Art Persuasive Speech Topics

When given to come up with a persuasive speech, it is often up to students to choose a topic.

Choosing the right topic is not an easy task. Here you can find some of the interesting art persuasive speech topic ideas to help you start the process.

  • Do some pets pose a danger to the community?
  • Is battery farming ethical?
  • Why should art classes be enforced in all public schools?
  • How can one benefit from having a pet?
  • What makes a dog a perfect pet?
  • How are dolphins important to the environment?
  • Reasons why you should not raise wild animals as pets
  • What we lose when animals go extinct.
  • Reasons why students should be taught to play musical instruments in school.
  • Significance of learning different languages.
  • Why should graffiti be considered art?
  • Why should museums be free for citizens?
  • Significance of cultural art education in schools
  • Effectiveness of music therapy.
  • How cultural interactions can make people successful professionally?

You can also explore articles to find more  persuasive speech topic ideas  on  and write compelling essays.

Art Topics on Different Cultures

  • How has pop art influenced American culture?
  • Styles and material used in Japanese calligraphy.
  • How does the henna pattern differ in the Middle East, India, and Africa?
  • Asian tribes: their fashion and textile.
  • Maori culture: war dance haka.
  • Bollywood and the Hindi film industry.
  • Why should inappropriate language in English literature be removed?
  • Bollywood dance routines Vs. Americans.
  • History and significance of pop music culture.
  • Why should art therapy be covered in medical health insurance in different parts of the world?
  • Pros and cons of watching Sci-Fi films.
  • Comparison between the romantic comedy of Hollywood Vs. Bollywood.
  • Features of Irani cinema.
  • Significance of sitar in Hindu culture.
  • Contemporary dance forms in different cultures.

Art Topics on Ancient Civilization

  • Influence of science on Ancient Greek sculptures
  • Explain the main reasons for the shift in Roman artistic style in the 4th century.
  • The Great Wall of China and its construction.
  • Women and Politics in Ancient Rome.
  • Female representation in Ancient Art.
  • Art and architecture in Ancient Times.
  • The story behind the art and architecture of Ancient Rome.
  • Describe Ancient Greek literature and theater.
  • Contribution of Ancient Civilizations to the modern art
  • Depiction of beauty in Ancient Art

Art Research Paper Topics

Despite the fact that art cannot be measured with figures as its value depends on personal impressions, it still can be a subject for research.

It is quite a challenging task to study something full of emotions. But don’t worry, as there is much credible data that you can include in your research paper only if you choose the right topic.

Following are some of the interesting topic ideas that you can choose to start with.

  • Gothic and Neo-Gothic.
  • Comparison of Nazi and Soviet art.
  • Can abstract art be decoded?
  • The art of disgusting.
  • Bauhaus movement.
  • Surrealist movement.
  • Photography as art.
  • History and origin of Abstract Expressionism.
  • Similarities and differences between Claude Monnet and Edouard Manet.
  • How cultural identity affects the creation of art?
  • Breaking stereotypes through art and literature.
  • Limitations of the performance art.
  • Mysterious photography and artwork of Vivian Maier.
  • Jazz music of the 19th century.
  • Hidden meanings in the famous paintings.

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Modern Art Topics

Modern art consists of interesting movements, styles, and forms. Choose any of the below topics to write on.

  • The abstract expressionism movement.
  • Pablo Picasso, founder of cubism.
  • Impressionism Vs. Cubism.
  • Development of American pop art.
  • Is contemporary art merely a way for greedy capitalists to make money?
  • Political cartoons as an art form.
  • Are people scared of modern art?
  • History and techniques of printmaking.
  • The definition of “Philosophy of Arts.”
  • The artistic styles of Art Deco.

Art History Compare and Contrast Essay Topics

Writing a compare and contrast essay isn’t easy, but it allows you to learn a great deal about different time periods, artists and their work and movements, etc.

  • Picasso’s blue and rose periods: similarities and differences.
  • Baroque and Rococo design styles: compare and analyze.
  • Traditional vs. Modern Caribbean music.
  • Renaissance vs. Baroque Epoch
  • What are the main differences between Picasso and Leonardo Da Vinci?
  • Roman Vs. Greek mythology.
  • Venus de Milo Vs. The Thinker.
  • Similarities and differences between the artworks of the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • The artwork of India and Africa.
  • Styles and techniques of painting landscapes.

We have added a variety of more compare and contrast essay topics in this blog; go check it out.

Art Argumentative Essay Topics

  • The most significant piece of art of the 20th century and why?
  • Graffiti art or vandalism?
  • Banksy artist or vandal?
  • What contributed to making Paris a center of art in the 20th century?
  • Why do we need art in our lives?
  • Why is TV becoming obsolete?
  • Significance of print media in current times.
  • Advantages of listening to classical music.
  • How painting can help treat mental illnesses.

Need more argumentative essay topics? Check out our blog on  argumentative essay topics .

Cause and Effect Essay Topics on Art

  • Did iconoclasm affect Muslim art, and how?
  • Causes of the decline of art in Medieval Europe?
  • How has the cultural revolution influenced Chinese art?
  • The invention of the printing press changed the status of the mass media. Examples must be provided to support your position.
  • Raphael’s influence on the art of the Renaissance.
  • Influence of Hitler’s work on literature.
  • Influence of WWI of art.
  • Influence of WWII on literature.
  • How the work of William Blake paved the path for modern art?
  • How did art influence the people during Hitler’s time?

Art Topics For Presentation

  • The evolution of street art: From graffiti to mainstream acceptance.
  • The impact of technology on contemporary art.
  • Art therapy: The healing power of creativity.
  • Women artists throughout history: Challenging gender norms and making their mark.
  • Exploring cultural appropriation in art: Appreciation vs. exploitation.
  • Art and environmental activism: Raising awareness through creative expression.
  • The influence of ancient civilizations on modern art.
  • Art as a form of storytelling: Narrative elements in visual arts.
  • The role of art museums in preserving and promoting artistic heritage.
  • The intersection of art and science: The fusion of creativity and innovation.

Performing Arts Topics

  • The influence of dance in different cultures
  • The evolution of musical theater
  • The impact of technology on contemporary dance performances.
  • The portrayal of social issues in modern dance
  • The role of improvisation in theater
  • Exploring different styles of classical music
  • The significance of costume design in theater
  • How music influences our feelings and experiences.
  • The power of storytelling through puppetry
  • The fusion of traditional and contemporary elements in multicultural performances.

Literary Arts Topics

  • Exploring the use of symbols to convey deeper meanings.
  • The evolution of the novel: From its early forms to modern genres.
  • The impact of postcolonial literature
  • Exploring magical realism in literature: Blending reality and the fantastical.
  • The role of satire in social critique
  • Women writers and the feminist literary movement
  • The portrayal of mental health in literature
  • The influence of mythology in contemporary literature
  • Analyzing the portrayal of bleak future societies.
  • The power of storytelling in oral traditions

Art and Society Topics

  • Art as a vehicle for social change
  • How art shapes and revitalizes communities.
  • Exploring the intersection of art, capitalism, and consumer culture.
  • Analyzing instances of art being censored or restricted due to societal or political factors.
  • Examining the benefits and challenges of arts education in schools.
  • Exploring the therapeutic benefits of engaging with art.
  • How artists express and challenge notions of race, gender, sexuality, and culture.
  • Examining the relationship between art, digital media, and technological advancements.
  • Exploring how artists respond to and raise awareness about ecological issues.
  • Analyzing art projects that promote dialogue, collaboration, and inclusivity within communities.

Art Topics for Personal Development

  • Art journaling for self-reflection and growth
  • The power of imagination and artistic expression to manifest personal goals and aspirations.
  • Exploring art techniques as a form of meditation and cultivating present moment awareness.
  • Using art-making as a means to reduce stress, promote relaxation, and enhance well-being.
  • Creating visual representations of personal stories and experiences.
  • Using different art mediums to process and communicate emotions.
  • Utilizing collage or mixed media techniques to visually represent personal goals and aspirations.
  • Engaging in artistic activities to explore personal identity, values, and beliefs.
  • Using art-making as a means to cope with and overcome challenges and adversity.
  • Experimenting with different art styles and mediums to discover one's unique artistic voice.

Miscellaneous Art Essay Topics

  • Contemporary artists, you like and why?
  • What is your opinion on true art: what is it?
  • If you are an artist, how would you explain your kind of art to others?
  • Does life and nature influence art?
  • What are your views on art therapy?
  • Difference between a French and American artist.
  • History and evaluation of animation
  • Significance of censorship
  • Origin of Crop art
  • Urban sculptures and their significance
  • What is fiber art?
  • The emergence of textile arts
  • History of graphic novels
  • Interactive art of modern times
  • Introduction and significance of tramp art?

In conclusion, choosing an art topic is an important and personal decision for an art student. It's a process that involves self-reflection, exploration, and experimentation. By reflecting on your interests, researching, and seeking inspiration, you can discover the subjects that truly ignite your creativity. 

Remember, there's no right or wrong answer when it comes to art topics. The key is to follow your passion and enjoy the journey of artistic exploration. 

So, whichever topic you choose, just add it to our AI essay generator and get an AI essay for reference. 

Or, if you need help writing a high-quality paper, feel free to contact expert essay writers. Simply request ‘ write my essay ’ and get assistance for all types of academic essays and papers. 

Nova A.

Marketing, Law

As a Digital Content Strategist, Nova Allison has eight years of experience in writing both technical and scientific content. With a focus on developing online content plans that engage audiences, Nova strives to write pieces that are not only informative but captivating as well.

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Art Argumentative Essays Samples For Students

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For starters, you should skim our extensive collection of free samples that cover most diverse Art Argumentative Essay topics and showcase the best academic writing practices. Once you feel that you've figured out the key principles of content presentation and drawn actionable ideas from these expertly written Argumentative Essay samples, developing your own academic work should go much smoother.

However, you might still find yourself in a circumstance when even using top-notch Art Argumentative Essays doesn't allow you get the job accomplished on time. In that case, you can contact our experts and ask them to craft a unique Art paper according to your individual specifications. Buy college research paper or essay now!

Free Argumentative Essay On Quintessential Love Song

Almost all classic songs are about love. Since ancient times, artists have endeavored to write songs of love to stir the heart. Their works have ranged from the saccharine and sappy to the truly moving. In spite of the artists’ varied levels of accomplishment and artistic merits, each of these songs relies on certain tropes and exhibits certain qualities that are endemic to the “love song” genre. In all quintessential love songs, three tenets (common qualities) have stood out; simple lyrics delivered with sincerity, use of a saxophone and they are sung in moderately slow tempos.

Argumentative Essay On The Life And Works Of Sahin Kaygun

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Example Of What Are Artists For Argumentative Essay

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The philosopher, Plato, wrote The Republic in dialogue form using the Socratic method of questioning. Book 10 is about aesthetics; one of the branches of philosophy which is similar to the philosophy of art. Socrates, the narrator and his companion explore the meaning of imitation poetry from the beginning (Plato 658).

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Essay on Art

500 words essay on art.

Each morning we see the sunshine outside and relax while some draw it to feel relaxed. Thus, you see that art is everywhere and anywhere if we look closely. In other words, everything in life is artwork. The essay on art will help us go through the importance of art and its meaning for a better understanding.

essay on art

What is Art?

For as long as humanity has existed, art has been part of our lives. For many years, people have been creating and enjoying art.  It expresses emotions or expression of life. It is one such creation that enables interpretation of any kind.

It is a skill that applies to music, painting, poetry, dance and more. Moreover, nature is no less than art. For instance, if nature creates something unique, it is also art. Artists use their artwork for passing along their feelings.

Thus, art and artists bring value to society and have been doing so throughout history. Art gives us an innovative way to view the world or society around us. Most important thing is that it lets us interpret it on our own individual experiences and associations.

Art is similar to live which has many definitions and examples. What is constant is that art is not perfect or does not revolve around perfection. It is something that continues growing and developing to express emotions, thoughts and human capacities.

Importance of Art

Art comes in many different forms which include audios, visuals and more. Audios comprise songs, music, poems and more whereas visuals include painting, photography, movies and more.

You will notice that we consume a lot of audio art in the form of music, songs and more. It is because they help us to relax our mind. Moreover, it also has the ability to change our mood and brighten it up.

After that, it also motivates us and strengthens our emotions. Poetries are audio arts that help the author express their feelings in writings. We also have music that requires musical instruments to create a piece of art.

Other than that, visual arts help artists communicate with the viewer. It also allows the viewer to interpret the art in their own way. Thus, it invokes a variety of emotions among us. Thus, you see how essential art is for humankind.

Without art, the world would be a dull place. Take the recent pandemic, for example, it was not the sports or news which kept us entertained but the artists. Their work of arts in the form of shows, songs, music and more added meaning to our boring lives.

Therefore, art adds happiness and colours to our lives and save us from the boring monotony of daily life.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Conclusion of the Essay on Art

All in all, art is universal and can be found everywhere. It is not only for people who exercise work art but for those who consume it. If there were no art, we wouldn’t have been able to see the beauty in things. In other words, art helps us feel relaxed and forget about our problems.

FAQ of Essay on Art

Question 1: How can art help us?

Answer 1: Art can help us in a lot of ways. It can stimulate the release of dopamine in your bodies. This will in turn lower the feelings of depression and increase the feeling of confidence. Moreover, it makes us feel better about ourselves.

Question 2: What is the importance of art?

Answer 2: Art is essential as it covers all the developmental domains in child development. Moreover, it helps in physical development and enhancing gross and motor skills. For example, playing with dough can fine-tune your muscle control in your fingers.

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100+ Art Essay Topics for Your Excellent Paper

Art is a gold mine for essay ideas. The multiplicity of art styles, genres, and movements gives a great opportunity to choose a topic of your interest. If you are bored with standard assignments, you will like our post because writers of our essay service we have collected unusual and catchy essay topics about art of different epochs and countries. Writing essays about artists, artworks, or art history is not only exciting – it may also broaden your erudite horizons. Don’t hesitate to steep yourself in the world of beauty and aesthetics!

Best art essay topics in December 2023

  • How modern technology has altered the landscape of art.
  • The value of public artworks in contemporary cityscapes.
  • The colossal cultural influence of Christmas art.
  • How social justice movements relate to artistic expression.
  • How works of art and literature depict mental illness.
  • What digital art has become and where it stands in the modern art scene.
  • Edited AI-generated images as a form of art.
  • How art can help People from different cultures understand and empathize with one another.
  • The morality of cinematic and photographic depictions of art.
  • Images of the LGBTQ+ community in media and entertainment.
  • The impact of the development of AI tools on modern artists.
  • What museums can do to keep history alive.

Our great collection of art essay ideas

When we want to avoid the mistakes of the past, we turn back to our history. The same happens when we are looking for art essay ideas. Art history is a treasury filled with various and exciting topics for your papers. You can choose any epoch, any art movement, any school and present their peculiarities, representatives, and origins. Check out the list of art essay ideas from our art essay writing service .

  • Printmaking: history and techniques.
  • The return of cultural property to the African countries after WWII.
  • The formal elements of the Egyptian portraits of royalties and aristocrats: the use of space; colors and color blocks; lines and texture; gestures and emotions.
  • How can you explain the “philosophy of art”?
  • When and how did photography become art?
  • Jewelry of Ancient Egypt: the role of jewelry in the afterlife; the most used materials and metals; protective amulets; types of ancient Egyptian jewelry.
  • Edo in Japan: Kabuki theater and woodblock prints.
  • Why did Egyptians never change their art canon for 3,000 years?
  • The first Impressionists: Édouard Manet and Claude Monet.
  • Primeval musical instruments.
  • The references to Renaissance art history in “The Da Vinci Code” by Dan Brown.
  • How do the painters of different epochs depict the Apocalypse?
  • The history of the Venetian carnival masks.
  • Sacrifice in Mayan art.
  • Stained glass in Medieval France.

Artist biography essay ideas

Artist Biography Essay Ideas

Artists’ biographies always have something to surprise with: skeletons in the closet, unusual career stories, difficult childhood, etc. Studying the details of their lives doesn’t only serve for fun. When we analyze a certain piece of art, it is necessary to look into the author’s ideas, motives, and feelings. The understanding of all these aspects simplifies the analysis of the art piece and allows us to produce a more detailed and exhaustive paper. Below, we provide you with a list of talented artists of three centuries. Writing about their colorful lives will be a great art essay idea and paper writing help .

18th century:

Etienne Falconet Francesco Rastrelli Hubert Robert Jacques-Louis David Jean-Antoine Houdon Johann Sebastian Bach Louis François Roubiliac Ludwig van Beethoven Thomas Gainsborough Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

19th century:

Auguste Rodin Claude Monet Edgar Degas Eduard Manet Eugene Delacroix Franz Schubert Giuseppe Verdi Gustav Klimt Paul Cézanne Paul Gauguin Vincent Willem van Gogh

20th century

Alberto Giacometti Andy Warhol Constantin Brâncuși Edvard Munch Frida Kahlo Georges Braque Georgia Totto O’Keeffe Henry Spencer Moore Jackson Pollock Judy Chicago Pablo Picasso Salvador Dali

Art around the world essay topics

Think Global_Art Around the World

Our planet is an amazing place. We share our home with thousands of different nations, ethnic groups, and tribes. Their cultures are unique and fascinating. You only have to look closer to find some great art essay ideas.

  • Japanese calligraphy: styles and materials.
  • K-pop: music style and subculture.
  • Chinese circus art as a synthesis of ancient traditions and innovations.
  • Bollywood and Hindi-language film industry.
  • Fashion and textiles of the African tribes.
  • The war dance haka in the Maori culture: history and types.
  • Wayang: traditional shadow puppet theater in Indonesia and Malaysia.
  • The peculiarities of mehndi in India, Africa, and the Middle East.
  • Water puppetry: a unique Vietnamese tradition.
  • The totem masks in the art of Papua New Guinea.

Art piece analysis topic ideas

Art Piece Analysis Topic Ideas

Art appreciation essay topics require some specific knowledge. If you choose one of these topics, make sure that you provide all kinds of research about the artist, his or her personal style and technique, the art school, the background, etc. A detailed and well-considered art piece analysis is always highly appreciated.

  • “The Last Supper” by Leonardo da Vinci: style, composition, symbols.
  • What makes “Darkness Falls” by Patrick Hughes a unique artwork?
  • Analyze the purpose of the painting “Marriage Contract” by Giovanni Arnolfini.
  • Describe the structure of “Heart of Gold” by Christopher David White.
  • The biblical symbols in “The Garden of Delights” by Hieronymus Bosch.
  • The “demons” of Mikhail Vrubel: “The Demon Seated,” “The Demon Flying,” “The Demon Downcast.”
  • Symbolism and interpretations of the engraving “Melencolia I” by Albrecht Dürer.
  • The depiction of the female body in the painting “The Three Graces” by Peter Paul Rubens.
  • The role of decorating elements for the perception of the painting “The Kiss” by Gustav Klimt.
  • Magic realism in the painting “La note bleu” by Eric Roux-Fontaine.

Modern art topic ideas

Modern Art Topic Ideas

New is always better. Of course, this aphorism doesn’t cover all aspects of life. Anyway, modern art has something to surprise you with. The multiplicity of styles, movements, and forms is breathtaking, and you can choose any to write an excellent essay about it!

  • The artistic styles of modern art: British Pop art Conceptual art Constructivism Art Deco
  • Globalization in contemporary art.
  • Activism as a platform for modern art.
  • Use of technologies and social media in modern art.
  • Rise of art fairs in the 2000s.
  • Multiplicity of forms in modern art.
  • Political cartoons as a modern art form.
  • The modern mural as an instrument of political protest.
  • The technologies that define art of the 21th century
  • Large-scale artworks within contemporary art.

Art essay topics by type of essay

Below, we have placed the art essay ideas for argumentative, cause and effect, and compare and contrast essays. These three types are frequently assigned for homework because they allow the evaluation of critical thinking, argumentative skills, and logical reasoning of students.

Argumentative essay topics about art

Argumentative Essay Topics About Art

If you like good discussions as well as art, you are welcome to train your argumentation skills. Prove your viewpoint using logical reasoning and enhanced arguments. Write a well-structured essay, and the high grades will come soon!

  • How can we define “good art”?
  • Why art disciplines are necessary for school programs.
  • The most important painting of the 20th century.
  • What makes Baroque sculptures recognizable?
  • Why does “Birth of Venus” by Botticelli best exemplify the ideals of the Renaissance?
  • Why does modern society put the arts in the role of social service?
  • Computer games as a kind of art.
  • Why has “Guernica” by Pablo Picasso had a global impact?
  • In what ways does art influence our everyday life?
  • Why is the “Mozart effect” not real?
  • Is the theater an art form significant enough to change culture?
  • Why the feminist movement is important for contemporary art.
  • Is graffiti a kind of art?
  • Banksy: vandal or artist?
  • Is art a good option for investments?
  • Should photojournalism be censored?
  • Can we consider advertisement to be a kind of modern art?
  • What made Paris a center of art in the 20th century?
  • Why is art education undervalued around the world?
  • How does art education help to think different?
  • The appearance of Gala and her influence on Dali’s art .

Cause and effect essay topics about art

Cause and Effect Essay Topics About Art

These art essay topics are based on two key pillars: reasons and consequences. A cause-and-effect link connects everything in this world. There is no exception for art.

  • Choose one American painting created under strong influence of Japanese art and explain what exact effect it has had.
  • How did the Second Great Migration influence the art of the Harlem Renaissance?
  • What was the impact of Hudson River School of Art on the American painting?
  • How did iconoclasm affect Muslim art?
  • Has the Cultural Revolution influenced Chinese art?
  • How did Japanese art influence Van Gogh’s paintings?
  • The impact of Raphael on the art of the Renaissance (check the list of Renaissance topics for your papers).
  • How did mythology influence the sculptures of Ancient Greece?
  • How did the Japanese mentality and lifestyle affect the art of the rock garden?
  • What caused the decline of art in Medieval Europe?

Compare and contrast essay topics about art

Compare and Contrast Essay Topics About Art

These art essay topics are not that easy. You have to work twice as hard to compare two things because you have to be well-informed about each of them. However, the game is worth the candle.

  • Compare the main ideas of Middle Age art and Renaissance art.
  • Compare Greek and Egyptian canons of proportions.
  • The peculiarities of modern art in comparison with the previous art periods.
  • Similarities and differences in Mannerism and Baroque styles.
  • Compare the novelties in the paintings of Gustave Courbet to those of Edouard Manet.
  • Compare Picasso’s Blue and Rose periods.
  • Compare traditional and modern Caribbean music.
  • Compare and contrast French and English gardens.
  • Compare the surrealism in the paintings of Rene Magritte and Salvador Dali.
  • Compare Baroque and Rococo design styles.

We are absolutely sure that you’ve found an interesting and unusual topic for your art essay in our lists. No doubt, art provides us with inspiration for creating high-quality papers. If you don’t feel confident about your writing skills but have an excellent idea for a paper, you are welcome to use the college paper writing service EssayShark. Here, you will find a comfortable ordering system, a team of experienced writers, and 24/7 available support. Good luck on the path to academic success, and may the Force be with you!

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Art Essay Examples

Cathy A.

Art Essay Examples to Get You Inspired - Top 10 Samples

Published on: May 4, 2023

Last updated on: Jan 30, 2024

art essay examples

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Are you struggling to come up with ideas for your art essay? Or are you looking for examples to help guide you in the right direction? 

Look no further, as we have got you covered!

In this blog, we provide a range of art writing examples that cover different art forms, time periods, and themes. Whether you're interested in the classics or contemporary art, we have something for everyone. These examples offer insight into how to structure your essay, analyze art pieces, and write compelling arguments.

So, let's explore our collection of art essay examples and take the first step toward becoming a better art writer!

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Good Art Essay Examples

In the following section, we will examine a selection of art essay examples that are inspiring for various academic levels.

College Art Essay Examples

Let’s take a look at college art essay examples below:  

The Intersection of Art and Politics: An Analysis of Picasso's Guernica

The Role of Nature in American Art: A Comparative Study

University Art Essay Examples

University-level art essay assignments often differ in length and complexity. Here are two examples:

Gender and Identity in Contemporary Art: A Comparative Study

Art and Activism: The Role of Street Art in Political Movements

A Level Art Essay Examples

Below are some art paper examples A level. Check out: 

The Use Of Color In Wassily Kandinsky's Composition Viii

The Influence of African Art on Pablo Picasso's Les Demoiselles D'avignon

A Level Fine Art Essay Examples

If you're a student of fine arts, these A-level fine arts examples can serve as inspiration for your own work.

The Use Of Texture In Vincent Van Gogh's Starry Night

Exploring Identity Through Portraiture: A Comparative Study

Art Essay Examples IELTS 

The Impact of Art on Mental Health

The Effects of Technology on Art And Creativity

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AP Art Essay Examples

A Comparison of Neoclassical and Romantic Art

An Examination Of The Effects Of Globalization On Contemporary Art

Types of Art Essay with Examples

Art essays can be categorized into different types. Let's take a brief look at these types with examples:

Art Criticism Essay : A critical essay analyzing and evaluating an artwork, its elements, and its meaning.

The Persistence of Memory" by Salvador Dali: A Critical Analysis

Art History Essay: A comprehensive essay that examines the historical context, development, and significance of an artwork or art movement.

The Renaissance: A Rebirth of Artistic Expression

Exhibition Review: A review of an art exhibition that evaluates the quality and significance of the artwork on display.

A Review of the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Exhibition

Contemporary Art Essay: An essay that explores and analyzes contemporary art and its cultural and social context.

The Intersection of Technology and Art in Contemporary Society

Modern Art Essay: An essay that examines modern art and its significance in the development of modernism.

Cubism and its Influence on Modern Art [insert pdf]

Art Theory Essay: An essay that analyzes and critiques various theories and approaches to art.

Feminist Art Theory: A Critical Analysis of its Impact on Contemporary Art [insert pdf]

Additional Art Essay Example

Let’s take a brief look at some added art essay samples:

Artwork Essay Example

Artist Essay Example

Advanced Higher Art Essay Example

Common Art Essay Prompts

Here are some common art essay topics that you may encounter during your coursework:

  • Describe a piece of artwork that has inspired you.
  • A comparative analysis of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Michelangelo's David.
  • Analyze the cultural significance of a particular art movement.
  • Discuss the relationship between art and politics.
  • Compare and contrast two works of art from different time periods or cultures.
  • The representation of identity in art
  • The Evolution of Artists' Paintings:
  • From Traditional to Contemporary Art
  • The representation of identity in Frida Kahlo's self-portraits.
  • The significance of oil on canvas in the history of art.
  • The significance of the Mona Lisa in the Italian Renaissance

Art Essay Topics IELTS

Here are some art essay topics for IELTS students. Take a look: 

  • The value of art education.
  • The role of museums in preserving art and culture.
  • The impact of globalization on contemporary art.
  • The influence of technology on art and artists.
  • The significance of public art in urban environments.

Tips For Writing a Successful Art Essay

Here are some tips for writing a stand-out art essay:

  • Develop a clear thesis statement that guides your essay: Your thesis statement should clearly and concisely state the main argument of your essay.
  • Conduct thorough research and analysis of the artwork you are writing about : This includes examining the visual elements of the artwork, researching the artist, and considering the historical significance.
  • Use formal and precise language to discuss the artwork: Avoid using colloquial language and instead focus on using formal language to describe the artwork.
  • Include specific examples from the artwork to support your arguments: Use specific details from the artwork to back up your analysis.
  • Avoid personal bias and subjective language: Your essay should be objective and avoid using personal opinions or subjective language.
  • Consider the historical and cultural context of the artwork: Analyze the artwork in the context of the time period and cultural context in which they were created.
  • Edit and proofread your essay carefully before submitting it: Ensure your essay is well-organized, coherent, and free of grammatical errors and typos.
  • Use proper citation format when referencing sources: Follow the appropriate citation style guidelines and give credit to all sources used in your essay.
  • Be concise and focused in your writing: Stick to your main thesis statement and avoid going off-topic or including irrelevant information.
  • Read your essay aloud to ensure clarity and coherence: Reading your essay out loud can help you identify inconsistencies or any other mistakes.

The Bottom Line!

We hope that the art essay examples we've explored have provided you with inspiration for your own essay. Art offers endless possibilities for analysis, and your essay is a chance to showcase your unique opinions.

Use these examples as a guide to craft an essay that reflects your personality while demonstrating your knowledge of the subject.

Short on time? Let help you! All you have to do is to ask our experts, " write college essay for me " and they'll help you secure top grades in college.

Don't wait, reach out to our art essay writing service.

Take the first step towards excellence in your art studies with our AI essay writer !

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argumentative essay about art

argumentative essay about art

Friday essay: in defence of beauty in art

argumentative essay about art

Senior Lecturer, Art History and Visual Culture, Australian National University

Disclosure statement

Robert Wellington receives funding from Australian Research Council. Material in this article was first presented as the Australian National University 2017 Last Lecture.

Australian National University provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU.

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Art critics and historians have a difficult time dealing with beauty. We are trained from early on that the analysis of a work of art relies on proof, those things that we can point to as evidence. The problem with beauty is that it’s almost impossible to describe. To describe the beauty of an object is like trying to explain why something’s funny — when it’s put into words, the moment is lost.

Works of art need not be beautiful for us to consider them important. We need only think of Marcel Duchamp’s “readymade” urinal that he flipped on its side, signed with a false name, and submitted to the exhibition of the newly founded Society of Independent Artists in New York in 1917. We’d have a hard time considering this object beautiful, but it is widely accepted to be one of most important works of Western art from the last century.

argumentative essay about art

To call something beautiful is not a critical assertion, so it’s deemed of little value to an argument that attempts to understand the morals, politics, and ideals of human cultures past and present. To call something beautiful is not the same as calling it an important work of art. As a philosopher might say, beauty is not a necessary condition of the art object.

And yet, it is often the beauty we perceive in works of art from the past or from another culture that makes them so compelling. When we recognise the beauty of an object made or selected by another person we understand that maker/selector as a feeling subject who shared with us an ineffable aesthetic experience. When we find something beautiful we become aware of our mutual humanity.

Take, for example, the extraordinary painting Yam awely by Emily Kam Kngwarry in our national collection. Like so many Indigenous Australians, Kngwarry has evoked her deep spiritual and cultural connection to the lands that we share through some of the most intensely beautiful objects made by human hands.

argumentative essay about art

In her work we can trace the lines of the brush, the wet-on-wet blend of colours intuitively selected, the place of the artist’s body as she moved about the canvas to complete her design. We can uncover her choices—the mix of predetermination and instinct of a maker in the flow of creation.

It is not our cultural differences that strike me when I look at this painting. I know that a complex set of ideas, stories, and experiences have informed its maker. But what captures me is beyond reason. It cannot be put into words. My felt response to this work does not answer questions of particular cultures or histories. It is more universal than that. I am aware of a beautiful object offered up by its maker, who surely felt the beauty of her creation just as I do.

Let me be clear. I am not saying that works of art ought to be beautiful. What I want to defend is our felt experience of beauty as way of knowing and navigating the world around us.

The aesthete as radical

The aesthete — a much maligned figure of late-19th and early-20th century provides a fascinating insight on this topic. Aesthetes have had a bad rap. To call someone an aesthete is almost an insult. It suggests that they are frivolous, vain, privileged, and affected. But I would like to reposition aesthetes as radical, transgressive figures, who challenged the very foundations of the conservative culture in which they lived, though an all-consuming love of beautiful things.

argumentative essay about art

Oscar Wilde was, perhaps, the consummate Aesthete - famed as much for his wit as for his foppish dress and his love of peacock feathers, sun flowers and objets d’art. His often-quoted comment “I find it harder and harder every day to live up to my blue china” has been noted as a perfect summary of the aesthete’s vacuous nature.

For Wilde and his followers, the work of art — whether it be a poem, a book, a play, a piece of music, a painting, a dinner plate, or a carpet — should only be judged on the grounds of beauty. They considered it an utterly vulgar idea that art should serve any other purpose.

Over time, the term “aesthete” began to take on new meanings as a euphemism for the effete Oxford intellectual. Men like Wilde were an open threat to acceptable gender norms—the pursuit of beauty, both in the adoration of beautiful things, and in the pursuit of personal appearances, was deemed unmanly. It had long been held that men and women approached the world differently. Men were rational and intellectual; women emotional and irrational.

These unfortunate stereotypes are very familiar to us, and they play both ways. When a woman is confident and intellectual she is sometimes deemed unfeminine. When she is emotional and empathic, she is at risk of being called hysterical. Likewise, a man who works in the beauty industry — a make-up artist, fashion designer, hairdresser, or interior designer — might be mocked for being effete and superficial. We only need to look to the tasteless comments made about Prime Minister Julia Gillard and her partner Tim Mathieson to see evidence of that today.

By the 1880s, many caricatures were published of a flamboyant Wilde as a cultivated aesthete. One cartoon from the Washington Post lampooned the aesthete with a reference to Charles Darwin’s controversial theory of evolution. How far is the aesthete from the ape, it asked. Here the pun relies on a comparison made between the irrational ape — Darwin’s original human — and Wilde the frivolous aesthete.

argumentative essay about art

The aesthete was a dangerous combination of male privilege, class privilege, and female sensibility. The queerness of aesthetes like Wilde was dangerously transgressive, and the pursuit of beauty provided a zone in which to challenge the heteronormative foundations of conservative society, just as Darwin’s radical theories had challenged Christian beliefs of the origins of humankind.

Wilde’s legacy was continued by a new generation of young aristocrats at a time of cultural crises between the two World Wars. The Bright Young Things, as they were called, were the last bloom of a dying plant — the last generation of British aristocrats to lead a life of unfettered leisure before so many were cut down in their prime by the war that permanently altered the economic structure of Britain.

Stephen Tennant was the brightest of the Bright Young Things. He was the youngest son of a Scottish peer, a delicate and sickly child whose recurrent bouts of lung disease lent him a thin, delicate, consumptive and romantic appearance.

argumentative essay about art

Stephen was immortalised as the character of Lord Sebastian Flyte in Evelyn Waugh’s masterpiece, Brideshead Revisited. Waugh’s character of the frivolous Oxford Aesthete who carries around his teddy bear, Aloysius, and dotes on his Nanny, borrows these characteristics from Stephen — who kept a plush monkey as a constant companion right up until his death.

Waugh’s book is a powerful meditation on art, beauty and faith. The narrator, Charles Ryder, is thought to have been loosely based on Tennant’s close friend, the painter/illustrator Rex Whistler, the aesthete-artist who tragically died on his first day of engagement in the Second World War.

Through the character of Charles, Waugh grapples with the dilemma of beauty vs erudition. Visiting Brideshead, the magnificent country estate of Sebastian’s family, Charles is keen to learn its history and to train his eye. He asks his host, “Is the dome by Inigo Jones, too? It looks later.” Sebastian replies: “Oh, Charles, don’t be such a tourist. What does it matter when it was built, if it’s pretty?” Sebastian gives the aesthete’s response, that a work of art or architecture should be judged on aesthetic merit alone.

argumentative essay about art

I’m not suggesting that we should all drop what we’re doing and quit our jobs to pursue an uncompromising pursuit of beauty. But I do think we can learn something from the aesthete’s approach to life.

Aesthetes like Wilde and Tennant, cushioned by their privilege, transgressed the accepted norms of their gender to pursue a life not governed by reason but by feeling. This is a radical challenge to our logocentric society; a challenge to a world that often privileges a rational (masculine) perspective that fails to account for our deeply felt experience of the world around us.

How, then, to judge works of art?

How, then, should the art critic proceed today when beauty counts for so little in the judgement of works of art?

The unsettling times in which we live lead us to question the ethics of aesthetics. What happens when we find an object beautiful that was produced by a person or in a culture that we judge to be immoral or unjust?

I often encounter this problem with works of art produced for the French court in the 17th and 18th century – the period I study.

Last year, when I took a group through the exhibition Versailles: Treasures from the Palace at the National Gallery of Australia, one student was particularly repulsed by Sèvres porcelain made for members of the Court of French king Louis XV . For her, it was impossible to like those dishes and bowls, because she felt they represented the extraordinary inequity of Old Regime France – these exquisitely refined objects were produced at the expense of the suffering poor, she thought.

I suppose that might be true, but I can’t help it – I find this porcelain irresistibly beautiful.

The vibrant bleu-celeste glaze, the playful rhythm of ribbons and garlands of flowers, those delicate renderings painted by hand with the tiniest of brushes. It is the beauty of such objects that compels me to learn more about them.

argumentative essay about art

When it was first made, Sèvres porcelain demonstrated the union of science and art. We are meant to marvel at the chemistry and artistry required to transform minerals, metal and clay into a sparkling profusion of decoration. This porcelain was the material embodiment of France as an advanced and flourishing nation.

You might well argue that the politics of 18th-century porcelain is bad. But our instinctual perception of beauty precedes the reasoned judgement of art.

The artists and makers at the Sèvres factory were responding to the human capacity to perceive beauty. These objects were designed to engage our aesthetic sensibilities.

Works of art don’t have to be beautiful, but we must acknowledge that aesthetic judgement plays a large part in the reception of art. Beauty might not be an objective quality in the work of art, nor is it a rational way for us to argue for the cultural importance of an object. It’s not something we can teach, and perhaps it’s not something you can learn.

But when it comes down to it, our ability to perceive beauty is often what makes a work of art compelling. It is a feeling that reveals a pure moment of humanity that we share with the maker, transcending time and place.

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How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

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When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

  • Don’t just list all the effects you can think of.
  • Do develop a focused argument about the overall effect and why it matters, backed up by evidence from sources.
  • Don’t just provide a selection of data on the measures’ effectiveness.
  • Do build up your own argument about which kinds of measures have been most or least effective, and why.
  • Don’t just analyze a random selection of doppelgänger characters.
  • Do form an argument about specific texts, comparing and contrasting how they express their thematic concerns through doppelgänger characters.

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An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

  • Make a claim
  • Provide the grounds (evidence) for the claim
  • Explain the warrant (how the grounds support the claim)
  • Discuss possible rebuttals to the claim, identifying the limits of the argument and showing that you have considered alternative perspectives

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

  • Claim that unconscious bias training does not have the desired results, and resources would be better spent on other approaches
  • Cite data to support your claim
  • Explain how the data indicates that the method is ineffective
  • Anticipate objections to your claim based on other data, indicating whether these objections are valid, and if not, why not.

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

  • Discuss what the opposing position gets right and why people might hold this position
  • Highlight the problems with this position
  • Present your own position , showing how it addresses these problems
  • Suggest a possible compromise —what elements of your position would proponents of the opposing position benefit from adopting?

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

  • Acknowledge that students rely too much on websites like Wikipedia
  • Argue that teachers view Wikipedia as more unreliable than it really is
  • Suggest that Wikipedia’s system of citations can actually teach students about referencing
  • Suggest critical engagement with Wikipedia as a possible assignment for teachers who are skeptical of its usefulness.

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

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An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
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  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
  • Sunk cost fallacy

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An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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Art History Analysis – Formal Analysis and Stylistic Analysis

Typically in an art history class the main essay students will need to write for a final paper or for an exam is a formal or stylistic analysis.

A formal analysis is just what it sounds like – you need to analyze the form of the artwork. This includes the individual design elements – composition, color, line, texture, scale, contrast, etc. Questions to consider in a formal analysis is how do all these elements come together to create this work of art? Think of formal analysis in relation to literature – authors give descriptions of characters or places through the written word. How does an artist convey this same information?

Organize your information and focus on each feature before moving onto the text – it is not ideal to discuss color and jump from line to then in the conclusion discuss color again. First summarize the overall appearance of the work of art – is this a painting? Does the artist use only dark colors? Why heavy brushstrokes? etc and then discuss details of the object – this specific animal is gray, the sky is missing a moon, etc. Again, it is best to be organized and focused in your writing – if you discuss the animals and then the individuals and go back to the animals you run the risk of making your writing unorganized and hard to read. It is also ideal to discuss the focal of the piece – what is in the center? What stands out the most in the piece or takes up most of the composition?

A stylistic approach can be described as an indicator of unique characteristics that analyzes and uses the formal elements (2-D: Line, color, value, shape and 3-D all of those and mass).The point of style is to see all the commonalities in a person’s works, such as the use of paint and brush strokes in Van Gogh’s work. Style can distinguish an artist’s work from others and within their own timeline, geographical regions, etc.

Methods & Theories To Consider:




Social Art History

Biographical Approach


Museum Studies

Visual Cultural Studies

Stylistic Analysis Example:

The following is a brief stylistic analysis of two Greek statues, an example of how style has changed because of the “essence of the age.” Over the years, sculptures of women started off as being plain and fully clothed with no distinct features, to the beautiful Venus/Aphrodite figures most people recognize today. In the mid-seventh century to the early fifth, life-sized standing marble statues of young women, often elaborately dress in gaily painted garments were created known as korai. The earliest korai is a Naxian women to Artemis. The statue wears a tight-fitted, belted peplos, giving the body a very plain look. The earliest korai wore the simpler Dorian peplos, which was a heavy woolen garment. From about 530, most wear a thinner, more elaborate, and brightly painted Ionic linen and himation. A largely contrasting Greek statue to the korai is the Venus de Milo. The Venus from head to toe is six feet seven inches tall. Her hips suggest that she has had several children. Though her body shows to be heavy, she still seems to almost be weightless. Viewing the Venus de Milo, she changes from side to side. From her right side she seems almost like a pillar and her leg bears most of the weight. She seems be firmly planted into the earth, and since she is looking at the left, her big features such as her waist define her. The Venus de Milo had a band around her right bicep. She had earrings that were brutally stolen, ripping her ears away. Venus was noted for loving necklaces, so it is very possibly she would have had one. It is also possible she had a tiara and bracelets. Venus was normally defined as “golden,” so her hair would have been painted. Two statues in the same region, have throughout history, changed in their style.

Compare and Contrast Essay

Most introductory art history classes will ask students to write a compare and contrast essay about two pieces – examples include comparing and contrasting a medieval to a renaissance painting. It is always best to start with smaller comparisons between the two works of art such as the medium of the piece. Then the comparison can include attention to detail so use of color, subject matter, or iconography. Do the same for contrasting the two pieces – start small. After the foundation is set move on to the analysis and what these comparisons or contrasting material mean – ‘what is the bigger picture here?’ Consider why one artist would wish to show the same subject matter in a different way, how, when, etc are all questions to ask in the compare and contrast essay. If during an exam it would be best to quickly outline the points to make before tackling writing the essay.

Compare and Contrast Example:

Stele of Hammurabi from Susa (modern Shush, Iran), ca. 1792 – 1750 BCE, Basalt, height of stele approx. 7’ height of relief 28’

Stele, relief sculpture, Art as propaganda – Hammurabi shows that his law code is approved by the gods, depiction of land in background, Hammurabi on the same place of importance as the god, etc.

Top of this stele shows the relief image of Hammurabi receiving the law code from Shamash, god of justice, Code of Babylonian social law, only two figures shown, different area and time period, etc.

Stele of Naram-sin , Sippar Found at Susa c. 2220 - 2184 bce. Limestone, height 6'6"

Stele, relief sculpture, Example of propaganda because the ruler (like the Stele of Hammurabi) shows his power through divine authority, Naramsin is the main character due to his large size, depiction of land in background, etc.

Akkadian art, made of limestone, the stele commemorates a victory of Naramsin, multiple figures are shown specifically soldiers, different area and time period, etc.


Regardless of what essay approach you take in class it is absolutely necessary to understand how to analyze the iconography of a work of art and to incorporate into your paper. Iconography is defined as subject matter, what the image means. For example, why do things such as a small dog in a painting in early Northern Renaissance paintings represent sexuality? Additionally, how can an individual perhaps identify these motifs that keep coming up?

The following is a list of symbols and their meaning in Marriage a la Mode by William Hogarth (1743) that is a series of six paintings that show the story of marriage in Hogarth’s eyes.

  • Man has pockets turned out symbolizing he has lost money and was recently in a fight by the state of his clothes.
  • Lap dog shows loyalty but sniffs at woman’s hat in the husband’s pocket showing sexual exploits.
  • Black dot on husband’s neck believed to be symbol of syphilis.
  • Mantel full of ugly Chinese porcelain statues symbolizing that the couple has no class.
  • Butler had to go pay bills, you can tell this by the distasteful look on his face and that his pockets are stuffed with bills and papers.
  • Card game just finished up, women has directions to game under foot, shows her easily cheating nature.
  • Paintings of saints line a wall of the background room, isolated from the living, shows the couple’s complete disregard to faith and religion.
  • The dangers of sexual excess are underscored in the Hograth by placing Cupid among ruins, foreshadowing the inevitable ruin of the marriage.
  • Eventually the series (other five paintings) shows that the woman has an affair, the men duel and die, the woman hangs herself and the father takes her ring off her finger symbolizing the one thing he could salvage from the marriage.

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Argumentative Essay Examples & Analysis

July 20, 2023

Writing successful argumentative or persuasive essays is a sort of academic rite of passage: every student, at some point in their academic career, will have to do it. And not without reason—writing a good argumentative essay requires the ability to organize one’s thoughts, reason logically, and present evidence in support of claims. They even require empathy, as authors are forced to inhabit and then respond to viewpoints that run counter to their own. Here, we’ll look at some argumentative essay examples and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

What is an argumentative essay?

Before we turn to those argumentative essay examples, let’s get precise about what an argumentative essay is. An argumentative essay is an essay that advances a central point, thesis, or claim using evidence and facts. In other words, argumentative essays are essays that argue on behalf of a particular viewpoint. The goal of an argumentative essay is to convince the reader that the essay’s core idea is correct.

Good argumentative essays rely on facts and evidence. Personal anecdotes, appeals to emotion , and opinions that aren’t grounded in evidence just won’t fly. Let’s say I wanted to write an essay arguing that cats are the best pets. It wouldn’t be enough to say that I love having a cat as a pet. That’s just my opinion. Nor would it be enough to cite my downstairs neighbor Claudia, who also has a cat and who also prefers cats to dogs. That’s just an anecdote.

For the essay to have a chance at succeeding, I’d have to use evidence to support my argument. Maybe there are studies that compare the cost of cat ownership to dog ownership and conclude that cat ownership is less expensive. Perhaps there’s medical data that shows that more people are allergic to dogs than they are to cats. And maybe there are surveys that show that cat owners are more satisfied with their pets than are dog owners. I have no idea if any of that is true. The point is that successful argumentative essays use evidence from credible sources to back up their points.

Argumentative essay structure

Important to note before we examine a few argumentative essay examples: most argumentative essays will follow a standard 5-paragraph format. This format entails an introductory paragraph that lays out the essay’s central claim. Next, there are three body paragraphs that each advance sub-claims and evidence to support the central claim. Lastly, there is a conclusion that summarizes the points made. That’s not to say that every good argumentative essay will adhere strictly to the 5-paragraph format. And there is plenty of room for flexibility and creativity within the 5-paragraph format. For example, a good argumentative essay that follows the 5-paragraph template will also generally include counterarguments and rebuttals.

Introduction Example

Now let’s move on to those argumentative essay examples, and examine in particular a couple of introductions. The first takes on a common argumentative essay topic —capital punishment.

The death penalty has long been a divisive issue in the United States. 24 states allow the death penalty, while the other 26 have either banned the death penalty outright or issued moratoriums halting the practice. Proponents of the death penalty argue that it’s an effective deterrent against crime. Time and time again, however, this argument has been shown to be false. Capital punishment does not deter crime. But not only that—the death penalty is irreversible, which allows our imperfect justice system no room for error. Finally, the application of the death penalty is racially biased—the population of death row is over 41% Black , despite Black Americans making up just 13% of the U.S. population. For all these reasons, the death penalty should be outlawed across the board in the United States.

Why this introduction works: First, it’s clear. It lays out the essay’s thesis: that the death penalty should be outlawed in the United States. It also names the sub-arguments the author is going to use to support the thesis: (1), capital punishment does not deter crime, (2), it’s irreversible, and (3), it’s a racially biased practice. In laying out these three points, the author is also laying out the structure of the essay to follow. Each of the body paragraphs will take on one of the three sub-arguments presented in the introduction.

Argumentative Essay Examples (Continued)

Something else I like about this introduction is that it acknowledges and then refutes a common counterargument—the idea that the death penalty is a crime deterrent. Notice also the flow of the first two sentences. The first flags the essay’s topic. But it also makes a claim—that the issue of capital punishment is politically divisive. The following sentence backs this claim up. Essentially half of the country allows the practice; the other half has banned it. This is a feature not just of solid introductions but of good argumentative essays in general—all the essay’s claims will be backed up with evidence.

How it could be improved: Okay, I know I just got through singing the praises of the first pair of sentences, but if I were really nitpicking, I might take issue with them. Why? The first sentence is a bit of a placeholder. It’s a platitude, a way for the author to get a foothold in the piece. The essay isn’t about how divisive the death penalty is; it’s about why it ought to be abolished. When it comes to writing an argumentative essay, I always like to err on the side of blunt. There’s nothing wrong with starting an argumentative essay with the main idea: Capital punishment is an immoral and ineffective form of punishment, and the practice should be abolished .

Let’s move on to another argumentative essay example. Here’s an introduction that deals with the effects of technology on the brain:

Much of the critical discussion around technology today revolves around social media. Critics argue that social media has cut us off from our fellow citizens, trapping us in “information silos” and contributing to political polarization. Social media also promotes unrealistic and unhealthy beauty standards, which can lead to anxiety and depression. What’s more, the social media apps themselves are designed to addict their users. These are all legitimate critiques of social media, and they ought to be taken seriously. But the problem of technology today goes deeper than social media. The internet itself is the problem. Whether it’s on our phones or our laptops, on a social media app, or doing a Google search, the internet promotes distracted thinking and superficial learning. The internet is, quite literally, rewiring our brains.

Why this introduction works: This introduction hooks the reader by tying a topical debate about social media to the essay’s main subject—the problem of the internet itself. The introduction makes it clear what the essay is going to be about; the sentence, “But the problem of technology…” signals to the reader that the main idea is coming. I like the clarity with which the main idea is stated, and, as in the previous introduction, the main idea sets up the essay to follow.

How it could be improved: I like how direct this introduction is, but it might be improved by being a little more specific. Without getting too technical, the introduction might tell the reader what it means to “promote distracted thinking and superficial learning.” It might also hint as to why these are good arguments. For example, are there neurological or psychological studies that back this claim up? A simple fix might be: Whether it’s on our phones or our laptops, on a social media app, or doing a Google search, countless studies have shown that the internet promotes distracted thinking and superficial learning . The body paragraphs would then elaborate on those points. And the last sentence, while catchy, is a bit vague.

Body Paragraph Example

Let’s stick with our essay on capital punishment and continue on to the first body paragraph.

Proponents of the death penalty have long claimed that the practice is an effective deterrent to crime. It might not be pretty, they say, but its deterrent effects prevent further crime. Therefore, its continued use is justified. The problem is that this is just not borne out in the data. There is simply no evidence that the death penalty deters crime more than other forms of punishment, like long prison sentences. States, where the death penalty is still carried out, do not have lower crime rates than states where the practice has been abolished. States that have abandoned the death penalty likewise show no increase in crime or murder rates.

Body Paragraph (Continued)

For example, the state of Louisiana, where the death penalty is legal, has a murder rate of 21.3 per 100,000 residents. In Iowa, where the death penalty was abolished in 1965, the murder rate is 3.2 per 100,000. In Kentucky the death penalty is legal and the murder rate is 9.6; in Michigan where it’s illegal, the murder rate is 8.7. The death penalty simply has no bearing on murder rates. If it did, we’d see markedly lower murder rates in states that maintain the practice. But that’s not the case. Capital punishment does not deter crime. Therefore, it should be abolished.

Why this paragraph works: This body paragraph is successful because it coheres with the main idea set out in the introduction. It supports the essay’s first sub-argument—that capital punishment does not deter crime—and in so doing, it supports the essay’s main idea—that capital punishment should be abolished. How does it do that? By appealing to the data. A nice feature of this paragraph is that it simultaneously debunks a common counterargument and advances the essay’s thesis. It also supplies a few direct examples (murder rates in states like Kentucky, Michigan, etc.) without getting too technical. Importantly, the last few sentences tie the data back to the main idea of the essay. It’s not enough to pepper your essay with statistics. A good argumentative essay will unpack the statistics, tell the reader why the statistics matter, and how they support or confirm the essay’s main idea.

How it could be improved: The author is missing one logical connection at the end of the paragraph. The author shows that capital punishment doesn’t deter crime, but then just jumps to their conclusion. They needed to establish a logical bridge to get from the sub-argument to the conclusion. That bridge might be: if the deterrent effect is being used as a justification to maintain the practice, but the deterrent effect doesn’t really exist, then , in the absence of some other justification, the death penalty should be abolished. The author almost got there, but just needed to make that one final logical connection.

Conclusion Example

Once we’ve supported each of our sub-arguments with a corresponding body paragraph, it’s time to move on to the conclusion.

It might be nice to think that executing murderers prevents future murders from happening, that our justice system is infallible and no one is ever wrongly put to death, and that the application of the death penalty is free of bias. But as we have seen, each of those thoughts are just comforting fictions. The death penalty does not prevent future crime—if it did, we’d see higher crime rates in states that’ve done away with capital punishment. The death penalty is an irreversible punishment meted out by an imperfect justice system—as a result, wrongful executions are unavoidable. And the death penalty disproportionately affects people of color. The death penalty is an unjustifiable practice—both practically and morally. Therefore, the United States should do away with the practice and join the more than 85 world nations that have already done so.

Why this conclusion works: It concisely summarizes the points made throughout the essay. But notice that it’s not identical to the introduction. The conclusion makes it clear that our understanding of the issue has changed with the essay. It not only revisits the sub-arguments, it expounds upon them. And to put a bow on everything, it restates the thesis—this time, though, with a little more emotional oomph.

How it could be improved: I’d love to see a little more specificity with regard to the sub-arguments. Instead of just rehashing the second sub-argument—that wrongful executions are unavoidable—the author could’ve included a quick statistic to give the argument more weight. For example: The death penalty is an irreversible punishment meted out by an imperfect justice system—as a result, wrongful executions are unavoidable. Since 1973, at least 190 people have been put to death who were later found to be innocent.

An argumentative essay is a powerful way to convey one’s ideas. As an academic exercise, mastering the art of the argumentative essay requires students to hone their skills of critical thinking, rhetoric, and logical reasoning. The best argumentative essays communicate their ideas clearly and back up their claims with evidence.

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A Better Argument for Art Education

argumentative essay about art

These days, it sometimes feels art education is under attack. The culture of high-stakes testing has increased over the last decade. In this climate, art educators need to justify our programs more than ever before. How can we help people understand why art education is important?

We’ve all seen the  data suggesting students who take art classes have higher SAT scores. It is an argument used often to defend our place on the educational landscape. “Kids who take art classes receive higher standardized test scores.” “Art students have higher GPAs than students who do not take any art classes.” These are common arguments for the importance of art classes.

The thing is, these arguments miss the point. The arts are valuable. They should be an important element in any well-rounded education. The importance of art education does not lie in its ability to raise test scores.

Here is why we need to change our argument for the importance of art education.


There is only a  correlation  between test scores and art classes.

A correlation means there is a connection between two things. But it doesn’t mean we know  why  that connection is there.

If you remember statistics class, you know there is a big difference between  correlation  and  causation . Just because there is a connection (correlation) between art classes and test scores, it does not mean the arts are the cause of the increased scores (causation).

Students who take art classes may already be high achievers. Or perhaps students with lower GPAs are not taking art classes because their schedule is filled with remedial academic classes. There just isn’t data to support the idea that arts classes actually cause higher test scores or GPAs.

By arguing the arts increase scores on standardized tests, we are missing the point.

If art education’s only importance were to increase scores in other subjects, then why not just cut art entirely? Then schools could increase math or science instruction time.

Did that give you chills? Yeah, me too. Because when we frame our argument only around test scores, it opens the door to this bleak option.

Art education has many unique qualities. Students develop skills in art that help them find success in many other areas of life. These skills help students well after the tests and schooling are done. The argument that our classes help students achieve higher test scores distracts from the true value of art education.


So, what should we be saying instead?

Instead of explaining art’s value to other disciplines, we should be focusing on the unique qualities of art class. There are many examples of valuable skills taught in art.

Art develops unique “habits of mind.”

Harvard’s Project Zero  developed the Studio Habits of Mind nearly a decade ago. These habits develop naturally when engaging in art-making.

These habits of mind provide art educators with a strong framework outlining the unique skills developed in art class. These habits include the ability to:

  • Develop Craft
  • Engage & Persist
  • Stretch & Explore
  • Understand Art Worlds

These habits transfer to many other areas of school and life. They are also highly valued by employers.

Art builds students’ capacity for critical thinking, self-directed learning, and problem-solving.

Critical thinking and problem-solving are alive and well in the art room. The process of analyzing and creating art challenges students to develop these skills. Art students are given open-ended problems to solve. This encourages them to think critically to solve problems in their own unique way.

These skills transfer to many other areas of life. And they cannot be assessed on a standardized test.

Art helps students understand cultures beyond their own.

We live in an increasingly global world. It is important for our students to leave school with a broad understanding of the world and its cultures. Art classes expose students to art from all over the world. This exposure helps them understand our shared humanity. The study of art history also helps highlight the issues of the past and the present.

Art develops communication skills.

When art students analyze an artwork, they use art vocabulary to express their ideas. Discussions about art build students’ capacities to listen to and learn from one another. When a student creates an artwork, they make careful choices to communicate their ideas. And when reflecting about art-making through artist statements, students are further developing these skills.

Art activities consistently rank highest on Bloom’s Taxonomy.

I often attend professional development meetings with colleagues from other disciplines. In these meetings, I hear leaders encourage teachers to hit the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy in their lesson plans.

In art class, we are always engaging our students in these highest levels of thinking. Art students are analyzing, evaluating, and creating every day. High order thinking is naturally present in art classes.

As art educators, it is important to articulate why our class is important. We all know the value of art for our students. We need to communicate this value to our stakeholders.

We do not need to justify art in relation to other disciplines; art class has its own qualities, and we need to share why those qualities are so valuable.

How do you communicate the value of art education to your community?

What other arguments for art education did we miss?

Magazine articles and podcasts are opinions of professional education contributors and do not necessarily represent the position of the Art of Education University (AOEU) or its academic offerings. Contributors use terms in the way they are most often talked about in the scope of their educational experiences.

argumentative essay about art

Anne-Marie Slinkman

Anne-Marie Slinkman, an elementary school art educator, is a former AOEU Writer. She is passionate about providing relevant and meaningful art experiences for all students.

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Argumentative Essays

How To Write an Argumentative Essay?

Table of Contents

Introduction, what is an argumentative essay, structure of an argumentative essay.


Types of Argumentative Structures

The toulmin argument, toulmin argument elements.

Warrant: The warrant is the underlying reasoning that connects the grounds to the claim. It explains why the provided evidence is relevant and how it logically supports the main assertion. The warrant is the bridge that helps the reader understand the connection between the evidence and the claim.

Toulmin Argument Essay Outline

The rogerian argument, key characteristics of the rogerian argument, a rogerian argumentative essay outline, the classical or aristotelian argument, elements of classical or aristotelian argument, an aristotelian argumentative essay outline:, the five-paragraph essay, long essays, tips and steps for writing an argumentative essay, 1. pre-writing.

Guns can defend against…Guns may be misused…
Television offers education…Excessive screen time…

2. Drafting

3. revising, editing, and final draft, 4. final draft:, 5. general tips.


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How to Write an A+ Argumentative Essay



You'll no doubt have to write a number of argumentative essays in both high school and college, but what, exactly, is an argumentative essay and how do you write the best one possible? Let's take a look.

A great argumentative essay always combines the same basic elements: approaching an argument from a rational perspective, researching sources, supporting your claims using facts rather than opinion, and articulating your reasoning into the most cogent and reasoned points. Argumentative essays are great building blocks for all sorts of research and rhetoric, so your teachers will expect you to master the technique before long.

But if this sounds daunting, never fear! We'll show how an argumentative essay differs from other kinds of papers, how to research and write them, how to pick an argumentative essay topic, and where to find example essays. So let's get started.

What Is an Argumentative Essay? How Is it Different from Other Kinds of Essays?

There are two basic requirements for any and all essays: to state a claim (a thesis statement) and to support that claim with evidence.

Though every essay is founded on these two ideas, there are several different types of essays, differentiated by the style of the writing, how the writer presents the thesis, and the types of evidence used to support the thesis statement.

Essays can be roughly divided into four different types:

#1: Argumentative #2: Persuasive #3: Expository #4: Analytical

So let's look at each type and what the differences are between them before we focus the rest of our time to argumentative essays.

Argumentative Essay

Argumentative essays are what this article is all about, so let's talk about them first.

An argumentative essay attempts to convince a reader to agree with a particular argument (the writer's thesis statement). The writer takes a firm stand one way or another on a topic and then uses hard evidence to support that stance.

An argumentative essay seeks to prove to the reader that one argument —the writer's argument— is the factually and logically correct one. This means that an argumentative essay must use only evidence-based support to back up a claim , rather than emotional or philosophical reasoning (which is often allowed in other types of essays). Thus, an argumentative essay has a burden of substantiated proof and sources , whereas some other types of essays (namely persuasive essays) do not.

You can write an argumentative essay on any topic, so long as there's room for argument. Generally, you can use the same topics for both a persuasive essay or an argumentative one, so long as you support the argumentative essay with hard evidence.

Example topics of an argumentative essay:

  • "Should farmers be allowed to shoot wolves if those wolves injure or kill farm animals?"
  • "Should the drinking age be lowered in the United States?"
  • "Are alternatives to democracy effective and/or feasible to implement?"

The next three types of essays are not argumentative essays, but you may have written them in school. We're going to cover them so you know what not to do for your argumentative essay.

Persuasive Essay

Persuasive essays are similar to argumentative essays, so it can be easy to get them confused. But knowing what makes an argumentative essay different than a persuasive essay can often mean the difference between an excellent grade and an average one.

Persuasive essays seek to persuade a reader to agree with the point of view of the writer, whether that point of view is based on factual evidence or not. The writer has much more flexibility in the evidence they can use, with the ability to use moral, cultural, or opinion-based reasoning as well as factual reasoning to persuade the reader to agree the writer's side of a given issue.

Instead of being forced to use "pure" reason as one would in an argumentative essay, the writer of a persuasive essay can manipulate or appeal to the reader's emotions. So long as the writer attempts to steer the readers into agreeing with the thesis statement, the writer doesn't necessarily need hard evidence in favor of the argument.

Often, you can use the same topics for both a persuasive essay or an argumentative one—the difference is all in the approach and the evidence you present.

Example topics of a persuasive essay:

  • "Should children be responsible for their parents' debts?"
  • "Should cheating on a test be automatic grounds for expulsion?"
  • "How much should sports leagues be held accountable for player injuries and the long-term consequences of those injuries?"

Expository Essay

An expository essay is typically a short essay in which the writer explains an idea, issue, or theme , or discusses the history of a person, place, or idea.

This is typically a fact-forward essay with little argument or opinion one way or the other.

Example topics of an expository essay:

  • "The History of the Philadelphia Liberty Bell"
  • "The Reasons I Always Wanted to be a Doctor"
  • "The Meaning Behind the Colloquialism ‘People in Glass Houses Shouldn't Throw Stones'"

Analytical Essay

An analytical essay seeks to delve into the deeper meaning of a text or work of art, or unpack a complicated idea . These kinds of essays closely interpret a source and look into its meaning by analyzing it at both a macro and micro level.

This type of analysis can be augmented by historical context or other expert or widely-regarded opinions on the subject, but is mainly supported directly through the original source (the piece or art or text being analyzed) .

Example topics of an analytical essay:

  • "Victory Gin in Place of Water: The Symbolism Behind Gin as the Only Potable Substance in George Orwell's 1984"
  • "Amarna Period Art: The Meaning Behind the Shift from Rigid to Fluid Poses"
  • "Adultery During WWII, as Told Through a Series of Letters to and from Soldiers"


There are many different types of essay and, over time, you'll be able to master them all.

A Typical Argumentative Essay Assignment

The average argumentative essay is between three to five pages, and will require at least three or four separate sources with which to back your claims . As for the essay topic , you'll most often be asked to write an argumentative essay in an English class on a "general" topic of your choice, ranging the gamut from science, to history, to literature.

But while the topics of an argumentative essay can span several different fields, the structure of an argumentative essay is always the same: you must support a claim—a claim that can reasonably have multiple sides—using multiple sources and using a standard essay format (which we'll talk about later on).

This is why many argumentative essay topics begin with the word "should," as in:

  • "Should all students be required to learn chemistry in high school?"
  • "Should children be required to learn a second language?"
  • "Should schools or governments be allowed to ban books?"

These topics all have at least two sides of the argument: Yes or no. And you must support the side you choose with evidence as to why your side is the correct one.

But there are also plenty of other ways to frame an argumentative essay as well:

  • "Does using social media do more to benefit or harm people?"
  • "Does the legal status of artwork or its creators—graffiti and vandalism, pirated media, a creator who's in jail—have an impact on the art itself?"
  • "Is or should anyone ever be ‘above the law?'"

Though these are worded differently than the first three, you're still essentially forced to pick between two sides of an issue: yes or no, for or against, benefit or detriment. Though your argument might not fall entirely into one side of the divide or another—for instance, you could claim that social media has positively impacted some aspects of modern life while being a detriment to others—your essay should still support one side of the argument above all. Your final stance would be that overall , social media is beneficial or overall , social media is harmful.

If your argument is one that is mostly text-based or backed by a single source (e.g., "How does Salinger show that Holden Caulfield is an unreliable narrator?" or "Does Gatsby personify the American Dream?"), then it's an analytical essay, rather than an argumentative essay. An argumentative essay will always be focused on more general topics so that you can use multiple sources to back up your claims.

Good Argumentative Essay Topics

So you know the basic idea behind an argumentative essay, but what topic should you write about?

Again, almost always, you'll be asked to write an argumentative essay on a free topic of your choice, or you'll be asked to select between a few given topics . If you're given complete free reign of topics, then it'll be up to you to find an essay topic that no only appeals to you, but that you can turn into an A+ argumentative essay.

What makes a "good" argumentative essay topic depends on both the subject matter and your personal interest —it can be hard to give your best effort on something that bores you to tears! But it can also be near impossible to write an argumentative essay on a topic that has no room for debate.

As we said earlier, a good argumentative essay topic will be one that has the potential to reasonably go in at least two directions—for or against, yes or no, and why . For example, it's pretty hard to write an argumentative essay on whether or not people should be allowed to murder one another—not a whole lot of debate there for most people!—but writing an essay for or against the death penalty has a lot more wiggle room for evidence and argument.

A good topic is also one that can be substantiated through hard evidence and relevant sources . So be sure to pick a topic that other people have studied (or at least studied elements of) so that you can use their data in your argument. For example, if you're arguing that it should be mandatory for all middle school children to play a sport, you might have to apply smaller scientific data points to the larger picture you're trying to justify. There are probably several studies you could cite on the benefits of physical activity and the positive effect structure and teamwork has on young minds, but there's probably no study you could use where a group of scientists put all middle-schoolers in one jurisdiction into a mandatory sports program (since that's probably never happened). So long as your evidence is relevant to your point and you can extrapolate from it to form a larger whole, you can use it as a part of your resource material.

And if you need ideas on where to get started, or just want to see sample argumentative essay topics, then check out these links for hundreds of potential argumentative essay topics.

101 Persuasive (or Argumentative) Essay and Speech Topics

301 Prompts for Argumentative Writing

Top 50 Ideas for Argumentative/Persuasive Essay Writing

[Note: some of these say "persuasive essay topics," but just remember that the same topic can often be used for both a persuasive essay and an argumentative essay; the difference is in your writing style and the evidence you use to support your claims.]


KO! Find that one argumentative essay topic you can absolutely conquer.

Argumentative Essay Format

Argumentative Essays are composed of four main elements:

  • A position (your argument)
  • Your reasons
  • Supporting evidence for those reasons (from reliable sources)
  • Counterargument(s) (possible opposing arguments and reasons why those arguments are incorrect)

If you're familiar with essay writing in general, then you're also probably familiar with the five paragraph essay structure . This structure is a simple tool to show how one outlines an essay and breaks it down into its component parts, although it can be expanded into as many paragraphs as you want beyond the core five.

The standard argumentative essay is often 3-5 pages, which will usually mean a lot more than five paragraphs, but your overall structure will look the same as a much shorter essay.

An argumentative essay at its simplest structure will look like:

Paragraph 1: Intro

  • Set up the story/problem/issue
  • Thesis/claim

Paragraph 2: Support

  • Reason #1 claim is correct
  • Supporting evidence with sources

Paragraph 3: Support

  • Reason #2 claim is correct

Paragraph 4: Counterargument

  • Explanation of argument for the other side
  • Refutation of opposing argument with supporting evidence

Paragraph 5: Conclusion

  • Re-state claim
  • Sum up reasons and support of claim from the essay to prove claim is correct

Now let's unpack each of these paragraph types to see how they work (with examples!), what goes into them, and why.

Paragraph 1—Set Up and Claim

Your first task is to introduce the reader to the topic at hand so they'll be prepared for your claim. Give a little background information, set the scene, and give the reader some stakes so that they care about the issue you're going to discuss.

Next, you absolutely must have a position on an argument and make that position clear to the readers. It's not an argumentative essay unless you're arguing for a specific claim, and this claim will be your thesis statement.

Your thesis CANNOT be a mere statement of fact (e.g., "Washington DC is the capital of the United States"). Your thesis must instead be an opinion which can be backed up with evidence and has the potential to be argued against (e.g., "New York should be the capital of the United States").

Paragraphs 2 and 3—Your Evidence

These are your body paragraphs in which you give the reasons why your argument is the best one and back up this reasoning with concrete evidence .

The argument supporting the thesis of an argumentative essay should be one that can be supported by facts and evidence, rather than personal opinion or cultural or religious mores.

For example, if you're arguing that New York should be the new capital of the US, you would have to back up that fact by discussing the factual contrasts between New York and DC in terms of location, population, revenue, and laws. You would then have to talk about the precedents for what makes for a good capital city and why New York fits the bill more than DC does.

Your argument can't simply be that a lot of people think New York is the best city ever and that you agree.

In addition to using concrete evidence, you always want to keep the tone of your essay passionate, but impersonal . Even though you're writing your argument from a single opinion, don't use first person language—"I think," "I feel," "I believe,"—to present your claims. Doing so is repetitive, since by writing the essay you're already telling the audience what you feel, and using first person language weakens your writing voice.

For example,

"I think that Washington DC is no longer suited to be the capital city of the United States."

"Washington DC is no longer suited to be the capital city of the United States."

The second statement sounds far stronger and more analytical.

Paragraph 4—Argument for the Other Side and Refutation

Even without a counter argument, you can make a pretty persuasive claim, but a counterargument will round out your essay into one that is much more persuasive and substantial.

By anticipating an argument against your claim and taking the initiative to counter it, you're allowing yourself to get ahead of the game. This way, you show that you've given great thought to all sides of the issue before choosing your position, and you demonstrate in multiple ways how yours is the more reasoned and supported side.

Paragraph 5—Conclusion

This paragraph is where you re-state your argument and summarize why it's the best claim.

Briefly touch on your supporting evidence and voila! A finished argumentative essay.


Your essay should have just as awesome a skeleton as this plesiosaur does. (In other words: a ridiculously awesome skeleton)

Argumentative Essay Example: 5-Paragraph Style

It always helps to have an example to learn from. I've written a full 5-paragraph argumentative essay here. Look at how I state my thesis in paragraph 1, give supporting evidence in paragraphs 2 and 3, address a counterargument in paragraph 4, and conclude in paragraph 5.

Topic: Is it possible to maintain conflicting loyalties?

Paragraph 1

It is almost impossible to go through life without encountering a situation where your loyalties to different people or causes come into conflict with each other. Maybe you have a loving relationship with your sister, but she disagrees with your decision to join the army, or you find yourself torn between your cultural beliefs and your scientific ones. These conflicting loyalties can often be maintained for a time, but as examples from both history and psychological theory illustrate, sooner or later, people have to make a choice between competing loyalties, as no one can maintain a conflicting loyalty or belief system forever.

The first two sentences set the scene and give some hypothetical examples and stakes for the reader to care about.

The third sentence finishes off the intro with the thesis statement, making very clear how the author stands on the issue ("people have to make a choice between competing loyalties, as no one can maintain a conflicting loyalty or belief system forever." )

Paragraphs 2 and 3

Psychological theory states that human beings are not equipped to maintain conflicting loyalties indefinitely and that attempting to do so leads to a state called "cognitive dissonance." Cognitive dissonance theory is the psychological idea that people undergo tremendous mental stress or anxiety when holding contradictory beliefs, values, or loyalties (Festinger, 1957). Even if human beings initially hold a conflicting loyalty, they will do their best to find a mental equilibrium by making a choice between those loyalties—stay stalwart to a belief system or change their beliefs. One of the earliest formal examples of cognitive dissonance theory comes from Leon Festinger's When Prophesy Fails . Members of an apocalyptic cult are told that the end of the world will occur on a specific date and that they alone will be spared the Earth's destruction. When that day comes and goes with no apocalypse, the cult members face a cognitive dissonance between what they see and what they've been led to believe (Festinger, 1956). Some choose to believe that the cult's beliefs are still correct, but that the Earth was simply spared from destruction by mercy, while others choose to believe that they were lied to and that the cult was fraudulent all along. Both beliefs cannot be correct at the same time, and so the cult members are forced to make their choice.

But even when conflicting loyalties can lead to potentially physical, rather than just mental, consequences, people will always make a choice to fall on one side or other of a dividing line. Take, for instance, Nicolaus Copernicus, a man born and raised in Catholic Poland (and educated in Catholic Italy). Though the Catholic church dictated specific scientific teachings, Copernicus' loyalty to his own observations and scientific evidence won out over his loyalty to his country's government and belief system. When he published his heliocentric model of the solar system--in opposition to the geocentric model that had been widely accepted for hundreds of years (Hannam, 2011)-- Copernicus was making a choice between his loyalties. In an attempt t o maintain his fealty both to the established system and to what he believed, h e sat on his findings for a number of years (Fantoli, 1994). But, ultimately, Copernicus made the choice to side with his beliefs and observations above all and published his work for the world to see (even though, in doing so, he risked both his reputation and personal freedoms).

These two paragraphs provide the reasons why the author supports the main argument and uses substantiated sources to back those reasons.

The paragraph on cognitive dissonance theory gives both broad supporting evidence and more narrow, detailed supporting evidence to show why the thesis statement is correct not just anecdotally but also scientifically and psychologically. First, we see why people in general have a difficult time accepting conflicting loyalties and desires and then how this applies to individuals through the example of the cult members from the Dr. Festinger's research.

The next paragraph continues to use more detailed examples from history to provide further evidence of why the thesis that people cannot indefinitely maintain conflicting loyalties is true.

Paragraph 4

Some will claim that it is possible to maintain conflicting beliefs or loyalties permanently, but this is often more a matter of people deluding themselves and still making a choice for one side or the other, rather than truly maintaining loyalty to both sides equally. For example, Lancelot du Lac typifies a person who claims to maintain a balanced loyalty between to two parties, but his attempt to do so fails (as all attempts to permanently maintain conflicting loyalties must). Lancelot tells himself and others that he is equally devoted to both King Arthur and his court and to being Queen Guinevere's knight (Malory, 2008). But he can neither be in two places at once to protect both the king and queen, nor can he help but let his romantic feelings for the queen to interfere with his duties to the king and the kingdom. Ultimately, he and Queen Guinevere give into their feelings for one another and Lancelot—though he denies it—chooses his loyalty to her over his loyalty to Arthur. This decision plunges the kingdom into a civil war, ages Lancelot prematurely, and ultimately leads to Camelot's ruin (Raabe, 1987). Though Lancelot claimed to have been loyal to both the king and the queen, this loyalty was ultimately in conflict, and he could not maintain it.

Here we have the acknowledgement of a potential counter-argument and the evidence as to why it isn't true.

The argument is that some people (or literary characters) have asserted that they give equal weight to their conflicting loyalties. The refutation is that, though some may claim to be able to maintain conflicting loyalties, they're either lying to others or deceiving themselves. The paragraph shows why this is true by providing an example of this in action.

Paragraph 5

Whether it be through literature or history, time and time again, people demonstrate the challenges of trying to manage conflicting loyalties and the inevitable consequences of doing so. Though belief systems are malleable and will often change over time, it is not possible to maintain two mutually exclusive loyalties or beliefs at once. In the end, people always make a choice, and loyalty for one party or one side of an issue will always trump loyalty to the other.

The concluding paragraph summarizes the essay, touches on the evidence presented, and re-states the thesis statement.

How to Write an Argumentative Essay: 8 Steps

Writing the best argumentative essay is all about the preparation, so let's talk steps:

#1: Preliminary Research

If you have the option to pick your own argumentative essay topic (which you most likely will), then choose one or two topics you find the most intriguing or that you have a vested interest in and do some preliminary research on both sides of the debate.

Do an open internet search just to see what the general chatter is on the topic and what the research trends are.

Did your preliminary reading influence you to pick a side or change your side? Without diving into all the scholarly articles at length, do you believe there's enough evidence to support your claim? Have there been scientific studies? Experiments? Does a noted scholar in the field agree with you? If not, you may need to pick another topic or side of the argument to support.

#2: Pick Your Side and Form Your Thesis

Now's the time to pick the side of the argument you feel you can support the best and summarize your main point into your thesis statement.

Your thesis will be the basis of your entire essay, so make sure you know which side you're on, that you've stated it clearly, and that you stick by your argument throughout the entire essay .

#3: Heavy-Duty Research Time

You've taken a gander at what the internet at large has to say on your argument, but now's the time to actually read those sources and take notes.

Check scholarly journals online at Google Scholar , the Directory of Open Access Journals , or JStor . You can also search individual university or school libraries and websites to see what kinds of academic articles you can access for free. Keep track of your important quotes and page numbers and put them somewhere that's easy to find later.

And don't forget to check your school or local libraries as well!

#4: Outline

Follow the five-paragraph outline structure from the previous section.

Fill in your topic, your reasons, and your supporting evidence into each of the categories.

Before you begin to flesh out the essay, take a look at what you've got. Is your thesis statement in the first paragraph? Is it clear? Is your argument logical? Does your supporting evidence support your reasoning?

By outlining your essay, you streamline your process and take care of any logic gaps before you dive headfirst into the writing. This will save you a lot of grief later on if you need to change your sources or your structure, so don't get too trigger-happy and skip this step.

Now that you've laid out exactly what you'll need for your essay and where, it's time to fill in all the gaps by writing it out.

Take it one step at a time and expand your ideas into complete sentences and substantiated claims. It may feel daunting to turn an outline into a complete draft, but just remember that you've already laid out all the groundwork; now you're just filling in the gaps.

If you have the time before deadline, give yourself a day or two (or even just an hour!) away from your essay . Looking it over with fresh eyes will allow you to see errors, both minor and major, that you likely would have missed had you tried to edit when it was still raw.

Take a first pass over the entire essay and try your best to ignore any minor spelling or grammar mistakes—you're just looking at the big picture right now. Does it make sense as a whole? Did the essay succeed in making an argument and backing that argument up logically? (Do you feel persuaded?)

If not, go back and make notes so that you can fix it for your final draft.

Once you've made your revisions to the overall structure, mark all your small errors and grammar problems so you can fix them in the next draft.

#7: Final Draft

Use the notes you made on the rough draft and go in and hack and smooth away until you're satisfied with the final result.

A checklist for your final draft:

  • Formatting is correct according to your teacher's standards
  • No errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation
  • Essay is the right length and size for the assignment
  • The argument is present, consistent, and concise
  • Each reason is supported by relevant evidence
  • The essay makes sense overall

#8: Celebrate!

Once you've brought that final draft to a perfect polish and turned in your assignment, you're done! Go you!


Be prepared and ♪ you'll never go hungry again ♪, *cough*, or struggle with your argumentative essay-writing again. (Walt Disney Studios)

Good Examples of Argumentative Essays Online

Theory is all well and good, but examples are key. Just to get you started on what a fully-fleshed out argumentative essay looks like, let's see some examples in action.

Check out these two argumentative essay examples on the use of landmines and freons (and note the excellent use of concrete sources to back up their arguments!).

The Use of Landmines

A Shattered Sky

The Take-Aways: Keys to Writing an Argumentative Essay

At first, writing an argumentative essay may seem like a monstrous hurdle to overcome, but with the proper preparation and understanding, you'll be able to knock yours out of the park.

Remember the differences between a persuasive essay and an argumentative one, make sure your thesis is clear, and double-check that your supporting evidence is both relevant to your point and well-sourced . Pick your topic, do your research, make your outline, and fill in the gaps. Before you know it, you'll have yourself an A+ argumentative essay there, my friend.

What's Next?

Now you know the ins and outs of an argumentative essay, but how comfortable are you writing in other styles? Learn more about the four writing styles and when it makes sense to use each .

Understand how to make an argument, but still having trouble organizing your thoughts? Check out our guide to three popular essay formats and choose which one is right for you.

Ready to make your case, but not sure what to write about? We've created a list of 50 potential argumentative essay topics to spark your imagination.

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Courtney scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT in high school and went on to graduate from Stanford University with a degree in Cultural and Social Anthropology. She is passionate about bringing education and the tools to succeed to students from all backgrounds and walks of life, as she believes open education is one of the great societal equalizers. She has years of tutoring experience and writes creative works in her free time.

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Lindsay Ann Learning English Teacher Blog

The Art of Argumentation: How to Write a Convincing Argumentative Essay

argumentative essay about art

April 18, 2023 //  by  Lindsay Ann //   1 Comment

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Arguably, everything we ask students to do in the classroom–even beyond argumentative essay and persuasive writing– touches on argumentation in some way.   

  • Compose a speech.  Sure, I propose we  legalize ____.   
  • Write a literary analysis.  Absolutely, I argue the theme of the story is ____ .  
  • Have a discussion.  Okay, I contend my answer to this question is right because ____.   
  • Craft a poem that touches your readers.  All right– or as the students would write–alright , I’m using this figurative language to create a mood of ____.   

Indeed, inherent in all–nay, to be safe and more solid in my argument, let me adjust–inherent in most tasks in English and Language Arts is argumentation .  

As such, it pays great dividends for students to be skilled in the art of argumentation and writing argumentative essays . This process often begins with finding the right argumentative essay topics.


Argumentative Essay Topics

With argumentative essay topics top-of-mind here, let’s start by finding inspiration for argument. 

I would contend–here I go making an argument–that one can find topics for argument anywhere (and yes, I meant to use the absolute anywhere there to make a point). 

This, then, provides opportunity for students to find real-world argumentative essay topics and for us to meet students where they are at: on social media. Indeed, since students are sucking up screen time, we can use it as a tool for learning (instead of a tool to cyberbully others while negatively impacting their self-esteem and sleep cycles) and get argumentative essay ideas .

Here’s an idea: students could open their social media app of choice and scroll through the news of the day.  

  • What’s happening in their community, in their country, on their planet?  
  • What debates and discussions are people having right now?  

They might find, at the local level , discussion over what to do with the old, abandoned mall–should it be plowed over and made into a car wash or a mattress store, for example? 

Or they might find, at the international level , debate over how best to address nuclear weapons–should we join this arms agreement or should we sanction this country for its nuclear desires, for instance? 

Students can consider these argumentative essay topics that pop up in their feed and be challenged to become an active participant in these conversations rather than a passive consumer mindlessly scrolling past important subjects to find the next TikTok trend.  

Or, conversely, one could have students USE something like TikTok trends to find argumentative essay topics.

What’s a trend on TikTok (or any other platform)?  Students could take a trend–say trending videos related to “glow-ups”–and weigh in on the trend, arguing a number of angles. 

  • For example, to what degree is this trend unhealthy or helpful for teenagers? 
  • To what extent is this trend driven by users versus advertisers and corporations? 
  • When will this trend fade away?

Here’s another idea to generate argumentative essay topics–have students choose a tweet, a truth, a blog post, really anything someone’s posted or shared online with an audience publicly. Students can then write an argumentative essay as a response to this person’s post.  

For instance, students could pick the latest post by polarizing figures like Elon Musk or Donald Trump. Students can begin by considering the rhetorical situation of the posts: 

  • What are the writers arguing in their posts?  
  • What purposes are they working to achieve?  
  • To whom are they targeting their message?  

With this understanding, students can anticipate what they could add to the conversation in an argumentative essay (where they might, for example, disagree with Elon Musk’s latest tweet on artificial intelligence). 

Then, with a topic selected, students can begin considering an argumentative essay’s structure and an argumentative essay’s outline .

Thesis Statements for Persuasive Writing


Once a student has chosen a topic, the next consideration for an argumentative essay is its argumentative essay thesis and the writer’s approach to the subject and the discourse surrounding it. In other words, what does the writer want to argue?  

Sometimes it’s helpful to guide students to absolutes and extremes (the pro-con, the true-false, the right-wrong) and then have them consider alternative, more nuanced perspectives in between. Students can view subjects on a spectrum, like a number line in math, that encompasses a variety of viewpoints.  

Certainly, for instance, someone could argue no one at any time should possess or use a gun or that, on the other hand, everyone should proudly brandish a machine gun everywhere they go–but for most, their position falls somewhere in between.  Instead of a yes or no , it’s a yes, but . . . or a no, but . . . .  Instead of an always or never , it’s a most often or rarely . 

Here, then, might be some example thesis statements :

  • The best way to combat climate change is to invest in solar energy.
  • Most people should transition to electric vehicles, even though they cost more than traditional vehicles, because they are better for the environment.

Students must then decide where they can make the strongest argument, which is often where they have the most relevant, sufficient, and accurate evidence.

Argumentative Essay Structure and Outline

With an argumentative essay thesis and evidence in mind, students can begin to shape their line of reasoning and their argumentative essay’s structure and outline .  

  • Where should they begin?  
  • Where should they end?  
  • In what order should things develop in between?  

One could pose this to students like giving directions on a map, leading someone from point A to point B.  

  • How will the readers get from here to there?  
  • What direction can writers give to make sure readers know they are moving in the right direction?  (One could point out here, for instance, that argumentative essay transition words like therefore and however serve as signposts and markers for readers, bridging ideas together.)  

Students can begin to lay out their reasoning in a way that makes sense for them and for the readers. 

For example, does the writer want to argue why America needs gun reform before or after contending the solution to the problem? In this case, it would make more sense for the writer to build the need for the argument by arguing why it’s a problem before contending how to fix it.

Once students have the order of their points in mind, they can begin to add evidence to their argumentative essay outline . 

For many students, they will view outlining their ideas as a 1-to-1 ratio of reason to evidence: one reason in one paragraph equals one quote, paraphrase, or summary . While this 1:1 approach might be effective in some cases, it’s important for students to understand that arguments are situational ; there are no universal rules for argument such as: “every argument needs to be five paragraphs” or “a direct quote is all you need.”

A reliable rule of argument to follow is that every argument is different , so when students make argumentative essay outlines, they need to be reflective, critical thinkers , asking themselves questions like: how much and what evidence is enough for each reason to prove and support their claims and thesis.  

A teacher could explain this to students using a courtroom analogy : if someone’s accused of a crime, how much evidence and what kind of evidence is needed to prove the person’s guilt?  

  • If it’s a young child who stole a piece of candy, for example, finding candy in his/her/their pocket after a parent issues a clear “no candy for you” edict is probably sufficient enough to draw the conclusion that the child’s guilty.  
  • But what if someone is accused of a more serious crime?  Is a fingerprint enough?  An eyewitness’s testimony?  A full confession?  
  • What collection and combination of evidence would prove without a reasonable doubt the person’s guilt?  

Students can treat their claims/thesis/evidence for an argumentative essay like courtroom attorneys, roleplaying a skeptical audience in need of persuasion.

Or they don’t need to pretend!  If it’s the goal of our students to write a convincing argumentative essay , the argumentative essay topics , argumentative essay format , argumentative essay ideas , etc. don’t matter if they don’t share their writing with an audience.  

Arguments don’t exist in a vacuum.  

They exist in relationships between writers and readers –so your students, as writers, need readers. They need readers to react, to question, to disagree, to agree, to (perhaps above all else) be real.  


As such, it’s important for writers to share their writing with others.  

One way to share student argument writing, for example, would be during peer reviews in the classroom where a writer could elect to share their favorite sentence, favorite paragraph, or favorite page of a piece of writing. 

With these favorite selections, students could consider the purpose of their writing and how they are appealing to their audience. 

For rhetorical appeals – logos, ethos, and pathos – students need to consider closely how they can touch the heads and hearts of their readers.  

Indeed, oftentimes an effective argumentative essay is one in which the writer appeals to the readers’ emotions (pathos) through things like anecdotes and figurative language, appeals to the readers’ sense of logic (logos) through things like analogies and statistics, and appeals to the relationship between reader and writer (ethos) through things like addressing a counterargument and establishing common ground.  

Finding the most effective combination of appeals can help create an effective argumentative essay .

Evaluating an Effective Argumentative Essay

Perhaps now, at this point in the writing process, is an opportunity to give readers a chance to either use or design an argumentative essay rubric that measures the effectiveness of different parts of an argumentative essay like its rhetorical appeals and rhetorical techniques or thesis .  

For instance, a teacher could give students four blank columns , labeled with “Yes, consistently” all the way to “No, not really” and ask them to fill in the blank boxes with descriptions, qualifiers, and notes that help differentiate different levels of quality for an aspect of an argumentative essay.     

So, with thesis , for example, students might write under the “Yes, consistently” column that an effective thesis takes a clear position that the writer’s audience is likely to disagree with or question.  

For “No, not really,” students might write the thesis shares a fact or summary (like social media can be an issue for teens today ) rather than an arguable assertion.  

With this student-created argumentative essay rubric , then, students can reflect on their own argumentative essay and share feedback on the writing of others through this framework. 

In doing so, students can improve their argumentative essay’s effectiveness.  

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About Lindsay Ann

Lindsay has been teaching high school English in the burbs of Chicago for 19 years. She is passionate about helping English teachers find balance in their lives and teaching practice through practical feedback strategies and student-led learning strategies. She also geeks out about literary analysis, inquiry-based learning, and classroom technology integration. When Lindsay is not teaching, she enjoys playing with her two kids, running, and getting lost in a good book.

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Arguments for Graffiti as Art Essay

  • To find inspiration for your paper and overcome writer’s block
  • As a source of information (ensure proper referencing)
  • As a template for you assignment


Definition of art, quality as a prerequisite, functions of art.

The modern world has born witness to the emergence of a new form of creative expression known as graffiti. It is usually represented by writings or drawings on walls, which are in many cities prohibited. There is a debate on whether this type of artistry is art or vandalism. Given the comprehensive nature of art and the time and care necessary to produce a piece of graffiti, it should be considered a form of art.

Before determining the appropriateness of calling graffiti art, it is essential to understand what is meant by art. It is an extremely wide term that encompasses a large array of human activities. In its most general definition, almost anything created by a person can be considered art. However, children’s drawings are not displayed in a museum, although they also can be an example. The same principle of distinguishing creations by the fact of their existence applies to graffiti.

Graffiti is a form of art because it requires creativity and artistic expression. Any form of drawing or aesthetic writing cannot be accomplished without skill and talent. Graffiti are complex creations, consisting of numerous details and stylistic choices. An individual without the knowledge of the basics of drawing and the ability to use a paint stick is not capable of producing an adequate graphical piece. As a result, the limitations in people’s capacity in graffiti production exemplifies it as art.

It should also be noted that not all art in history was immediately recognized as such. Some of the creations, which are socially accepted and positively regarded today, were also previously condemned. As arts writers point out, “statues and other works of art flaunting penises and the naked body were considered perverse and sacrilegious” ( Graffiti: Is Graffiti Art ). Therefore, the current lack of tolerance toward graffiti does not mean that perception will not change over time.

Many people do not acknowledge this type of drawing as a form of art. The reason for graffiti’s ambivalent status lies in the lack of official quality criteria. Whereas it is possible to analyze a painting relying on a set of artistic standards, there are no established and agreed guidelines for evaluating graffiti. Nevertheless, the absence of formal recognition does not devalue the efforts that are necessary to embellish walls with aerosol paint.

It might even be possible that the lack of rules for making graffiti is precisely what distinguishes it as art. “Graffiti is one of the purest forms of art, supporters say, because it can exist without support or syndication from the mainstream art establishment” ( Graffiti: Is Graffiti Art ). In essence, nothing constrains an artist from delivering the work they envision. The freedom of expression further solidifies graffiti’s position as art.

Just like any human creation, pieces of graffiti differ based on quality. Writing and drawing on walls have evolved into a subculture. Its representatives have their own conception of techniques and standards for creating a work of graffiti ( Graffiti: Is Graffiti Art ). Moreover, the illegal nature of these drawings has forced creators to work faster, incorporating stencils. “As a result, graffiti has grown more complex and specialized, including stickers and other media besides spray paint” ( Graffiti: Is Graffiti Art ). Overall, the qualitative features of graffiti have added to its artistic value.

Most pieces of art convey a creator’s message or artistic idea. Graffiti is not an exception since it emerged as a means to voice social displeasure. As supporters of attributing graffiti to art claim, it “provides a tool for communicating with the larger population” ( Graffiti: Is Graffiti Art ). Similar to many other forms of visual art, like caricatures, cinema, or paintings, writing on walls can draw attention to social issues, propagate an idea and, in any other way, execute the communicative function of art.

Another purpose of art is setting the tone and accentuating an artist’s feelings. In a similar manner to typical visual art, graffiti can also brighten the mood. Colorful drawings and writings on walls can make urban surroundings less grim and more joyful. Graffiti can impact a person emotionally and psychologically, appeal to their sense of beauty, and entertain them, thus functioning as any other work of art.

Probably the most evident feature of art is that it does not have to be enjoyed by everyone. There are pieces, which are appraised as manifestations of genius and dismissed as shallow objects at the same time. Graffiti also form a wide range of reactions, from those who consider it to be evidence of criminalization and vandalism to those who sincerely uphold it as the modern iteration of street art.

Altogether, graffiti can, by all means, be considered a form of art. It requires skill and lets artists express their ideas and sentiment. Some graffiti can be characterized as possessing exceptional quality rivaling socially accepted works of art. The opinion and legal status can change over time, with the current condemnation of graffiti being a contemporary phenomenon. Ultimately, it executes all functions typical of art and should subsequently be recognized as such.

“Graffiti: Is Graffiti Art.” Infobase . 2011. Web.

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IvyPanda. (2022, February 25). Arguments for Graffiti as Art.

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Essay Papers Writing Online

Why argumentative essay writing is crucial for developing critical thinking and persuasive skills.

Argumentative essay writing

In today’s fast-paced and interconnected world, the ability to articulate one’s thoughts and opinions effectively has become an indispensable skill. Writing persuasive essays is an art that requires precision, creativity, and a deep understanding of the subject matter at hand. Whether you are a student aiming to excel in academics or a professional seeking to persuade others in the workplace, mastering the art of crafting persuasive essays can open doors to endless opportunities.

A persuasive essay is not simply an expression of personal beliefs; it is a carefully constructed argument that aims to convince the reader of a particular point of view. As such, it requires a strategic approach that involves thorough research, critical analysis, and logical reasoning. While some may view persuasive writing as an arduous task, it is, in fact, a fulfilling endeavor that allows individuals to harness the power of language and shape the perceptions of others.

Throughout this comprehensive guide, we will explore the various components that contribute to the art of persuasive essay writing. From developing a strong thesis statement to incorporating persuasive techniques, this manual will equip you with the necessary tools and knowledge to effectively convey your ideas and sway even the most skeptical of minds. So, prepare to embark on a journey of exploration and self-discovery as we delve into the intricacies of the craft of crafting persuasive essays.

Understanding the Basics of Argumentative Writing

Mastering the fundamentals of persuasive composition is an essential step in becoming a proficient writer. Argumentative writing is a skill that enables writers to present persuasive arguments, backed by evidence and reasoning, to convince readers of a particular viewpoint. By understanding the basics of argumentative writing, writers can effectively communicate their opinions and persuade their audiences to adopt their side of the argument.

In argumentative writing, the writer aims to present a clear and concise thesis statement that outlines their main contention. The thesis statement serves as the backbone of the essay, guiding the writer’s logical reasoning and supporting evidence. Furthermore, the writer must develop well-structured paragraphs, each with a specific topic sentence that supports the overall thesis statement.

Elements of Argumentative Writing:
1. Thesis Statement
2. Logical Reasoning
3. Supporting Evidence
4. Counterarguments
5. Rebuttal

In addition to presenting strong evidence, argumentative writing requires writers to acknowledge and address counterarguments. By acknowledging opposing viewpoints, writers can weaken the opposition’s arguments and strengthen their own. A well-developed argumentative essay should also include a rebuttal, where the writer refutes counterarguments and reinforces their thesis statement.

Argumetative writing is not only about presenting a strong argument but also about using persuasive language and rhetoric to engage the reader. Writers should strive to appeal to the reader’s emotions and logic through careful word choice and sentence structure. By effectively utilizing persuasive techniques, writers can enhance the overall impact of their argument and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

Overall, understanding the basics of argumentative writing is crucial for anyone aiming to craft compelling essays. With a solid understanding of thesis statements, logical reasoning, supporting evidence, counterarguments, and persuasive techniques, writers can effectively convey their ideas and persuade readers to adopt their viewpoint. By honing these skills, writers can become powerful advocates for their opinions and make a meaningful impact through their writing.

Research: The Key to Building a Strong Argument

Research: The Key to Building a Strong Argument

Conducting thorough research is vital when it comes to constructing a strong and persuasive argument. In order to effectively convince your audience and present a persuasive case, you must gather relevant information and evidence to support your claims and counter any opposing viewpoints.

Research provides you with the necessary tools and resources to develop a well-informed argument. By exploring various sources such as academic journals, books, reputable websites, and expert opinions, you can gather valuable information that will strengthen your position and make your argument more persuasive.

One important aspect of research is the ability to critically analyze and evaluate the credibility of sources. It is essential to ensure that the information you include in your argument is from reliable and trustworthy sources. This helps establish your credibility as a writer and enhances the credibility of your argument as a whole.

Additionally, research allows you to anticipate and address potential counterarguments. By uncovering and understanding different viewpoints and perspectives related to your topic, you can preemptively address any opposing arguments and provide rebuttals. This not only strengthens your own argument but also demonstrates your knowledge and understanding of the topic.

Incorporating research into your argumentative essay also helps you develop a logical and well-structured presentation of your ideas. By organizing your researched information in a coherent manner, you can effectively guide your readers through your argument and present your evidence in a logical and convincing way.

In conclusion, research plays a significant role in building a strong argument. By conducting thorough research, analyzing and evaluating sources, addressing counterarguments, and organizing your information effectively, you can develop a persuasive and compelling argument that captures your readers’ attention and convinces them of your viewpoint.

Crafting a Persuasive Thesis Statement

The foundation of a strong argumentative essay lies in a well-crafted thesis statement. This vital component serves as the guiding force behind the entire essay, setting the tone and direction for the writer’s persuasive argument. A persuasive thesis statement effectively communicates the writer’s stance on a particular topic while also providing a clear roadmap for the reader to follow throughout the essay.

To craft a persuasive thesis statement, it is essential to choose a topic that sparks controversy or disagreement among readers. This ensures that the thesis statement will inspire strong emotions and opinions, making it easier for the writer to present their argument and persuade the reader to agree with their viewpoint.

When formulating a persuasive thesis statement, it is essential to clearly state the writer’s position on the topic. This can be accomplished through a direct statement or by posing a thought-provoking question that invites the reader to consider the writer’s perspective. By being explicit in their stance, the writer establishes credibility and demonstrates their confidence in their argument.

In addition to taking a clear position, a persuasive thesis statement should also provide a compelling reason or rationale for the writer’s viewpoint. This can involve presenting relevant evidence, citing trusted sources, or appealing to moral or emotional values. By incorporating a persuasive element into the thesis statement, the writer sets the stage for the rest of the essay to build upon and support this position.

Furthermore, a persuasive thesis statement should be concise and focused. It should convey the main idea of the essay in a succinct manner, avoiding ambiguity or excessive complexity. By keeping the thesis statement clear and to the point, the writer ensures that the reader understands the overall objective of the essay and can easily follow the writer’s line of reasoning.

To conclude, crafting a persuasive thesis statement is a critical step in the process of writing an argumentative essay. It lays the groundwork for a strong and compelling argument, guiding the writer’s thought process and providing a clear direction for the reader. By choosing a controversial topic, taking a clear position, providing solid rationale, and maintaining conciseness, the writer can create a persuasive thesis statement that sets the stage for a successful essay.

The Structure and Organization of an Argumentative Essay

The Structure and Organization of an Argumentative Essay

When it comes to composing a persuasive piece of writing, having a clear and well-structured essay is of utmost importance. The structure and organization of an argumentative essay play a vital role in effectively presenting your ideas and persuading your audience to agree with your viewpoint. By following a logical structure and organizing your arguments coherently, you can strengthen the impact of your essay and make it more compelling.

There are several key components that contribute to the structure and organization of an argumentative essay. First and foremost, your essay should have a strong introduction that grabs the reader’s attention and clearly states your thesis statement. The thesis statement is the central argument or claim that you will be supporting throughout your essay.

After the introduction, the body paragraphs of your essay should be devoted to presenting and supporting your arguments. Each body paragraph should focus on a single point or aspect of your argument and provide evidence, examples, or reasoning to back it up. It is essential to present your arguments in a logical and organized manner, using transitional phrases or words to ensure smooth flow between paragraphs.

Additionally, it is crucial to acknowledge and address counterarguments or opposing viewpoints in your essay. By acknowledging opposing viewpoints, you demonstrate a thorough understanding of the topic and establish your credibility as a writer. Refuting counterarguments and providing evidence to support your own argument will strengthen your essay’s persuasiveness.

In the conclusion of your argumentative essay, you should summarize your main points and restate your thesis statement in a way that leaves a lasting impression on your reader. A strong conclusion should not introduce any new information but should instead reinforce the importance and validity of your argument.

Overall, the structure and organization of an argumentative essay are essential elements that contribute to the effectiveness of your writing. By carefully planning and structuring your essay, presenting and supporting your arguments coherently, and addressing counterarguments, you can create a compelling and persuasive piece of writing that effectively communicates your viewpoint.

Effective Strategies for Presenting Evidence and Counterarguments

Mastering the art of persuasive writing involves being able to effectively present evidence and counterarguments. As a skilled writer, you must not only provide strong evidence to support your claims but also anticipate and address potential counterarguments. This section will explore some effective strategies for presenting evidence and counterarguments in order to build a compelling case for your argument.

One strategy for presenting evidence is through the use of credible sources. By referencing reputable research studies, expert opinions, and statistical data, you can add credibility and validity to your argument. Be sure to properly cite your sources and include a variety of different types of evidence to strengthen your points.

In addition to using credible sources, it is important to clearly explain how the evidence supports your argument. Provide a logical and coherent analysis of the evidence, outlining the key findings and explaining why they are relevant to your thesis. By demonstrating a deep understanding of the evidence, you can make a convincing case for your argument.

Another effective strategy is to anticipate and address potential counterarguments. By acknowledging opposing viewpoints and addressing them head-on, you can strengthen your own argument and demonstrate your ability to think critically. Use logical reasoning and evidence to refute counterarguments, demonstrating why they are flawed or invalid.

When presenting counterarguments, it is important to do so respectfully and objectively. Avoid using inflammatory language or attacking the person making the counterargument. Instead, focus on the weaknesses in their logic or evidence and present a strong counterpoint backed up by evidence and reasoning.

In conclusion, presenting evidence and counterarguments effectively is essential for writing a persuasive argumentative essay. By using credible sources, explaining how the evidence supports your argument, anticipating and addressing counterarguments, and maintaining a respectful and objective tone, you can build a strong case for your point of view.

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Computer Science > Artificial Intelligence

Title: vision language models are blind.

Abstract: Large language models with vision capabilities (VLMs), e.g., GPT-4o and Gemini 1.5 Pro are powering countless image-text applications and scoring high on many vision-understanding benchmarks. We propose BlindTest, a suite of 7 visual tasks absurdly easy to humans such as identifying (a) whether two circles overlap; (b) whether two lines intersect; (c) which letter is being circled in a word; and (d) counting the number of circles in a Olympic-like logo. Surprisingly, four state-of-the-art VLMs are, on average, only 56.20% accurate on our benchmark, with \newsonnet being the best (73.77% accuracy). On BlindTest, VLMs struggle with tasks that requires precise spatial information and counting (from 0 to 10), sometimes providing an impression of a person with myopia seeing fine details as blurry and making educated guesses. Code is available at: this https URL
Subjects: Artificial Intelligence (cs.AI); Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)
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arXivLabs: experimental projects with community collaborators

arXivLabs is a framework that allows collaborators to develop and share new arXiv features directly on our website.

Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. arXiv is committed to these values and only works with partners that adhere to them.

Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs .


Judge Dismisses Classified Documents Case Against Trump

Judge Aileen Cannon ruled that the entire case should be thrown out because the appointment of the special counsel who brought the case, Jack Smith, had violated the Constitution. Mr. Smith’s office said he would appeal.

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Alan Feuer

By Alan Feuer

Alan Feuer covers the federal cases against former President Donald J. Trump.

  • July 15, 2024 Updated 6:18 p.m. ET

The federal judge overseeing former President Donald J. Trump’s classified documents case threw out all of the charges against him on Monday, ruling that Jack Smith, the special counsel who filed the indictment, had been given his job in violation of the Constitution.

In a stunning decision delivered on the first day of the Republican National Convention, the judge, Aileen M. Cannon, found that Mr. Smith’s appointment as special counsel was improper because it was not based on a specific federal statute and because he had not been named to the post by the president or confirmed by the Senate.

She also found that Mr. Smith had been improperly funded by the Treasury Department.

The ruling by Judge Cannon, who was put on the bench by Mr. Trump in his final year in office, flew in the face of previous court decisions reaching back to the Watergate era that upheld the legality of the ways in which independent prosecutors have been put into their posts.

It handed Mr. Trump a major legal victory two days after he was wounded in a shooting at a campaign rally and at the very onset of the political pageant where he is set to formally become his party’s presidential nominee.

The classified documents case, which is being heard in Federal District Court in Fort Pierce, Fla., once appeared to be the most straightforward of the four criminal prosecutions that Mr. Trump has faced. He was charged last year with illegally holding on to classified national security materials after leaving office and then obstructing government efforts to retrieve them along with two co-defendants, Walt Nauta and Carlos DeOliveira.

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Opinion Democratic Sen. Peter Welch: Biden should withdraw for the good of the country

We need him to put us first, as he has done before.

Peter Welch, a Democrat, represents Vermont in the U.S. Senate.

I have great respect for President Biden. He saved our country from a tyrant. He is a man of uncommon decency . He cares deeply about our democracy. He has been one of the best presidents of our time.

But I, like folks across the country, am worried about November’s election. The stakes could not be higher. We cannot unsee President Biden’s disastrous debate performance. We cannot ignore or dismiss the valid questions raised since that night.

I understand why President Biden wants to run . He saved us from Donald Trump once and wants to do it again. But he needs to reassess whether he is the best candidate to do so. In my view, he is not.

For the good of the country, I’m calling on President Biden to withdraw from the race.

Trump is a felon. He is a pathological liar. He is a menace. And he is sure to be emboldened by his activist Supreme Court, which granted him near-total immunity .

When Trump was president, he consistently put his own interests ahead of the nation’s — culminating with his attempt to overturn the 2020 election and disrupt the peaceful transfer of power. He has called the Jan. 6 insurrectionists “patriots.”

MAGA Republicans, meanwhile, have clearly stated their plans for a second Trump term, laying out an extremist agenda with their Project 2025 .

But the national conversation is focused on President Biden’s age and capacity. Only he can change it.

I deliver this assessment with sadness. Vermont loves Joe Biden . President Biden and Vice President Harris received a larger vote percentage here than in any other state. But regular Vermonters are worried that he can’t win this time, and they’re terrified of another Trump presidency. These are real concerns of regular voters who I’ve heard from recently — like a mom who counts on the child tax credit and seniors who rely on Medicare.

The latest data makes it clear that the political peril to Democrats is escalating. States that were once strongholds are now leaning Republican. These new shifts — in Minnesota, New Hampshire, Nevada, Arizona and Georgia — must be taken seriously, not denied or ignored.

The good news is that President Biden has united the party and created a deep bench that can defeat Trump. Vice President Harris is a capable, proven leader, and we have other electable, young, energizing Democratic governors and senators in swing states. Not only do these leaders have experience running and winning in tough political environments, they also have fundraising networks, media experience, charisma, and the ability to inspire voters across generations and across our big tent.

We have asked President Biden to do so much for so many for so long. It has required unmatched selflessness and courage. We need him to put us first, as he has done before. I urge him to do it now.

About guest opinion submissions

The Washington Post accepts opinion articles on any topic. We welcome submissions on local, national and international issues. We publish work that varies in length and format, including multimedia. Submit a guest opinion or read our guide to writing an opinion article .

Post Opinions also thrives on lively dialogue. If you have thoughts about this article, or about anything The Post publishes, please submit a letter to the editor .

argumentative essay about art

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NeurIPS Creative AI Track: Ambiguity

Fencing Hallucination (2023), by Weihao Qiu

Following last year’s incredible success, we are thrilled to announce the NeurIPS 2024 Creative AI track. We invite research papers and artworks that showcase innovative approaches of artificial intelligence and machine learning in art, design, and creativity. 

Focused on the theme of Ambiguity, this year’s track seeks to highlight the multifaceted and complex challenges brought forth by application of AI to both promote and challenge human creativity. We welcome submissions that: question the use of private and public data; consider new forms of authorship and ownership; challenge notions of ‘real’ and ‘non-real’, as well as human and machine agency; and provide a path forward for redefining and nurturing human creativity in this new age of generative computing. 

We particularly encourage works that cross traditional disciplinary boundaries to propose new forms of creativity and human experience. Submissions must present original work that has not been published or is not currently being reviewed elsewhere.

Important Dates:

  • August 2: Submission Deadline
  • September 26: Decision 
  • October 30: Final Camera-Ready Submission 

Call for Papers and Artworks

Papers (posters).

We invite submissions for research papers that propose original ideas or novel uses of AI and ML for creativity. The topics of research papers are not restricted to the theme of ambiguity. Please note that this track will not be part of the NeurIPS conference proceedings. If you wish to publish in the NeurIPS proceedings please submit your paper directly to the main track.

To submit: We invite authors to submit their papers. We expect papers to be 2-6 pages without including references . The formatting instructions and templates will become available soon. The submission portal will open sometime in July.

We invite the submission of creative work that showcases innovative use of AI and ML. We highly encourage the authors to focus on the theme of Ambiguity.  We invite submissions in all areas of creativity including visual art, music, performing art, film, design, architecture, and more in the format of video recording .  

NeurIPS is a prestigious AI/ML conference that tens of thousands researchers from academia and industry attend every year. Selected works at the Creative AI track will be presented on large display screens at the conference and the authors will have the opportunity to interact with the NeurIPS research community to germinate more collaborative ideas.

To submit:  We invite authors to submit their original work. An artwork submission requires the following:

  • Description of the work and the roles of AI and ML 
  • Description on how the theme of Ambiguity is addressed
  • Biography of all authors including relevant prior works 
  • Thumbnail image of the work (<100MB)
  • 3-min video preview of the work (<100MB) 

Single-blind review policy

The names of the authors should be included in the submission. 

Conference policy

If a work is accepted at least one author must purchase a  Conference & Tutorials  registration and attend in person . For pricing visit the pricing page . For registration  information visit the registration page . The location of the conference is Vancouver and the authors are responsible for their travel arrangements and expenses. The conference does not provide travel funding. 

For updates, please check  regularly. To stay up-to-date with all future announcements, please join our  mailing list . You can also follow the  @ML4CDWorkshop  twitter. For other inquiries, please contact  [email protected]  and/or  [email protected] .

  • Jean Oh / roBot Intelligence Group / Carnegie Mellon University
  • Marcelo Coelho / Design Intelligence Lab / MIT
  • Yingtao Tian / Google DeepMind
  • Lia Coleman / Carnegie Mellon University
  • Peter Schaldenbrand / roBot Intelligence Group / Carnegie Mellon University

NeurIPS Creative AI Track | Substack The official mailing list for the NeurIPS Creative AI Track.

Machine Learning for Creativity and Design (@ML4CDworkshop) on X The official Twitter for the NeurIPS Workshop on Machine Learning for Creativity and Design 

NeurIPS uses cookies to remember that you are logged in. By using our websites, you agree to the placement of cookies.


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