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C1 Advanced Essay Task: Reducing Your Carbon Footprint

How To Reduce The Carbon Footprint? | World Culture Network

This is a writing task for C1 students preparing for the Cambridge Advanced exam. Download the handout below:

Your class has recently taken part in a debate on ways individual citizens can reduce their carbon footprints in order to combat climate change. Below are three of the methods discussed and some quotes from people who took part in the debate.

  • Changing our diets
  • Changing travel habits
  • Changing our shopping habits

“Going vegetarian or vegan would be so hard for me, I couldn’t live without meat or cheese!”

“Airplanes and cars pollute so much, I cycle to work and try not to fly too often.”

“Fast fashion is terrible for the planet, people buy cheap clothes and sometimes don’t even wear them!”

Write an essay discussing two of the methods in your notes. You should explain which method you think is most realistic for most people and give reasons to support your argument.  You may, if you wish, make use of the opinions expressed in the debate but you should use your own words as far as possible. Write your essay in 220-260 words in an appropriate style.

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Free English Lessons

A talk about climate change – listening lesson (c1-c2).

essay climate change c1

Climate change is one of the hottest topics around nowadays. Listen to a woman giving a talk in a conference call to colleagues, concerning what their company plans to do to tackle the issues. You will review the grammar of complex sentences, learn vocabulary related to climate change and colloquial expressions, and focus on the pronunciation of the schwa. This free lesson from Oxford Online English is for advanced learners.

Listen to the dialogue at normal speed here:

or listen to a slower version here:


I’ve called this talk “There Is No Planet B” because it’s a bit of a catchphrase 1 at the moment – Greta Thunberg used it at a recent climate conference, as you know. It’s also the title of a book by Mike Berners-Lee, from the University of Lancaster – and if his name rings a bell, it’s because his brother Tim founded the world wide web. Well, his book outlines some of the biggest climate changes the world currently faces and what we could do about them. I truly recommend it!

Now, I know there are always voices of doubt – I’ve had a few naysayers 2 already saying “don’t make us feel guilty for destroying the planet” and “remember the Ice Age – global warming isn’t just a manmade thing”. Well … so what if it isn’t? Whatever you think causes greenhouse gases, using up the earth’s finite resources is 100% human. The planet doesn’t drill for its own oil. The fossil fuel industry might say “we all depend on oil – everything you buy relies on something having been delivered by a petrol-driven vehicle at some point; fossil fuels are the backbone of our comfortable lifestyles!” … well … they won’t be when they’re all gone. There is no oilfield B!

So, our company wants to make more than just a token effort – we don’t want to be accused of greenwashing, claiming to be eco-friendly while actually continuing as we always have. To do that, every one of us needs to be on board, including the doubters – because saving the planet means saving money too! If you fill your car with petrol, there’s only a certain number of journeys you can make before you have to fill her up again! The longer you can avoid using the car, the more time before you have to pay for more petrol. The same should go for water, gas and electricity: the trouble is you turn on the tap and there’s always water; you turn the knob and the gas comes out; the lights always come on at the flick of a switch. You get your bill every quarter and think “hmm, that’s gone up a bit!”, but what if those utilities were actually just like that tank of petrol? You’d soon think twice about using water if it came from a tank in the garden and you had to pay for someone to fill it up every time – particularly if when you phoned them they said “nah, sorry mate, it’s all gone”.

Our company pledge is for every member of staff to do one thing less in your working life, one thing less in your home life and even one thing less in your social life. In work life, you might print less, or do it double-sided; in your own time, cover yourself in soap in the shower before you turn the water on; when you’re with friends, put all your phones in the middle of the table and pledge not to look at them until you leave – you’re using the phone less, so you won’t have to charge the battery so soon, and you’ll use less of the electricity in the tank.

Now, I’ve created a pledge page on the intranet 3 site – if you’d like to go there now, you’ll see it on the right-hand side. I’m gonna stop talking for a moment or two and ask you to go there now and enter some pledges …

Some of the language that you might not know in this recording is explored in the exercises below, which are designed to guide you through understanding the speaker. These notes concern other words not included in the exercises. We recommend that you try the exercises first and come back to refer to these notes if you need to.

1. catchphrase = a phrase or slogan that a lot of people have started saying, or that one person (e.g. a quiz show host) always says in a certain context 2. naysayer = a person who tends to give negative opinions, particularly when these opinions are in opposition to more common views 3. intranet = a company’s internal network of websites, only available to those with password-controlled access, or using certain computers

The speaker also mentions Greta Thunberg and Mike Berners-Lee . Click the links to read more about them.

A Talk About Climate Change – exercise 1 Comprehension: identifying the speaker’s opinion

A lot of what the speaker says in this talk is her own opinion, but there are also some examples of ideas expressed by other people, which she quotes and then comments on. Can you tell which is which?

Read five quotes of things that the speaker says and listen for them in the full recording (above). Decide if they are her own opinion or if she is quoting someone else. If it’s the latter, decide why she is mentioning it.

Quiz Summary

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1 . Question

1. “There is No Planet B.”

  • This is her own original idea, and she has invented the phrase herself.
  • Although this represents her opinion, other people have used this phrase before her.
  • These are other people’s words, which do not fit with her own view.

2 . Question

2. “Global warming isn’t just a manmade thing.”

  • This is her own opinion, and she wishes to convince listeners to agree.
  • This is an opinion expressed by others, which she dismisses as less important than her own idea.
  • This is someone else’s view, but she says she doesn't understand it.

3 . Question

3. “Fossil fuels are the backbone of our comfortable lifestyles!”

  • This is her own claim. She is defending the use of fossil fuels.
  • This is a view opposed to her own, which has been claimed by a specific person.
  • She is suggesting a common viewpoint, which she then argues with.

4 . Question

4. “Saving the planet means saving money too.”

  • This is the view of the speaker, which she justifies with a specific example.
  • She is quoting a view that a lot of people say, so as to mock it.
  • She’s acknowledging a valid point by other people, but showing how it’s flawed.

5 . Question

5. “Cover yourself in soap in the shower before you turn the water on.”

  • This is the speaker’s own idea and she’s suggesting that her listeners do it.
  • This is an idea that the speaker has read and she’s reporting what happened when she tried it.
  • She’s quoting an idea by somebody else, which she thinks is a waste of time.

A Talk About Climate Change – exercise 2 Vocabulary: climate change words

There are a number of words in the talk related to climate change, the environment and man’s use of the earth’s resources.

Read a definition of five terms used by the speaker, and listen for them in the recording. Write the words exactly as the speaker says them.

0 of 1 Questions completed

0 of 1 Questions answered correctly

The words appear in the same order as the questions. Click ‘Hint’ for a rough time reference for each one.

1. = chemical substances like carbon dioxide and methane that are produced by human activity and remain in the earth’s atmosphere, preventing heat from escaping (like what happens in a greenhouse) (two words – compound noun, used in plural form)

2. = an underground area, found below land or sea, in which a liquid fossil fuel is found (one word – noun)

3. = giving the impression of doing things that are environmentally friendly, while carrying on with activities that are not (one word – verb in gerund form, used as a noun)

4. = the things that are provided by a company or the government to be used in the home, e.g. water, gas and electricity (one word – noun, used in plural form)

5. = promise publicly to do something, often for the benefit of a good cause (one word – noun, used in singular and plural form in the recording + verb, used in the imperative form; you should write the imperative verb or singular noun, which are both the same spelling)

If you listen to the recording at normal speed, you will hear the answer somewhere within the following sections:   1. 0.45-1.00 2. 1.15-1.25 3. 1.25-1.35 4. 2.00-2.25 5. used several times between 2.35 and the end

A Talk About Climate Change – exercise 3 Vocabulary: colloquial expressions

The speaker uses a number of informal and figurative expressions. This is very common in ordinary conversation but less common in very formal speeches. Since this is a less formal speech in a modern tech-age, her register is formal at times and more informal at others.

Listen to five utterances from the recording and fill in the gaps with the exact words that you hear.

Use contractions when the speaker does. Click ‘Hint’ to see a clue about what each missing phrase means.


1. “It’s also the title of a book by Mike Berners Lee, from the University of Lancaster – and if his name , it’s because his brother Tim founded the world wide web.”


2. “Our company wants to make more than just .”


3. “To do that, every one of us needs to , including the doubters.”


4. “If you fill your car with petrol, there’s only a certain number of journeys you can make before you have to again.”


5. “… particularly if when you phoned them they said ‘nah, sorry mate, ‘.”

1 = sounds familiar 2 = enough to satisfy requirements but no more 3 = participate and support a venture 4 = put petrol in your car until the tank’s full – the colloquial version uses a female pronoun 5 = there’s no more available

A Talk About Climate Change – exercise 4 Grammar: conjunctions in complex sentences

The grammar we use in speaking tends to be less complex than in writing. There are more short and simple sentences. However, complex sentences should still be used to link ideas. If you can do this when speaking, you’ll get higher grammar scores, as well as improving what some exams call ‘coherence’ and others call ‘discourse management’ – both mean helping the listener to follow how your ideas are connected.

Look at some complex sentences from the recording and write one conjunction from the box in each gap. There are three that you don’t need to use.

Listen to the recording (above) to check your answers before you click ‘Finish Quiz’.

1. “I’ve called this talk ‘There Is No Planet B’ it’s a bit of a catchphrase at the moment.”

2 & 3. “We don’t want to be accused of greenwashing, claiming to be eco-friendly actually continuing we always have.”

4. “You’d soon think twice about using water it came from a tank in the garden and you had to pay for someone to fill it up every time.”

5. You’re using the phone less, you won’t have to charge the battery so soon.

A Talk About Climate Change – exercise 5 Pronunciation: the schwa

Do you use the schwa when you speak? Native speakers do it a lot, even though most probably don’t know what it is! It’s the name of the vowel sound /ə/ – the vowel in the word ‘the’ when it comes before a consonant. It also occurs on the unstressed syllables of words like c o mput e r and a bout, as well as in the unstressed weak forms of common words like t o , f or and a t. In fact, it’s been calculated that more than 60% of unstressed syllables in English are pronounced with the schwa. It’s by far the most common sound in English!

Listen to five utterances by the speaker and decide how many times she uses the schwa.


1. This utterance contains five syllables. How many times does the speaker pronounce the schwa?

  • three times

The schwa does not occur on stressed syllables. Since at least one syllable in an utterance must be stressed, it can’t be in all five syllables here! If you’re uncertain, think: stressed syllables don’t contain the schwa – so count the stresses instead of the schwas!


2. Which of these words includes the schwa?

You need to choose three answers.


3. Which words contain the schwa?

  • ‘you’, ‘the’ and ‘and’
  • ‘turn’, ‘always’ and ‘water’
  • ‘on’, ‘tap’ and ‘there’s'


4. This time, write the missing words, all of which include a schwa.

“ same should go water, gas electricity.”


5. There are 20 words and 23 syllables in this utterance.

On average, you can expect nearly half of the words in any utterance to be stressed since they convey meaning, while just over half of the words would typically be function words that should be unstressed.

Remember that about 60% of unstressed syllables in a typical sentence contain the schwa. Here, then, this would mean six or seven of the 23 syllables would have the schwa.

How many times does the schwa appear in the clip?

  • six times or fewer
  • seven times or more

This is a really difficult question – and opinions might differ about the exact number! If you doubt whether a sound is a schwa, try saying the word by itself slowly: is the vowel sound different from the one the speaker uses?

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Our Future Is Now - A Climate Change Essay by Francesca Minicozzi, '21

Francesca Minicozzi (class of 2021) is a Writing/Biology major who plans to study medicine after graduation. She wrote this essay on climate change for WR 355/Travel Writing, which she took while studying abroad in Newcastle in spring 2020. Although the coronavirus pandemic curtailed Francesca’s time abroad, her months in Newcastle prompted her to learn more about climate change. Terre Ryan Associate Professor, Writing Department

Our Future Is Now

By Francesca Minicozzi, '21 Writing and Biology Major

 “If you don’t mind me asking, how is the United States preparing for climate change?” my flat mate, Zac, asked me back in March, when we were both still in Newcastle. He and I were accustomed to asking each other about the differences between our home countries; he came from Cambridge, while I originated in Long Island, New York. This was one of our numerous conversations about issues that impact our generation, which we usually discussed while cooking dinner in our communal kitchen. In the moment of our conversation, I did not have as strong an answer for him as I would have liked. Instead, I informed him of the few changes I had witnessed within my home state of New York.

Francesca Minicozzi, '21

Zac’s response was consistent with his normal, diplomatic self. “I have been following the BBC news in terms of the climate crisis for the past few years. The U.K. has been working hard to transition to renewable energy sources. Similar to the United States, here in the United Kingdom we have converted over to solar panels too. My home does not have solar panels, but a lot of our neighbors have switched to solar energy in the past few years.”

“Our two countries are similar, yet so different,” I thought. Our conversation continued as we prepared our meals, with topics ranging from climate change to the upcoming presidential election to Britain’s exit from the European Union. However, I could not shake the fact that I knew so little about a topic so crucial to my generation.

After I abruptly returned home from the United Kingdom because of the global pandemic, my conversation with my flat mate lingered in my mind. Before the coronavirus surpassed climate change headlines, I had seen the number of internet postings regarding protests to protect the planet dramatically increase. Yet the idea of our planet becoming barren and unlivable in a not-so-distant future had previously upset me to the point where a part of me refused to deal with it. After I returned from studying abroad, I decided to educate myself on the climate crisis.

My quest for climate change knowledge required a thorough understanding of the difference between “climate change” and “global warming.” Climate change is defined as “a pattern of change affecting global or regional climate,” based on “average temperature and rainfall measurements” as well as the frequency of extreme weather events. 1   These varied temperature and weather events link back to both natural incidents and human activity. 2   Likewise, the term global warming was coined “to describe climate change caused by humans.” 3   Not only that, but global warming is most recently attributed to an increase in “global average temperature,” mainly due to greenhouse gas emissions produced by humans. 4

I next questioned why the term “climate change” seemed to take over the term “global warming” in the United States. According to Frank Luntz, a leading Republican consultant, the term “global warming” functions as a rather intimidating phrase. During George W. Bush’s first presidential term, Luntz argued in favor of using the less daunting phrase “climate change” in an attempt to overcome the environmental battle amongst Democrats and Republicans. 5   Since President Bush’s term, Luntz remains just one political consultant out of many politicians who has recognized the need to address climate change. In an article from 2019, Luntz proclaimed that political parties aside, the climate crisis affects everyone. Luntz argued that politicians should steer clear of trying to communicate “the complicated science of climate change,” and instead engage voters by explaining how climate change personally impacts citizens with natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and forest fires. 6   He even suggested that a shift away from words like “sustainability” would gear Americans towards what they really want: a “cleaner, safer, healthier” environment. 7

The idea of a cleaner and heathier environment remains easier said than done. The Paris Climate Agreement, introduced in 2015, began the United Nations’ “effort to combat global climate change.” 8   This agreement marked a global initiative to “limit global temperature increase in this century to 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels,” while simultaneously “pursuing means to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees.” 9    Every country on earth has joined together in this agreement for the common purpose of saving our planet. 10   So, what could go wrong here? As much as this sounds like a compelling step in the right direction for climate change, President Donald Trump thought otherwise. In June 2017, President Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement with his proclamation of climate change as a “’hoax’ perpetrated by China.” 11   President Trump continued to question the scientific facts behind climate change, remaining an advocate for the expansion of domestic fossil fuel production. 12   He reversed environmental policies implemented by former President Barack Obama to reduce fossil fuel use. 13

Trump’s actions against the Paris Agreement, however, fail to represent the beliefs of Americans as a whole. The majority of American citizens feel passionate about the fight against climate change. To demonstrate their support, some have gone as far as creating initiatives including America’s Pledge and We Are Still In. 14   Although the United States officially exited the Paris Agreement on November 4, 2020, this withdrawal may not survive permanently. 15   According to experts, our new president “could rejoin in as short as a month’s time.” 16   This offers a glimmer of hope.

The Paris Agreement declares that the United States will reduce greenhouse gas emission levels by 26 to 28 percent by the year 2025. 17   As a leader in greenhouse gas emissions, the United States needs to accept the climate crisis for the serious challenge that it presents and work together with other nations. The concept of working coherently with all nations remains rather tricky; however, I remain optimistic. I think we can learn from how other countries have adapted to the increased heating of our planet. During my recent study abroad experience in the United Kingdom, I was struck by Great Britain’s commitment to combating climate change.

Since the United Kingdom joined the Paris Agreement, the country targets a “net-zero” greenhouse gas emission for 2050. 18   This substantial alteration would mark an 80% reduction of greenhouse gases from 1990, if “clear, stable, and well-designed policies are implemented without interruption.” 19   In order to stay on top of reducing emissions, the United Kingdom tracks electricity and car emissions, “size of onshore and offshore wind farms,” amount of homes and “walls insulated, and boilers upgraded,” as well as the development of government policies, including grants for electric vehicles. 20   A strong grip on this data allows the United Kingdom to target necessary modifications that keep the country on track for 2050. In my brief semester in Newcastle, I took note of these significant changes. The city of Newcastle is small enough that many students and faculty are able to walk or bike to campus and nearby essential shops. However, when driving is unavoidable, the majority of the vehicles used are electric, and many British citizens place a strong emphasis on carpooling to further reduce emissions. The United Kingdom’s determination to severely reduce greenhouse emissions is ambitious and particularly admirable, especially as the United States struggles to shy away from its dependence on fossil fuels.

So how can we, as Americans, stand together to combat global climate change? Here are five adjustments Americans can make to their homes and daily routines that can dramatically make a difference:

  • Stay cautious of food waste. Studies demonstrate that “Americans throw away up to 40 percent of the food they buy.” 21   By being more mindful of the foods we purchase, opting for leftovers, composting wastes, and donating surplus food to those in need, we can make an individual difference that impacts the greater good. 22   
  • Insulate your home. Insulation functions as a “cost-effective and accessible” method to combat climate change. 23   Homes with modern insulation reduce energy required to heat them, leading to a reduction of emissions and an overall savings; in comparison, older homes can “lose up to 35 percent of heat through their walls.” 24   
  • Switch to LED Lighting. LED stands for “light-emitting diodes,” which use “90 percent less energy than incandescent bulbs and half as much as compact fluorescents.” 25   LED lights create light without producing heat, and therefore do not waste energy. Additionally, these lights have a longer duration than other bulbs, which means they offer a continuing savings. 26  
  • Choose transportation wisely. Choose to walk or bike whenever the option presents itself. If walking or biking is not an option, use an electric or hybrid vehicle which emits less harmful gases. Furthermore, reduce the number of car trips taken, and carpool with others when applicable. 
  • Finally, make your voice heard. The future of our planet remains in our hands, so we might as well use our voices to our advantage. Social media serves as a great platform for this. Moreover, using social media to share helpful hints to combat climate change within your community or to promote an upcoming protest proves beneficial in the long run. If we collectively put our voices to good use, together we can advocate for change.

As many of us are stuck at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic, these suggestions are slightly easier to put into place. With numerous “stay-at-home” orders in effect, Americans have the opportunity to make significant achievements for climate change. Personally, I have taken more precautions towards the amount of food consumed within my household during this pandemic. I have been more aware of food waste, opting for leftovers when too much food remains. Additionally, I have realized how powerful my voice is as a young college student. Now is the opportunity for Americans to share how they feel about climate change. During this unprecedented time, our voice is needed now more than ever in order to make a difference.

However, on a much larger scale, the coronavirus outbreak has shed light on reducing global energy consumption. Reductions in travel, both on the roads and in the air, have triggered a drop in emission rates. In fact, the International Energy Agency predicts a 6 percent decrease in energy consumption around the globe for this year alone. 27   This drop is “equivalent to losing the entire energy demand of India.” 28   Complete lockdowns have lowered the global demand for electricity and slashed CO2 emissions. However, in New York City, the shutdown has only decreased carbon dioxide emissions by 10 percent. 29   This proves that a shift in personal behavior is simply not enough to “fix the carbon emission problem.” 30   Climate policies aimed to reduce fossil fuel production and promote clean technology will be crucial steppingstones to ameliorating climate change effects. Our current reduction of greenhouse gas emissions serves as “the sort of reduction we need every year until net-zero emissions are reached around 2050.” 31   From the start of the coronavirus pandemic, politicians came together for the common good of protecting humanity; this demonstrates that when necessary, global leaders are capable of putting humankind above the economy. 32

After researching statistics comparing the coronavirus to climate change, I thought back to the moment the virus reached pandemic status. I knew that a greater reason underlay all of this global turmoil. Our globe is in dire need of help, and the coronavirus reminds the world of what it means to work together. This pandemic marks a turning point in global efforts to slow down climate change. The methods we enact towards not only stopping the spread of the virus, but slowing down climate change, will ultimately depict how humanity will arise once this pandemic is suppressed. The future of our home planet lies in how we treat it right now. 

  • “Climate Change: What Do All the Terms Mean?,” BBC News (BBC, May 1, 2019), https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-48057733 )
  • Ibid. 
  • Kate Yoder, “Frank Luntz, the GOP's Message Master, Calls for Climate Action,” Grist (Grist, July 26, 2019), https://grist.org/article/the-gops-most-famous-messaging-strategist-calls-for-climate-action
  • Melissa Denchak, “Paris Climate Agreement: Everything You Need to Know,” NRDC, April 29, 2020, https://www.nrdc.org/stories/paris-climate-agreement-everything-you-need-know)
  • “Donald J. Trump's Foreign Policy Positions,” Council on Foreign Relations (Council on Foreign Relations), accessed May 7, 2020, https://www.cfr.org/election2020/candidate-tracker/donald-j.-trump?gclid=CjwKCAjw4871BRAjEiwAbxXi21cneTRft_doA5if60euC6QCL7sr-Jwwv76IkgWaUTuyJNx9EzZzRBoCdjsQAvD_BwE#climate and energy )
  • David Doniger, “Paris Climate Agreement Explained: Does Congress Need to Sign Off?,” NRDC, December 15, 2016, https://www.nrdc.org/experts/david-doniger/paris-climate-agreement-explained-does-congress-need-sign )
  • “How the UK Is Progressing,” Committee on Climate Change, March 9, 2020, https://www.theccc.org.uk/what-is-climate-change/reducing-carbon-emissions/how-the-uk-is-progressing/)
  • Ibid.  
  • “Top 10 Ways You Can Fight Climate Change,” Green America, accessed May 7, 2020, https://www.greenamerica.org/your-green-life/10-ways-you-can-fight-climate-change )
  • Matt McGrath, “Climate Change and Coronavirus: Five Charts about the Biggest Carbon Crash,” BBC News (BBC, May 5, 2020), https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/science-environment-52485712 )

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Essay on Global Warming


  • Updated on  
  • Apr 27, 2024

essay climate change c1

Being able to write an essay is an integral part of mastering any language. Essays form an integral part of many academic and scholastic exams like the SAT, and UPSC amongst many others. It is a crucial evaluative part of English proficiency tests as well like IELTS, TOEFL, etc. Major essays are meant to emphasize public issues of concern that can have significant consequences on the world. To understand the concept of Global Warming and its causes and effects, we must first examine the many factors that influence the planet’s temperature and what this implies for the world’s future. Here’s an unbiased look at the essay on Global Warming and other essential related topics.

Short Essay on Global Warming and Climate Change?

Since the industrial and scientific revolutions, Earth’s resources have been gradually depleted. Furthermore, the start of the world’s population’s exponential expansion is particularly hard on the environment. Simply put, as the population’s need for consumption grows, so does the use of natural resources , as well as the waste generated by that consumption.

Climate change has been one of the most significant long-term consequences of this. Climate change is more than just the rise or fall of global temperatures; it also affects rain cycles, wind patterns, cyclone frequencies, sea levels, and other factors. It has an impact on all major life groupings on the planet.

Also Read: Essay on Yoga Day

Also Read: Speech on Yoga Day

What is Global Warming?

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century, primarily due to the greenhouse gases released by people burning fossil fuels . The greenhouse gases consist of methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and chlorofluorocarbons. The weather prediction has been becoming more complex with every passing year, with seasons more indistinguishable, and the general temperatures hotter.

The number of hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, floods, etc., has risen steadily since the onset of the 21st century. The supervillain behind all these changes is Global Warming. The name is quite self-explanatory; it means the rise in the temperature of the Earth.

Also Read: What is a Natural Disaster?

What are the Causes of Global Warming?

According to recent studies, many scientists believe the following are the primary four causes of global warming:

  • Deforestation 
  • Greenhouse emissions
  • Carbon emissions per capita

Extreme global warming is causing natural disasters , which can be seen all around us. One of the causes of global warming is the extreme release of greenhouse gases that become trapped on the earth’s surface, causing the temperature to rise. Similarly, volcanoes contribute to global warming by spewing excessive CO2 into the atmosphere.

The increase in population is one of the major causes of Global Warming. This increase in population also leads to increased air pollution . Automobiles emit a lot of CO2, which remains in the atmosphere. This increase in population is also causing deforestation, which contributes to global warming.

The earth’s surface emits energy into the atmosphere in the form of heat, keeping the balance with the incoming energy. Global warming depletes the ozone layer, bringing about the end of the world. There is a clear indication that increased global warming will result in the extinction of all life on Earth’s surface.

Also Read: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources

Solutions for Global Warming

Of course, industries and multinational conglomerates emit more carbon than the average citizen. Nonetheless, activism and community effort are the only viable ways to slow the worsening effects of global warming. Furthermore, at the state or government level, world leaders must develop concrete plans and step-by-step programmes to ensure that no further harm is done to the environment in general.

Although we are almost too late to slow the rate of global warming, finding the right solution is critical. Everyone, from individuals to governments, must work together to find a solution to Global Warming. Some of the factors to consider are pollution control, population growth, and the use of natural resources.

One very important contribution you can make is to reduce your use of plastic. Plastic is the primary cause of global warming, and recycling it takes years. Another factor to consider is deforestation, which will aid in the control of global warming. More tree planting should be encouraged to green the environment. Certain rules should also govern industrialization. Building industries in green zones that affect plants and species should be prohibited.

Also Read: Essay on Pollution

Effects of Global Warming

Global warming is a real problem that many people want to disprove to gain political advantage. However, as global citizens, we must ensure that only the truth is presented in the media.

This decade has seen a significant impact from global warming. The two most common phenomena observed are glacier retreat and arctic shrinkage. Glaciers are rapidly melting. These are clear manifestations of climate change.

Another significant effect of global warming is the rise in sea level. Flooding is occurring in low-lying areas as a result of sea-level rise. Many countries have experienced extreme weather conditions. Every year, we have unusually heavy rain, extreme heat and cold, wildfires, and other natural disasters.

Similarly, as global warming continues, marine life is being severely impacted. This is causing the extinction of marine species as well as other problems. Furthermore, changes are expected in coral reefs, which will face extinction in the coming years. These effects will intensify in the coming years, effectively halting species expansion. Furthermore, humans will eventually feel the negative effects of Global Warming.

Also Read: Concept of Sustainable Development

Sample Essays on Global Warming

Here are some sample essays on Global Warming:

Essay on Global Warming Paragraph in 100 – 150 words

Global Warming is caused by the increase of carbon dioxide levels in the earth’s atmosphere and is a result of human activities that have been causing harm to our environment for the past few centuries now. Global Warming is something that can’t be ignored and steps have to be taken to tackle the situation globally. The average temperature is constantly rising by 1.5 degrees Celsius over the last few years.

The best method to prevent future damage to the earth, cutting down more forests should be banned and Afforestation should be encouraged. Start by planting trees near your homes and offices, participate in events, and teach the importance of planting trees. It is impossible to undo the damage but it is possible to stop further harm.

Also Read: Social Forestry

Essay on Global Warming in 250 Words

Over a long period, it is observed that the temperature of the earth is increasing. This affected wildlife, animals, humans, and every living organism on earth. Glaciers have been melting, and many countries have started water shortages, flooding, and erosion and all this is because of global warming. 

No one can be blamed for global warming except for humans. Human activities such as gases released from power plants, transportation, and deforestation have increased gases such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere.                                              The main question is how can we control the current situation and build a better world for future generations. It starts with little steps by every individual. 

Start using cloth bags made from sustainable materials for all shopping purposes, instead of using high-watt lights use energy-efficient bulbs, switch off the electricity, don’t waste water, abolish deforestation and encourage planting more trees. Shift the use of energy from petroleum or other fossil fuels to wind and solar energy. Instead of throwing out the old clothes donate them to someone so that it is recycled. 

Donate old books, don’t waste paper.  Above all, spread awareness about global warming. Every little thing a person does towards saving the earth will contribute in big or small amounts. We must learn that 1% effort is better than no effort. Pledge to take care of Mother Nature and speak up about global warming.

Also Read: Types of Water Pollution

Essay on Global Warming in 500 Words

Global warming isn’t a prediction, it is happening! A person denying it or unaware of it is in the most simple terms complicit. Do we have another planet to live on? Unfortunately, we have been bestowed with this one planet only that can sustain life yet over the years we have turned a blind eye to the plight it is in. Global warming is not an abstract concept but a global phenomenon occurring ever so slowly even at this moment. Global Warming is a phenomenon that is occurring every minute resulting in a gradual increase in the Earth’s overall climate. Brought about by greenhouse gases that trap the solar radiation in the atmosphere, global warming can change the entire map of the earth, displacing areas, flooding many countries, and destroying multiple lifeforms. Extreme weather is a direct consequence of global warming but it is not an exhaustive consequence. There are virtually limitless effects of global warming which are all harmful to life on earth. The sea level is increasing by 0.12 inches per year worldwide. This is happening because of the melting of polar ice caps because of global warming. This has increased the frequency of floods in many lowland areas and has caused damage to coral reefs. The Arctic is one of the worst-hit areas affected by global warming. Air quality has been adversely affected and the acidity of the seawater has also increased causing severe damage to marine life forms. Severe natural disasters are brought about by global warming which has had dire effects on life and property. As long as mankind produces greenhouse gases, global warming will continue to accelerate. The consequences are felt at a much smaller scale which will increase to become drastic shortly. The power to save the day lies in the hands of humans, the need is to seize the day. Energy consumption should be reduced on an individual basis. Fuel-efficient cars and other electronics should be encouraged to reduce the wastage of energy sources. This will also improve air quality and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is an evil that can only be defeated when fought together. It is better late than never. If we all take steps today, we will have a much brighter future tomorrow. Global warming is the bane of our existence and various policies have come up worldwide to fight it but that is not enough. The actual difference is made when we work at an individual level to fight it. Understanding its import now is crucial before it becomes an irrevocable mistake. Exterminating global warming is of utmost importance and each one of us is as responsible for it as the next.  

Also Read: Essay on Library: 100, 200 and 250 Words

Essay on Global Warming UPSC

Always hear about global warming everywhere, but do we know what it is? The evil of the worst form, global warming is a phenomenon that can affect life more fatally. Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s temperature as a result of various human activities. The planet is gradually getting hotter and threatening the existence of lifeforms on it. Despite being relentlessly studied and researched, global warming for the majority of the population remains an abstract concept of science. It is this concept that over the years has culminated in making global warming a stark reality and not a concept covered in books. Global warming is not caused by one sole reason that can be curbed. Multifarious factors cause global warming most of which are a part of an individual’s daily existence. Burning of fuels for cooking, in vehicles, and for other conventional uses, a large amount of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, and methane amongst many others is produced which accelerates global warming. Rampant deforestation also results in global warming as lesser green cover results in an increased presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is a greenhouse gas.  Finding a solution to global warming is of immediate importance. Global warming is a phenomenon that has to be fought unitedly. Planting more trees can be the first step that can be taken toward warding off the severe consequences of global warming. Increasing the green cover will result in regulating the carbon cycle. There should be a shift from using nonrenewable energy to renewable energy such as wind or solar energy which causes less pollution and thereby hinder the acceleration of global warming. Reducing energy needs at an individual level and not wasting energy in any form is the most important step to be taken against global warming. The warning bells are tolling to awaken us from the deep slumber of complacency we have slipped into. Humans can fight against nature and it is high time we acknowledged that. With all our scientific progress and technological inventions, fighting off the negative effects of global warming is implausible. We have to remember that we do not inherit the earth from our ancestors but borrow it from our future generations and the responsibility lies on our shoulders to bequeath them a healthy planet for life to exist. 

Also Read: Essay on Disaster Management

Climate Change and Global Warming Essay

Global Warming and Climate Change are two sides of the same coin. Both are interrelated with each other and are two issues of major concern worldwide. Greenhouse gases released such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere cause Global Warming which leads to climate change. Black holes have started to form in the ozone layer that protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. 

Human activities have created climate change and global warming. Industrial waste and fumes are the major contributors to global warming. 

Another factor affecting is the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and also one of the reasons for climate change.  Global warming has resulted in shrinking mountain glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, and the Arctic and causing climate change. Switching from the use of fossil fuels to energy sources like wind and solar. 

When buying any electronic appliance buy the best quality with energy savings stars. Don’t waste water and encourage rainwater harvesting in your community. 

Also Read: Essay on Air Pollution

Tips to Write an Essay

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Mentioned below are some pointers that can help you write better structure and more thoughtful essays that will get across to your readers:

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Also Read: I Love My India Essay: 100 and 500+ Words in English for School Students

Ans. Both natural and man-made factors contribute to global warming. The natural one also contains methane gas, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gases. Deforestation, mining, livestock raising, burning fossil fuels, and other man-made causes are next.

Ans. The government and the general public can work together to stop global warming. Trees must be planted more often, and deforestation must be prohibited. Auto usage needs to be curbed, and recycling needs to be promoted.

Ans. Switching to renewable energy sources , adopting sustainable farming, transportation, and energy methods, and conserving water and other natural resources.

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Digvijay Singh

Having 2+ years of experience in educational content writing, withholding a Bachelor's in Physical Education and Sports Science and a strong interest in writing educational content for students enrolled in domestic and foreign study abroad programmes. I believe in offering a distinct viewpoint to the table, to help students deal with the complexities of both domestic and foreign educational systems. Through engaging storytelling and insightful analysis, I aim to inspire my readers to embark on their educational journeys, whether abroad or at home, and to make the most of every learning opportunity that comes their way.

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This was really a good essay on global warming… There has been used many unic words..and I really liked it!!!Seriously I had been looking for a essay about Global warming just like this…

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I want to learn how to write essay writing so I joined this page.This page is very useful for everyone.

Hi, we are glad that we could help you to write essays. We have a beginner’s guide to write essays ( https://leverageedu.com/blog/essay-writing/ ) and we think this might help you.

It is not good , to have global warming in our earth .So we all have to afforestation program on all the world.

thank you so much

Very educative , helpful and it is really going to strength my English knowledge to structure my essay in future

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Global warming is the increase in 𝓽𝓱𝓮 ᴀᴠᴇʀᴀɢᴇ ᴛᴇᴍᴘᴇʀᴀᴛᴜʀᴇs ᴏғ ᴇᴀʀᴛʜ🌎 ᴀᴛᴍᴏsᴘʜᴇʀᴇ

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Yale Program on Climate Change Communication

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Home / For Educators: Grades 6-12 / Climate Explained: Introductory Essays About Climate Change Topics

Climate Explained: Introductory Essays About Climate Change Topics

Filed under: backgrounders for educators ,.

Climate Explained, a part of Yale Climate Connections, is an essay collection that addresses an array of climate change questions and topics, including why it’s cold outside if global warming is real, how we know that humans are responsible for global warming, and the relationship between climate change and national security.

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essay climate change c1

Climate Change Basics: Five Facts, Ten Words

Backgrounders for Educators

To simplify the scientific complexity of climate change, we focus on communicating five key facts about climate change that everyone should know. 

essay climate change c1

Why should we care about climate change?

Having different perspectives about global warming is natural, but the most important thing that anyone should know about climate change is why it matters.  

essay climate change c1

External Resources

Looking for resources to help you and your students build a solid climate change science foundation? We’ve compiled a list of reputable, student-friendly links to help you do just that!  

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essay climate change c1

Climate Change Higher Education Questions

Help students understand how climate change poses an extraordinary threat to the planet and its inhabitants through these essay and discussion questions.

How has industrialization contributed to climate change? What is the evidence that human activity is contributing to climate change since the industrial revolution, and how have scientists measured these impacts?

To what extent is climate change a major concern for the international community? How might the international community best address climate change (consider mitigation, adaptation, geoengineering, or other solutions)? What are the challenges to delivering effective international solutions? What are the challenges that occur when international solutions are not pursued? What are the advantages and disadvantages of top-down versus a bottom-up approaches to mitigation?

When analyzing greenhouse gas emissions, what are the differences among annual emissions, cumulative emissions, per capita emissions, emissions by economic sector, and emissions by company? What information does each approach provide? What are the benefits of each approach?

Choose a country that emits the most greenhouse gases (such as China, the United States, India, or Russia) and write a policy memo to this country’s leader outlining ways in which its government should or should not reduce its emissions. How should this government address the effects of climate change on global inequality? 

  • Should developed countries like the United States be expected to take a more active role in cutting their carbon emissions given their historical contributions of greenhouse gas emissions?
  • Should developing countries like China and India continue industrializing, even though their carbon emissions are increasing as a result?
  • How does climate change threaten global food security?
  • How does climate change disproportionately impact certain communities and contribute to global inequality?
  • In what ways does the Inflation Reduction Act seek to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions? How might this impact the efforts of the global community as a whole in addressing climate change?

What renewable and alternative energy sources offer the most potential for addressing climate change?? Why? Looking at the five main renewable and alternative energy sources (wind, solar, hydro, nuclear, and biofuels), pick two to compare them. What are the benefits and drawbacks of each? 

  • What are fossil fuels? How are they different from alternative energy sources?
  • Which form of energy would you recommend for wide-scale adoption in the United States? Why? Consider how geography might factor into your recommendation.
  • Which form of energy would you recommend for wide-scale adoption internationally? Why? Consider how geography might factor into your recommendation.

What is the Paris Agreement and how is it different from previous climate accords like the Kyoto Protocol? What does the Paris Agreement require of countries? What does it leave up to individual countries to decide? What are the limitations of the Paris Agreement?

  • Why did the United States withdraw from the Paris Agreement in 2017? What percentage of global emissions cuts did the United States account for at that time? When the United States reentered in 2021, what goal was set for 2050? 
  • To what extent did the Paris Agreement lead to actionable climate solutions? What are the challenges and opportunities for implementing the ideas set out in the Paris Agreement?

Analyze the advantages and limitations of the use of artificial intelligence in fighting global climate change. Where can AI best outperform existing technologies? How can this technology fight climate change without inadvertently accelerating carbon emissions in the process?

Climate Change Essay

500+ words essay on climate change.

Climate change is a major global challenge today, and the world is becoming more vulnerable to this change. Climate change refers to the changes in Earth’s climate condition. It describes the changes in the atmosphere which have taken place over a period ranging from decades to millions of years. A recent report from the United Nations predicted that the average global temperature could increase by 6˚ Celsius at the end of the century. Climate change has an adverse effect on the environment and ecosystem. With the help of this essay, students will get to know the causes and effects of climate change and possible solutions. Also, they will be able to write essays on similar topics and can boost their writing skills.

What Causes Climate Change?

The Earth’s climate has always changed and evolved. Some of these changes have been due to natural causes such as volcanic eruptions, floods, forest fires etc., but quite a few of them are due to human activities. Human activities such as deforestation, burning fossil fuels, farming livestock etc., generate an enormous amount of greenhouse gases. This results in the greenhouse effect and global warming which are the major causes of climate change.

Effects of Climate Change

If the current situation of climate change continues in a similar manner, then it will impact all forms of life on the earth. The earth’s temperature will rise, the monsoon patterns will change, sea levels will rise, and storms, volcanic eruptions and natural disasters will occur frequently. The biological and ecological balance of the earth will get disturbed. The environment will get polluted and humans will not be able to get fresh air to breathe and fresh water to drink. Life on earth will come to an end.

Steps to be Taken to Reduce Climate Change

The Government of India has taken many measures to improve the dire situation of Climate Change. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is the nodal agency for climate change issues in India. It has initiated several climate-friendly measures, particularly in the area of renewable energy. India took several steps and policy initiatives to create awareness about climate change and help capacity building for adaptation measures. It has initiated a “Green India” programme under which various trees are planted to make the forest land more green and fertile.

We need to follow the path of sustainable development to effectively address the concerns of climate change. We need to minimise the use of fossil fuels, which is the major cause of global warming. We must adopt alternative sources of energy, such as hydropower, solar and wind energy to make a progressive transition to clean energy. Mahatma Gandhi said that “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not any man’s greed”. With this view, we must remodel our outlook and achieve the goal of sustainable development. By adopting clean technologies, equitable distribution of resources and addressing the issues of equity and justice, we can make our developmental process more harmonious with nature.

We hope students liked this essay on Climate Change and gathered useful information on this topic so that they can write essays in their own words. To get more study material related to the CBSE, ICSE, State Board and Competitive exams, keep visiting the BYJU’S website.

Frequently Asked Questions on climate change Essay

What are the reasons for climate change.

1. Deforestation 2. Excessive usage of fossil fuels 3. Water, Soil pollution 4. Plastic and other non-biodegradable waste 5. Wildlife and nature extinction

How can we save this climate change situation?

1. Avoid over usage of natural resources 2. Do not use or buy items made from animals 3. Avoid plastic usage and pollution

Are there any natural causes for climate change?

Yes, some of the natural causes for climate change are: 1. Solar variations 2. Volcanic eruption and tsunamis 3. Earth’s orbital changes

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Gender inequality coupled with the climate crisis is one of the greatest challenges of our time. It poses threats to ways of life, livelihoods, health, safety and security for women and girls around the world.

Woman fishing in Dili, Timor-Leste.  Photo: UN Photo/Martine Perret

Historically, climate change scientists, researchers and policymakers have struggled with how to make the vital connections between gender, social equity, and climate change. As more and more data and research reveal their clear correlation, it’s time to talk about the disparate impacts of climate change and the linkages between women’s empowerment and effective, global climate action.

On International Women’s Day, we take a look at how climate change impacts women and girls, why gender equality is key to climate action, and what you can do to support solutions for women, by women.

Haiti, 2016. Aftermath of Hurricane Matthew.  Often, women and girls face greater health and safety risks as water and sanitation systems become compromised; and take on increased domestic and care work as resources disappear.  Photo: UN MINUSTAH/Logan Abassi

The climate crisis is not “gender neutral”. Women and girls experience the greatest impacts of climate change, which amplifies existing gender inequalities and poses unique threats to their livelihoods, health, and safety.

Across the world, women depend more on, yet have less access to, natural resources. In many regions, women bear a disproportionate responsibility for securing food, water, and fuel. Agriculture is the most important employment sector for women in low- and lower-middle income countries, during periods of drought and erratic rainfall, women, as agricultural workers and primary procurers, work harder to secure income and resources for their families. This puts added pressure on girls, who often have to leave school to help their mothers manage the increased burden.

Nurun Nahar has two children and lives lives in a remote part of Islampur, Jamalpur. When floods destroyed her house in Bangladesh in 2019, she had to move to a shelter.  Photo: UN Women/Mohammad Rakibul Hasan.

Climate change is a “threat multiplier”, meaning it escalates social, political and economic tensions in fragile and conflict-affected settings. As climate change drives conflict across the world, women and girls face increased vulnerabilities to all forms of gender-based violence, including conflict-related sexual violence, human trafficking, child marriage, and other forms of violence.

When disasters strike, women are less likely to survive and more likely to be injured due to long standing gender inequalities that have created disparities in information, mobility, decision-making, and access to resources and training. In the aftermath, women and girls are less able to access relief and assistance, further threatening their livelihoods, wellbeing and recovery, and creating a vicious cycle of vulnerability to future disasters.

Women’s and girls’ health is endangered by climate change and disasters by limiting access to services and health care, as well as increasing risks related to maternal and child health. Research indicates that extreme heat increases incidence of stillbirth, and climate change is increasing the spread of vector-borne illnesses such as malaria, dengue fever, and Zika virus, which are linked to worse maternal and neonatal outcomes .

Turkana county is one of the most arid areas of Kenya. Several years of inadequate rainfall have pushed coping capacities to the brink. Women not only struggle to collect enough water, but when food is scarce, they eat less than men. Photo: UN Women/Kennedy Okoth

While women and girls experience disproportionate impacts from climate change at the global level, the effects are not uniform. Looking at climate change through the lens of intersectional feminism , the way in which various forms of inequality often operate together and exacerbate each other, it is clear that climate change risks are acute for indigenous and Afro-descendent women and girls, older women, LGBTIQ+ people, women and girls with disabilities, migrant women, and those living in rural, remote, conflict and disaster-prone areas.

Matcha Phorn-in. Photo:  UN  Women/Pathumporn  Thongking.

“If you are invisible in everyday life, your needs will not be thought of, let alone addressed, in a crisis situation,” says Matcha Phorn-In , a lesbian feminist human-rights defender who works to empower stateless and landless Indigenous women, girls and young LGBTIQ+ people in Thailand’s Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son, and Tak provinces. “Humanitarian programmes tend to be heteronormative and can reinforce the patriarchal structure of society if they do not take into account sexual and gender diversity,” Phorn-in explains. “In addressing structural change, we are advocating for and working towards equality of all kinds.”

Dandara Rudsan. Photo: Yvi Oliveira.

In the Brazilian Amazon, Dandara Rudsan , a Black and trans activist and an environmental racism specialist in the Public Defender’s Office of Pará State, knows firsthand that centering the experiences and challenges faced by different groups illuminates the connections between all fights for justice and liberation.

“In the Amazon, defending human rights means fighting for the survival of people and the rainforest every day, but there is no hierarchy between agendas… To finance social movements in the Amazon is to finance the survival of these communities, these people, and the rainforest.”

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essay climate change c1

Climate Change Essay

500+ words essay on climate change.

Climate change is the shift of weather patterns and conditions. We are experiencing rapid change in the climate due to various factors. Needless to say, our earth is experiencing rising global temperatures. Do you think it is a matter of concern? Well yes, you might have heard about the melting glaciers which is resulting in rising sea levels. There has been a drastic change in the climate due to hazardous factors such as pollution, burning coals, industrial waste disposal in the air, etc. All this will result in affecting the environment and its resources. To overcome the issue of climate change, you need to bring social awareness along with stringent measures to protect and preserve the environment. In this climate change essay, we are going to discuss the factors and how to prevent climate change. 

What is Climate Change? 

Climate change is the change in the average weather conditions. We can say that climate change is responsible for change in the normal climatic conditions. These changes result in heavy storms, heat waves, floods, melting glaciers, etc. Our earth is going through a lot of changes with respect to climate, which is impacting the livelihood of people and other living things. Global warming is one aspect of climate change. Due to these factors, carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases are released in the atmosphere. Check out the following causes of climate change given below. 

Climate Change Factors Essay 

Nowadays, we experience extreme weather conditions whether it is cold, heat or rain. Some of the forces or factors that contribute to climate change are greenhouse gas emission, burning of coal, deforestation, air pollution, industrial gas, etc. These factors lead to major climatic change in the earth. Did you know that climate change leads to disastrous events? Yes, it affects the livelihood, health and the resources. It also impacts the water, air and the land we live in. It leads to extreme weather conditions such as droughts, heavy rain, floods, storms, heat waves, forest fires, etc. Moreover, it reduces the quality of drinking water, damages property, pollutes the air and also leads to loss of life. Additionally, it is impacting the life of flora and fauna around us. We need to take extreme measures to prevent climate change. 

Also explore: Learn more about the environment and climate change with Environment essay and Global warming Essay .

How To Prevent Climate Change Essay 

As climate change is hampering the lives and resources of our earth, we need to look out for extreme measures to prevent climate change. Now, what can we do to prevent this? Is it possible for all of us to join and preserve nature? Yes, we can if appropriate strategies are implemented to combat climate change. The different ways to reduce climate change are mentioned below:

  • Make policies and agreements on climate change.
  • Implement projects on clean energy.
  • Create social awareness on climate change. 
  • Prohibit deforestation and cutting down trees.
  • Conduct capacity building programs on climate change. 
  • Keep the surroundings clean. 
  • Avoid use of chemical fertilizers.
  • Reduce wastage of water and other natural resources. 
  • Protect the flora and fauna. 
  • Buy energy efficient products and appliances. 
  • Plant more trees in the neighbourhood and surrounding areas. 
  • Respect the environment and protect its resources. 
  • Reduce the consumption of energy.

These are the ways to reduce climate change. If not implemented, you might see an increase in the weather conditions, shortage of drinking water, agricultural yields, and impact on livelihood. Therefore, you must focus on reducing anthropogenic activities so that you can breathe fresh air and drink clean water. These are the small steps to protect the environment and its resources.

We hope this climate change essay was useful to you. Check Osmo’s essays for kids to explore more essays on a wide variety of topics. 

Frequently Asked Questions On Climate Change Essay

What is a climate change essay.

The climate change essay is information on changing weather conditions and its impact on the environment.

How to start a climate change essay?

You can start a climate change essay with an introduction, factors, and the ways to prevent climate change.

What are the main causes of climate change?

The main causes of climate change are deforestation, burning oils, chemical fertilizers, pollution and release of industrial waste in the air, etc.

To find more information, explore related articles such as technology essay and essay on internet . 

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Climate change, carbon neutrality: the role of spatial economics

  • Special Issue Editorial
  • Published: 02 July 2024

Cite this article

essay climate change c1

  • Jian Wang 1 ,
  • Xiwei Zhu 2 &
  • Yong Chen 3  

The collection of papers in this special issue examines empirical evidence from Asia, Europe, and North America, analyzes how climate change affects the spatial economy, and explores the feasibility of carbon neutrality as a countermeasure to climate change. It begins by discussing the research background, the motivation for emphasizing spatial considerations, and the analysis in climate change studies. Each accepted paper is then elaborated upon regarding topic selection, methodology, and findings. The issue highlights the crucial role of spatial elements in climate studies and aims to inspire further research in this direction. By leveraging regional science and analytical tools, the goal is to develop more effective and equitable policies for carbon abatement.

Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

1 Background

Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns that define Earth’s local, regional, and global climates (NASA, 2022). The consequent temperature increases, rising sea levels, ice losses, and increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events (such as hurricanes, heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, floods, and land use/land cover changes) significantly affect regional economic development, resource management, urban and regional planning, and the spatial distribution of population and economic activities. Human activities, particularly burning fossil fuels, are believed to be key drivers of climate change since the mid-twentieth century. As a countermeasure to climate change, carbon neutrality has been proposed. Carbon neutrality aims to balance carbon emissions through removal or offsetting, which is crucial for mitigating climate change and limiting global warming.

To achieve the goal of carbon neutrality, it is essential to understand the driving forces and regional economic implications of carbon intensity reduction. The transportation, energy, and manufacturing sectors remain the main contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in China and the USA. Standard economic analysis of externality problems applies here. More importantly, the spatially heterogeneous distributions of climates, populations, and socio-economic activities generate significant spatial spillover effects. The spatially correlated climate conditions, the spatially connected regional economies, and the interactions between the climate and regional economic systems raise important theoretical and empirical challenges. For instance, how will spatial correlation and interactions affect the local climate and the consequent optimal design of regional policies?

It is widely recognized that global carbon emissions exhibit evident spatial disparities by region. A surge of literature has highlighted the importance of spatial configuration in affecting environmental performance across different dimensions (Creutzig et al. 2015 ; Alvarez 2021 ; Gaigné et al. 2012 ; Glaeser and Kahn 2010 ; Wang et al. 2022 ). The organization of economic activities in geographic space plays a crucial role in shaping energy consumption and subsequent carbon emissions. Whether in compact cities or other forms of habitation, the spatial landscape of living is closely related to energy consumption through agglomeration economies. Similarly, firms’ carbon emissions are found to be spatially correlated through various sources. Trade is believed to influence emissions related to the spatial distribution of heterogeneous firms (Forslid et al. 2018 ; Kreickemeier and Richter 2014 ; Richter and Schiersch 2017 ). These important questions offer opportunities for economists to contribute their research and insights to basic and policy-relevant research. In 2018, William Nordhaus, an early advocate of carbon taxes, shared the Nobel Prize in Economics for his contributions to the macroeconomics of climate change.

The main objective of this special issue is to reveal the spatial dimension of climate change by introducing the accumulated knowledge within the regional science community. We arrange the selected papers by the methodology. The first set of papers are empirical analyses focusing on carbon emissions. The second set of papers is other quantitative studies examining the sectoral, temporal, and spatial propagation of structural breaks in energy transition, carbon tax, and climate-change-related disasters. The final set of papers explores the impacts of carbon emission and climate change within a general equilibrium framework. This collection of papers will enhance our understanding of the spatial elements shaping climate change and carbon performance. The variety in this special issue covers different topics, methodologies, and research paradigms.

2 An overview of the papers in this issue

2.1 empirical studies on carbon emissions.

As the core section of our special issue, a large body of studies has focused on the underlying forces that affect carbon emission from various perspectives. Some papers aim to evaluate the potential impacts of pilot policies on regional carbon emissions. Meanwhile, some studies gain insights into how spatial concentration and technological innovation can synergistically drive sustainability. Further, they also examine the impact of external economic uncertainty on exporter’s emission behavior. Ultimately, these papers share the same foundation in method by using the estimating tools from the advance in causal inference. Relatively, these predictions, built on solid quantitative evidence, help understand the possible policies addressing carbon abatement.

Specifically, Chen et al. (2024) reveal that regional competition among local governments in China regarding carbon emissions leads to spillover effects due to the low-carbon city program. Using the spatial difference-in-differences approach, the analysis indicates that reductions in carbon emissions in pilot cities result in decreased carbon emissions and economic performance in the surrounding areas. Further, the policy significantly affects large private firms, particularly those not operating in the secondary industries.

Lv et al. (2024) address the need for more focus on the impact of regional integration on low-carbon development by examining the expansion of the Yangtze River Delta in 2010 as a natural experiment. The difference-in-differences approach is applied to explore the effect of regional integration on CO 2 emission intensity, along with mediating and moderating effect models to investigate the influencing mechanisms.

With micro-level evidence, Liu et al. (2024) investigate the impact of industrial clusters on the carbon emissions of listed manufacturing firms in China within the context of carbon peaking and neutrality goals. The findings show that industrial clusters contribute to decreasing carbon emissions through digital transformation. In addition to adopting an industrial cluster database ten years earlier than the sample period, the identification strategy relies on the Bartik instrumental estimation to address the endogeneity issue.

Considering regional heterogeneity, Liu et al. (2024) explore how economic policy uncertainty in export destinations affects the carbon emission behavior of China’s exporting firms. Economic policy uncertainty in export destinations significantly increases firms’ carbon emission intensity. The effect of policy uncertainty is more pronounced in the eastern region with low financial constraints, weak environmental regulations, high marketization, and among firms exporting primarily to developing countries. The findings offer empirical evidence and policy recommendations for governments to address the challenges of uncertainty shocks and improve environmental pollution governance, considering regional heterogeneity effects.

Moreover, Sun and Gao (2024) investigate the complex relationships between digital transformation, economic growth, and environmental pollutants in China, specifically at the prefecture-level cities, considering spatial dependence. Using spatial Durbin models, the study analyzes the nonlinear impacts of digital transformation on various environmental pollutants, focusing on spatial spillover effects. For the mechanism explanation, the channels include technological progress, industrial structural upgrading, and green finance. The empirical evidence provided in this study offers guidance for policy directions, helping governments navigate the environmental challenges associated with rapid industrial transitions and technological expansion.

Turning to the consequence of emission market reform, Xu et al. (2024) examine the effects of the carbon emission trading scheme on green innovation in China, considering the interactive behaviors such as competition and learning between local and neighboring cities. Similarly, the spatial difference-in-differences model is employed to estimate these effects using data from prefectural cities in China. The findings indicate that establishing a national unified carbon market can enhance the development of green innovation.

2.2 Other quantitative studies on carbon emission and climate change

Computable general equilibrium models and dynamic models are critical for understanding the complex interplay between infrastructure, economy, and climate policy across different regions. This special issue includes three papers focusing on Europe and the USA. These studies illuminate the diverse economic and environmental challenges and opportunities faced by different regions, offering valuable insights for policymakers aiming to enhance resilience and sustainability in the face of climate change. The three papers summarized here collectively underscore the significant impacts of climate change, policy interventions, and economic resilience in varying contexts.

Lucindo et al. (2024) study Europe’s preparedness for a future without emissions, focusing on the energy transition across various economic sectors. The paper examines the relationship between emissions, economic growth, and energy consumption across 32 European countries from 1990 to 2019, highlighting the challenges and progress in decarbonization. Based on a dynamic model that accounts for potential structural breaks, they find most European countries exhibit a decoupling between emissions and economic growth. However, a contrasting trend is observed between emissions and energy consumption. The investigation also conducts individual analysis for each country to capture the heterogeneity in decoupling processes and the impact of historical shocks. The study provides a comprehensive analysis of the progress and challenges in Europe’s energy transition, emphasizing the need for targeted policies to achieve sustainable economic growth and significant emission reductions.

Almstrom et al. (2024) investigate the economic and regional effects of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden to meet national carbon emission reduction goals. The focus is on understanding how this policy change affects different sectors and regions. Utilizing the spatial computable general equilibrium model STRAGO, the study aims to demonstrate how different sectors and regions in Sweden are affected by a climate scenario involving a gradual rise in the carbon tax. The study highlights the importance of considering regional and sectoral differences when designing and implementing carbon tax policies to ensure effective and equitable outcomes.

Meanwhile, Chen and Cheng (2024) present an analysis focusing on the USA. The paper explores the economic impacts of disruption in the inland waterway transportation system, focusing on the Upper Mississippi River–Illinois River (UMR-IR) region. These disruptions arise from climate change and aging infrastructure, affecting the regional economy, particularly the agricultural sector. Disruptions from climate-induced extreme weather events and scheduled maintenance have severe economic consequences on the UMR-IR region and beyond. Methodologically, the study employs an integrated modeling approach combining spatial econometric modeling and multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling techniques. This approach captures the spatial interdependence between the regional economy and shipping rate changes due to disruptions. The findings underscore the importance of strategic planning and investment in enhancing the resilience of inland waterway systems to climate change and infrastructure challenges.

2.3 Theoretical analyses on carbon emissions and climate change

Both theoretical studies by Chen et al. (2024) and Lin et al. (2024) provide valuable insights into the intersection of climate change and spatial economics, utilizing modeling techniques to explore the complex dynamics of these fields. Despite focusing on different aspects, their shared foundation lies in the application of theoretical analysis to understand the spatial and economic impacts of climate-related factors and policies.

Unlike existing literature that focuses on post-disaster regional impacts, Chen et al. (2024) examine how the perception of disaster exposure influences regional population flows through household location decisions using a quantitative spatial equilibrium model. To guide the subsequent empirical analyses, they elaborate on the quantitative spatial equilibrium model, which identifies critical drivers for regional migration. For the empirical section, a generalized additive model is used to analyze US county-level data, capturing the nonlinear impact of disaster exposure on migration. From theory to empirics, it is a good attempt to promote structural analysis in regional science.

Most importantly, Lin et al. (2024) investigate the impact of environmental regulation policies on emission behavior across different market structures through theoretical analysis. The authors develop a general equilibrium model to compare the market efficiencies of the carbon tax (CT) and the emissions trading scheme (ETS). Under the assumption of monopolistic competition and heterogeneous firms, it is found that the ETS is more effective in an economy with a high degree of heterogeneity. At the same time, the CT is more beneficial in economies with lower heterogeneity. Additionally, the authors highlight that both policies fail to achieve the social optimum. They also show that the misallocation of labor in manufacturing production between sectors contributes to the inefficiency of policy equilibria. The theoretical analysis in this paper significantly fills the gap in model investigations in the economics of climate change. The findings suggest that governments need to consider economic structure and specific stages of development when implementing policies.

3 Concluding remarks

Spatial considerations and spatial analysis are essential in the interconnected fields of environmental and energy economics because they provide a more in-depth understanding of the geographical dimensions of climate change and carbon abatement. Climate change and carbon performance exhibit regional heterogeneity due to different geographical endowments and socio-economic conditions. More importantly, carbon emissions and place-based policies often have unintended consequences in adjacent areas, known as spatial spillovers.

Our special issue has attracted a diverse array of papers exploring various aspects of the spatial features of climate behavior. The richness of submissions provides valuable insights into how spatial economics shapes the path to carbon neutrality. Whether through empirical studies employing causal inference or computable general equilibrium models, these contributions enhance our understanding of the potential factors affecting carbon performance. Furthermore, the general equilibrium model and spatial migration model offer micro-foundations and mechanisms underlying emissions behavior.

However, the coverage of this special issue on the topic is far from complete regarding methodology, regional targets, and data collection. Our special issue aims to initiate a discussion on the importance of spatial elements in climate studies, akin to casting a sprat to catch a mackerel. We hope this small collection of relevant articles will inspire further research in this direction. Regional science, with its abundance of analytical tools, will play an increasingly important role in future studies, especially in the era of artificial intelligence. By leveraging these tools, researchers can continue to uncover the intricate spatial dynamics of climate change and contribute to the development of more effective and equitable policies for carbon abatement.

(1) Chen Meng-Ting, Zhang Shiyan, Zhang Jiakai. (2024). Carbon Emissions from the Perspective of Regional Competition: Evidence from China’s Low-carbon City Policy.

Chen Meng-Ting: Soochow University

Zhang Shiyan: The Pennsylvania State University

Zhang Jiakai: New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology.

(2) Lv Kangjuan, Fan Yijing, Cheng Yu. (2024). How Does Regional Integration Affect CO2 Emission Intensity? A Natural Experiment Based on the Expansion of the Yangtze.

Lv Kangjuan: Shanghai University

Fan Yijing: Shanghai University

Cheng Yu: Shanghai University

(3) Liu Qing, Ding Guoyu, Shu Kedong. (2024). Economic Policy Uncertainty, Firm Carbon Emissions and Regional Heterogeneity: Evidence from China’s Exporters.

Liu Qing: Hefei University of Technology

Ding Guoyu: Hefei University of Technology

Shu Kedong: Henan University of Economics and Law

(4) Liu Ye, Wu Yiyun, Zhu Xiwei. (2024). Industrial Clusters and Carbon Emission Reduction Evidence from China.

Liu Ye: Zhejiang University of Technology

Wu Yiyun: Zhejiang University of Finance & Economics

Zhu Xiwei: Zhejiang University

(5) Sun Hongye and Gao Gongjing. (2024). How Does Digital Transformation Affect the Emissions of Environmental Pollutants? From the Perspective of Nonlinear Nexuses.

Sun Hongye: University of Jinan

Gao Gongjing: University of Jinan

(6) Xu Jingru, Tong Xiangjing, Yang Baochen. (2024). The Spatial Spillover Effect of Carbon Emission Trading Scheme on Green Innovation in China’s Cities.

Xu Jingru:Tianjin University

Tong Xiangjing:Tianjin University

Yang Baochen:Tianjin University

(7) Lucindo Jesus, Feijóo Marisa, González-Álvarez María A. (2024). Is Europe Prepared to Live without Emissions? A Dynamic Analysis of the Energy Transition in Economic Sectors.

Lucindo Jesus: University of Zaragoza

Feijóo Marisa: University of Zaragoza

González-Álvarez María A: University of Zaragoza

(8) Almstrom Peter, Anderstig Christer, Sundberg Marcus. (2024). Effects on Sectors and Regions of a Carbon Tax Increase in Sweden –Analysis with an SCGE Model.

Almstrom Peter: The Swedish Transport Administration (Swedish: Trafikverket)

Anderstig Christer: WSP Sverige AB

Sundberg Marcus: The Swedish Transport Administration (Swedish: Trafikverket)

(9) Chen Zhenhua and Cheng Junmei. (2024). Economic Consequences of Inland Waterway Disruptions in the Upper Mississippi River Region in a Changing Climate.

Chen Zhenhua: The Ohio State University

Cheng Junmei: The Ohio State University

(10) Chen Yong, Kim Myungjin, Fouzia Sultana. (2024). Climate-Related Disaster Exposure and Regional Migration.

Chen Yong: Oregon State University

Kim Myungjin: Kyungpook National University

Fouzia Sultana: University of California, Berkeley

(11) Lin Kefu, Pan Rui, Zeng Dao-Zhi. (2024). Carbon Tax vs. Emission Trading in a Monopolistically Competitive Market with Heterogeneous Firms.

Lin Kefu: Tokai University

Pan Rui: Tohoku University

Zeng Dao-Zhi: Tohoku University

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Wang, J., Zhu, X. & Chen, Y. Climate change, carbon neutrality: the role of spatial economics. Ann Reg Sci (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-024-01294-x

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Rethinking education in the context of climate change

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essay climate change c1

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State-of-the-art scientific evidence shows that our planet is approaching several environmental and climate tipping points faster than previously expected. This means that the international community is facing a rapidly closing window of opportunity to achieve profound transformations across sectors, systems and mindsets to secure a sustainable and liveable future. What is the role of education system in enabling social change at the massive scale and pace needed for climate change mitigation? And what policy levers can they employ to build resilience and adapt to environmental challenges? This paper explores ways to rethink educational approaches in the context of climate change, focussing primarily on school education, while exploring links to other levels of education. It looks specifically at strategies to restructure foundational science education and cross-curricular learning, zooms in on the potential of place-based approaches in empowering learners for action, and concludes by identifying policy levers to increase education system resilience.

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    The collection of papers in this special issue examines empirical evidence from Asia, Europe, and North America, analyzes how climate change affects the spatial economy, and explores the feasibility of carbon neutrality as a countermeasure to climate change. It begins by discussing the research background, the motivation for emphasizing spatial considerations, and the analysis in climate ...

  24. Rethinking education in the context of climate change

    Research and working papers with deep dives and findings. Policy papers and briefs. Policy recommendations and case studies. Featured publications. ... This paper explores ways to rethink educational approaches in the context of climate change, focussing primarily on school education, while exploring links to other levels of education. ...

  25. Review Essay on Climate Migration

    The relationship between climate change and human migration is fraught with complexities and cannot be easily explained or conceptualized. Identifying groups that migrate solely due to climate change is challenging, given the various economic and socio-political factors influencing their decision to move.

  26. Climate Change: For A Better World, For Us

    Climate is a complex system that includes the atmosphere, land masses, oceans, bodies of water, snow, ice floes, and living things. This system changes depending on internal or external factors, and this is called "Climate Change". The biggest cause of climate change is humans. With the industrial revolution that took place in the early ...

  27. Evolution of the Climate of the Earth

    This paper compares the ideas contained in the main papers published on climate change since World War II to arrive at a suggested consensus of our present knowledge regarding climatic changes and … Expand. 2. PDF. Save. Related Papers. Showing 1 through 3 of 0 Related Papers. 1 Citation;

  28. Climate Change In The Language Classroom

    Climate change is an issue we need to be thinking about and it provides us with an opportunity to integrate 21st century skills into our communicative language classroom: communication, creativity, critical thinking and collaboration will be essential for our students in the workforce and in life. We can do this in the language classroom with ...