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  • DOI: 10.2307/3034856
  • Corpus ID: 145807624

Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropriation

  • B. Ziff , P. V. Rao
  • Published 1 December 1998
  • History, Art
  • Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute

164 Citations

Toward a theory of cultural appropriation, tradition: three traditions, hybridity: the cultural logic of globalization, native voices on native appropriation, the costume of shangri-la: thoughts on white privilege, cultural appropriation, and anti-asian racism, the cultural processes of "appropriation", from cultural exchange to transculturation: a review and reconceptualization of cultural appropriation, the cultural divide: traditional cultural expressions and the entertainment industry in developing economies, away from violence toward justice: a content analysis of cultural appropriation claims from 2013–2020, pragmatism and the methodology of comparative rhetoric, related papers.

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BRUCE ZIFF and PRATIMA V. RAO (eds.), Borrowed Power. Essays on Cultural Appropriation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997, x + 337 p., paper.

If you were Cherokee, would you buy a Jeep Cherokee? If you are Inuk, how do you feel about soapstone carvings made out of plastic in China? Ifyou are Black, did you really enjoy Pat Boone's interpretation of Little Richard's "Tutti frutti"? If you are Quebecois, do you smile when Mike Duffy summarizes your political aspirations on TV?

These (like many other) questions provide examples of cultural appropriation, the borrowing or taking from others. This is a process most directly relevant to anthropology and other...

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Offers an enticing collection of essays on the complex and urgent issue of cultural appropriation by a remarkably heterogeneous group of scholars and critics. Ali Behdad, associate professor of English and comparative literature, UCLA, and author of Belated Travelers

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Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation, Bruce Ziff & Pratima Rao, eds.

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Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropiation / edited by Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao

  • New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, c1997
  • x, 337 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
  • 0813523710 (alkaline paper) (cloth)
  • 0813523729 (alkaline paper) (paperback)
  • Introduction to Cultural Appropriation: A Framework for Analysis / Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao
  • Pt. 1. The Appropriation of Music and Musical Forms. African-American Music: Dynamics of Appropriation and Innovation / Perry A. Hall. Ethnomusicology and Music Law / Anthony Seeger
  • Pt. 2. Appropriation in Art and Narrative. Stop Stealing Native Stories / Lenore Keeshig-Tobias. The Properties of Culture and the Possession of Identity: Postcolonial Struggle and the Legal Imagination / Rosemary J. Coombe. The Disappearing Debate; or, How the Discussion of Racism Has Been Taken Over by the Censorship Issue / M. Nourbese Philip. Re-appropriating Cultural Appropriation / Kwame Dawes. In the Red / Joane Cardinal-Schubert
  • Pt. 3. Appropriation in Colonial and Postcolonial Discourse. Translating and Resisting Empire: Cultural Appropriation and Postcolonial Studies / Jonathan Hart. Nahua Colonial Discourse and the Appropriation of the (European) Other / J. Jorge Klor de Alva.
  • Pt. 4. Appropriation in Popular Culture. Memory and Misrepresentation: Representing Crazy Horse in Tribal Court / Nell Jessup Newton. "White Indians": Appropriation and the Politics of Display / Deborah Root
  • Pt. 5. The Appropriation of Scientific Knowledge. Native American Intellectual Property Rights: Issues in the Control of Esoteric Knowledge / James D. Nason. Of Seeds and Shamans: The Appropriation of the Scientific and Technical Knowledge of Indigenous and Local Communities / Naomi Roht-Arriaza
  • Pt. 6. Appropriation and Tangible Cultural Property. Beyond Repatriation: Cultural Policy and Practice for the Twenty-first Century / James D. Nason. A Coming Together: The Norton Allen Collection, the Tohono O'odham Nation, and the Arizona State Museum / Lynn S. Teague, Joseph T. Joaquin and Hartman H. Lomawaima. Cultural Appropriation: A Selected Bibliography / Pratima V. Rao.
  • Anthropology -- Philosophy
  • Culture -- Philosophy
  • Intellectual property
  • Cultural property -- Protection
  • Art (Appropriation)
  • Power (Social sciences)
  • Ziff, Bruce H
  • Rao, Pratima V., 1962-

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borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

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Bruce ziff, and pratima v. rao, eds. borrowed power: essays on cultural appropriation. new brunswick, new jersey: rutgers university press, 1997. x, 337 pp., bibliography, index., review products.

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 March 2019

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/768557

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Wright, Shelley --- "Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation by Bruce Ziff and Pratima V Rao" [1997] SydLawRw 30; (1997) 19(4) Sydney Law Review 580

Borrowed power: essays on cultural appropriation by bruce ziff and pratima v rao, rutgers university press, new brunswick, nj, 1997, isbn 0 8135 2372 9.

SHELLEY WRIGHT [*]

  • The taking of sculpted marble friezes from the Parthenon in Athens by order of Lord Elgin and their removal to England where they were eventually sold to the British Museum. After repeated requests and considerable diplomatic strain between Greece and the UK, the British still refuse to return the Elgin Marbles.
  • The recording by an American folksinger of an ancient Senegalese folk song, the composer of which is not known.
  • The taking of an Amazonian Indian arrow poison, used in hunting, by a pharmaceutical company from which the muscle relaxant d-turbocurarine is patented and marketed.
  • The publication of stories by a white writer belonging to a Canadian West Coast Native band, which can customarily only be told by certain elders.
  • The painting by a non-Aboriginal artist of works based on images taken from Native cultures in North America including patterns and symbols found on carpets, earthware, blankets and clothing, and Native people dressed in traditional clothing.
  • The adoption by the Nahua peoples of Mexico of the discourses of colonial Spain, assimilating cultural practices of European origin.
  • The publication by W P Kinsella of stories set on the Hobbema Indian reserve in Alberta, Canada where some of the fictional characters are given names of real people living on the reserve.
  • The adoption by audiences in America, and around the world, of musical forms derived from the artistic expression of former slaves brought to America from Africa, including jazz, blues, soul, rap and other forms. [1]

For Indigenous peoples, cultural appropriation, including the taking of ancient artefacts and human remains, the desecration of sacred sites, and the use of intellectual property as contained in stories, art works or medicinal plant products without permission or compensation, is a serious problem. This collection of essays is an excellent and timely analysis of these issues focusing particularly on an Indigenous perspective. The editors were careful to include essays by Indigenous writers themselves, as well as non-Indigenous commentators and experts. Both male and female perspectives are included and a variety of different approaches are represented. This provides a valuable balance to much of the literature in this area which has, until recently, been largely the product of non- Indigenous perspectives on Indigenous cultures. In addition, it also adds a female voice to what has been a debate overwhelmingly dominated by males. Some of the essays have been previously published while others are the work of writers who are already well-known in their respective fields (as with James D Nason on cultural property). Other essays appear to be original and valuable contributions solicited for this collection alone.

The essays are grouped according to cultural forms and major issues within the debate over cultural appropriation as it is currently developing. Part 1 deals with The Appropriation of Music and Musical Forms including essays by Perry Hall and Anthony Seeger on African-American music, and ethnomusicology and the law. Part 2 deals with Appropriation in Art and Narrative and includes essays by Lenore Keeshig-Tobias, Rosemary J Coombe, M Nourbese Philip, Kwame Dawes and Joane Cardinal Schubert on the stealing of native stories, post-colonial struggle and the problem of identity, the taking of stories and racism, and how cultural appropriation can form the basis of re-appropriation or cultural renaissance. Part 3 is on Appropriation in Colonial and Post-colonial Discourse, an extremely important aspect of the discussion. There are two essays by Jonathan Hart on cultural appropriation, translating and resisting empire, and by J Jorge Klor de Alva on the experiences of the Nahua peoples of Mexico and the appropriation of the (European) Other. Part 4 is on Appropriation in Popular Culture and includes essays by Nell Jessup Newton and Deborah Root on the representation of the Lakota leader Crazy Horse in beer advertisements and subsequent litigation in Tribal Court in the US, and on White Indians. Part 5 looks at The Appropriation of Scientific Knowledge with essays by James D Nason on Native American control of esoteric knowledge and by Naomi Roht-Arriaza on the taking of scientific and technical knowledge from Indigenous peoples and local communities. Finally, Part 6 deals with the more well-known side of the discussion in Appropriation and Tangible Cultural Property with another essay by James D Nason on repatriation of cultural objects in an American context, and an example of a successful collaboration between a private collector, an Indian Nation and a museum in the US (by Lynn S Teague, Joseph T Joaquin and Hartman H Lomawaima). Finally there is a select bibliography based on each of the essays by Pratima V Rao.

The essays appear to have been selected or requested as a means of complicating the current discourses of cultural appropriation and misappropriation. Much of the debate, until recently, has concentrated on the taking of cultural artefacts, museum policies and international efforts to control the taking of artefacts and valuable cultural objects. Within the last ten years or less there has been an additional contribution by a very few intellectual property lawyers who have tried to include issues of the taking of currently produced creative works, particularly from Indigenous peoples, as an important side of the problem. Indigenous peoples themselves have long been concerned with the disappearance and destruction of their cultures, languages, religions, scientific and technical knowledge and resources through the appropriation of land and the oppression of their communities by colonial influences. These influences are not only European. Indigenous communities in decolonised countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Burma, Thailand, Bangladesh, much of South America and parts of Africa, as well as the Pacific region, are under increasing threat of appropriation and disappearance as a result of economic development policies, environmental destruction, and nationalistic culture and language laws in many countries.

Australian and New Zealand experiences are not represented in these essays. Although the focus is largely North American, many of the same issues are being seen as increasingly important in this part of the world. In Australia there has been some litigation of intellectual property issues in the Courts, a rather unusual development. Johnny Bulun Bulun, a well-known artist from Central Australia, was able to obtain some compensation from the makers of t-shirts aimed at a tourist market on which one of his works of art had been reproduced without his permission, or even with his knowledge. [3] As a result of Bulun Buluns initiative, fifteen other Aboriginal artists were able to join with him in a settlement for compensation involving similar types of reproduction. The taking and use of Aboriginal artworks on a wide variety of artefacts sold to tourists and other buyers is so commonplace in Australia as to be ubiquitous. Very rarely has permission or consent to reproduce been obtained from either individual artists or their communities, and compensation or some form of royalty is almost never paid.

In the case of Yumbulul v Reserve Bank of Australia [4] a reproduction of a work of art, the Morning Star Pole, by Terry Yumbulul appeared on an Australian ten dollar note. Such poles are usually used in funeral ceremonies for important people. Use and reproduction of the poles are governed by customary law. This particular pole had been (and is currently) displayed in the Australian Museum in Sydney, as authorised by the Galpu clan group. What was not authorised was the use of a picture of the pole on money. Mr Yumbulul unsuccessfully sued both the Aboriginal Artists Agency (who had licensed the work on behalf of the artist) and the Reserve Bank of Australia for copyright infringement. The Federal Court, in failing to find that there had been infringement, did note that Australian law does not adequately protect the interests of Aboriginal communities under current copyright law. Mr Yumbulul was severely criticised by his own community for allowing the reproduction to happen, and the issue proved very divisive. Mr Bulun Bulun had also suffered considerable emotional and spiritual distress as a result of the misappropriation of his artwork.

The most recent case involving the taking of Aboriginal art has been described as a kind of mini- Mabo on the taking of Aboriginal art. This is Milpurrurru, et al v Indofurn, et al [5] or the Carpets Case. Eight very well-known Aboriginal artists had artworks created by them reproduced either exactly, or in a debased form, on carpets manufactured in Vietnam and imported and sold in Australia without the artists permission, contrary to sections 38 and 39 of the Copyright Act. [6] Five of the artists were deceased by the time the action for copyright was brought and were represented by the Public Trustee of the Northern Territory. It was argued in the case that the works could not be protected because they drew on traditional designs and were therefore not original nor products of the individual authors. The Federal Court dismissed this argument and found in favour of the artists. In addition, the Federal Court also found that there had been substantial reproduction of some of the artworks which were not exact replicas of the originals. In doing so the Court took into account the significance of those features of the works which had been reproduced based on their importance within the Aboriginal cultural traditions within which the artists had lived and worked. In addition the Court awarded damages based not only on the commercial value of the artworks, but also on the personal and cultural harm which the unauthorised reproductions had caused. The award of damages was made collectively to all the artists and their representatives to divide it up in accordance with community and cultural standards, as well as on the basis of individual harm. To date, no compensation has in fact been paid. Nevertheless, this is a landmark case in that it specifically approaches copyright law in a flexible and culturally sensitive manner, indicating that courts in Australia (and elsewhere) can use existing laws to protect Aboriginal cultural creation, at least to some extent and in some cases.

In 1994 the Australian government under a Labour administration took the initiative, in consultation with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission [ATSIC], to find ways of better protecting the production of Aboriginal arts and crafts. There was released an Issues Paper, Stopping the Rip- Offs: Intellectual Property Protection for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. [7] Submissions were received and the matter is now being furthered by the Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property Project, a joint initiative of the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) and ATSIC. The mandate of this Project is considerably wider than that discussed in Stopping the Rip-Offs as it also includes questions of protection of scientific and technical knowledge, human genetic material, cultural property more generally and the protection of sacred sites and objects. A Discussion Paper was released in 1997 entitled Our Culture/Our Future: Proposals for Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property [8] which provides a valuable review of law and policies relating to these issues in Australia.

New Zealand has also seen some important developments in this area, including hosting the first Indigenous international gathering on cultural and intellectual property which resulted in the Mataatua Declaration of 1993 which states that cultural and intellectual property are of central importance to all Indigenous peoples and is crucial to the right of self-determination. This, and other documents and initiatives by Indigenous peoples, stress that laws and policies in relation to cultural property must be made by Indigenous peoples themselves, or at least in close consultation with them. Since then New Zealand has undertaken discussions with Maori groups to reform trademarks law to prevent the registration of culturally offensive marks. In addition, the Waitangi Tribunal is now hearing a major claim by several Maori individuals and groups relating to all aspects of the ownership of cultural and intellectual property.

The Ziff and Rao book provides a helpful selection of critical and analytical perspectives on these issues, as well as valuable information about developments in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Issues of cultural appropriation and representation are extremely difficult. Major concerns of Indigenous peoples include how material can be shared, or not shared, depending on community as well as individual requirements; the issue of consent, what it consists of, who is entitled to give it and how it is obtained; matters of compensation where cultural material is shared; the problem of individual versus community needs and values; and finally, the major issue of colonial and neo-colonial attitudes on the part of dominant cultures. Mainstream cultures in North America, as well as in Australia and New Zealand, have difficulty understanding how important these issues are from an Indigenous perspective, and how crucial protection of culture, language, religion, knowledge and creativity is for the self-determination, human rights and development of Indigenous peoples. It is not only greed and deliberate theft or destruction which is a problem, but also ignorance and the blindness of members of the dominant culture in failing to recognise and respect the different cultural needs of others.

One hopeful prospect in Australia is the development of Mabo type reasoning, and the expansion of native title, to include cultural and intellectual property. [9] Although current debates over native title do not give rise to an optimistic prognosis for expansion of Aboriginal rights, it is nevertheless important to remember that such discussions are at least partly determined by temporary political expediency, and that long-term prospects for positive change are still possible. It is clear from the Mabo judgement itself that matters of cultural interpretation and custom are crucial to any determination of native title issues:

Native title has its origin in and is given its content by the traditional laws acknowledged by and the traditional customs observed by the Indigenous inhabitants of a territory. The nature and incidents of native title must be ascertained as a matter of fact by reference to those laws and customs.10

Protection of Aboriginal customs, laws, cultural practices and artefacts are therefore crucial even if only from an evidentiary perspective. In addition, Aboriginal culture is itself intimately and inextricably connected to the land. Native title cannot exist without Aboriginal cultural heritage as an essential incident to it. Surrender of native title means surrender of Aboriginal culture, a matter of absolute and crucial urgency among Aboriginal peoples themselves. But it should also be a matter of urgency within the wider Australian community as our economic development and national identity so largely and clearly rests on an Aboriginal infra-structure of appropriation and representation. Australianness cannot exist in any authentic context without a serious and honest reappraisal of our past, present and future relationships with the Indigenous inhabitants of this continent.

But such reappraisals, or even reconciliation, cannot be achieved without considerable pain and difficulty. The nature of the search cannot be to find some elusive concept of certainty which is no more possible on the level of culture than it is in land rights. The Ziff and Rao collection of essays provides a serious and diverse range of views, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous, which may be useful in sorting through issues of cultural misappropriation and misrepresentation in an Australasian context. As they say in their introductory essay:

What is cultural appropriation? Why should we care about it? How, if at all, should we respond? As the book progresses, the different modes of appropriation will become apparent; so, too, will the conceptions of community that the authors adopt. Our hope is that these values will shine through. Some of the contributors reflect concerns about cultural degradation. They claim that appropriators steal their cultural soul, misrepresent them, silence their voices, purport to speak for them. Because of this, important cultural goods may be weakened and destroyed. Some of the essays are based on aesthetics and stewardship. These claim that cultural treasures are sometimes diluted, altered, ruined, commodified; that sacred practices are trivialised; and that their sacredness is ignored or profaned. Other essays adopt a stance based on material deprivation. Appropriators abscond with the profits of someone elses intellectual property. They free ride on the property of others without proper compensation or recognition. Allied to this are claims of sovereignty in which these assertions are heard: We conceive of these cultural goods as ours and so have the right to control their use. Through appropriation, these sovereign claims are ignored. [11]

These, and other issues, are canvassed in these essays. I unreservedly recommend this book as a valuable contribution to the debate. I believe it should be required reading for anyone, either within the legal community or in a wider context, who is interested in Aboriginal reconciliation, cultural appropriation and national development. It is important that we, as members of the dominant culture, listen to these claims and statements and think how they may affect our own cultural conceptions, and misconceptions. They are as important as questions of native title, sovereignty, self-determination and the nature of Australian constitutional life. As has been said in another context:

For North West Coast Indian Artists, the act of creativity comes from the cosmos. That is what I have been told by the old people. When Im making Art, I am one with the universe. You can see it in the work, if you look with your heart, as well as your mind. If you really pay attention, you can get the message - and make it your own, without diminishing it or appropriating it. If we pay attention, First Nations Art will remind us of this basic rule for being a human being: When I diminish others belongingness in the universe, my own belongingness becomes uncertain. Canada is an image which hasnt emerged yet. Because this country hasnt recognised its First Nations, its whole foundation is shaky. If Canada is to emerge as a nation with cultural identity and purpose, we have to accept First Nations Art, and what it has to tell us about the spirit and the land. Our Art is our cultural identity; its our politics. The late George Manuel said, This land is our culture. I add to that, Our culture is this land. Whether you acknowledge it or ignore it, the land and the culture are one. Land claims have to be settled, before Canadians can look at themselves in the mirror and see an image they would be proud to see. [12]

I would suggest that what is said here by a Canadian Indigenous artist is as true for Australia and New Zealand as it is for Canada.

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Cultural Appropriation: Yours, mine, theirs, or a new intercultural?

Profile image of deepsikha chatterjee

2020, Cultural Appropriation: Yours, mine, theirs, or a new intercultural?

This article considers how by shifting culturally anchored design materials from one context to simplistic placement in decontextualized settings, cultural appropriation takes place in costume design. Building on that, it discusses how production teams need to be cognizant of such issues in the design process given that availability of such materials has historically been possible because acquisition has often aligned with political and commercial ambitions. Reviewing scholarship on appropriation that includes performance, costume, fashion and cultural studies, it questions how designing costumes through intercultural interaction might be navigated in a globalized context, where artists are excluded through travel bans, but cultural materials are permitted free movement. The article then discusses how to create productive intercultural projects with teams willing to invest in ethical engagement. By including case studies in which such processes were less successful as well as one that indeed created new intercultural exchanges, this article is one of the first texts to address this complex issue. It intends to engender future forward thinking conversations with practitioners and researchers on the thorny but urgent issue of cultural appropriation through costume.

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Fashion, style & popular culture

Susan Kaiser

borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

Springer proceedings in business and economics

Flavia Piancazzo

Denise Nicole Green , Susan Kaiser

The great irony of a special issue about ‘Fashion and Appropriation’ is that the topic is simultaneously passé and ever-relevant. Both producers and consumers of fashion have long expressed a fascination with difference, the ‘exotic’, ambiguity, and uncertainty through style-fashion-dress (Tulloch 2010; Kaiser 2012). In addition to fuelling fashion change, these inclinations have also encouraged various forms of appropriation, making this topic an ongoing, yet deeply historical, debate. Appropriation is a complex political and ethical discussion with many nuances and layers that require careful and critical unpacking; the articles in this special issue approach this complexity from different angles and perspectives. We hope that each of these papers will encourage readers to think about appropriation in new ways, engage with its various definitions and articulations, and consider the impact appropriation has on communities, identities, economies, and aesthetics.

Barbara Pozzo

Fashion is considered an element of "cultural identity". At the same time, it has always been a dynamic phenomenon in which different styles, designs and models converged, acting both as a source of attraction for designers as well as a source of inspiration to draw and depart from in an attempt at innovation. Influences were reciprocal, with the phenomenon of Orientalism going hand in hand with that of Occidentalism. Today's discussion focuses on the vindication by various ethnic groups of ways to protect their own folklore as expression of their own cultural identity. The questions that arise are manifold. This contribution aims at framing the problem in the nowadays fashion industry as well as investigating the various possibilities of protecting folklore while preserving cultural identity. The discussion will deal with recent studies that have analyzed the various aspects of cultural appropriation. Intellectual property will be taken into consideration as a way to protect folklore. Nevertheless, this article suggests that other options for achieving protection of cultural heritage and folklore emerge in the field of Private Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility that will offer new opportunities to tackle the problem of cultural appropriation in the fashion world.

Daniela Monasterios Tan

This essay contends that ethnic dress has become a commodity devoid of meaning in western fashion and it will trace this through the way in which fashion designers and journalists have been appropriating ethnicity in relation to promoting it as a commodity to satisfy consumer behavior. In order to examine this phenomenon it is necessary to establish what constitutes as ethnic dress and what kind of meaning it holds in its original context. When discussing meaning of clothing, references to both Malcolm Barnard (2002, 2007) and Roland Barthes (2006) will serve as a pivot for the central argument. Using Edward Said’s (1995) theory of orientalism the reader will understand why ethnicity has been extensively used in fashion which will then be followed by a study and break down on the changes that designers make to the meaning in accordance to their design process. The essay will end with a discussion on the need for a conscious appropriation of ethnicity in terms and how a post-modern approach could serve to update the fashion vocabulary into the years to come.

Sofia Pantouvaki

The first issue of "Studies in Costume and Performance" draws materials from Critical Costume 2015, a significant international costume-based event that took place at Aalto University, Helsinki, in March 2015. [...] Critical Costume 2015 was a three-day event consisting of an academic conference that included presentations of theoretical approaches and practice-as-research, as well as an exhibition of costume art, costume design and costume research. [...] Critical Costume 2015 was a significant feedback event for the ‘Costume Methodologies’ project, allowing to map the field of costume research by identifying areas of research interests, research approaches and individuals involved in costume research at an international level. [...] The content of this issue evidences the diversity of approaches in conceptualizing costume. This is seen in both the variety of topics presented and the fields of practice they represent (film, theatre, dance, television and popular culture), as well as in the background of the authors. It is also reflected in the formats of writing, namely articles, visual essays, reflections and reviews. In addition to new research, critical reflections and reviews bear testimony to the event itself, along with a number of reviews of other costume-related events from the international field in the year 2015.

Smruti Mahapatra

DIS '20: Proceedings of the 2020 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference

Eva Hornecker

Deploying wearable technologies in the performing arts not only concerns costume wearers but affects further stakeholders whose work is impacted by the interactive effects or who help maintain the technology. Beyond the wearer, literature neglects how these other stakeholders engage with interactive costumes, though a performance production is based on the contribution of many parties. We conducted a longitudinal study to examine how stakeholders of a youth ballet production experience and appropriate interactive costuming. Our findings suggest that user experiences vary according to stakeholders' closeness to the costume, background and taste, the costume interaction mode and social environment. We expand existing models of technology appropriation with two novel technology relations: professional reserve and polite indifference. Based on these, we suggest integration into existing practices, to design for the show, and create positive experiences to incorporate interactive costumes in the performing arts and discuss relevance for other professional fields.

Studies in Theatre and Performance

Rachel Hann

In this article, I present an argument for a proposed focus of ‘critical costume’. Critical Costume, as a research platform, was founded in 2013 to promote new debate and scholarship on the status of costume in contemporary art and culture. We have now hosted two biennial conferences and exhibitions (Edge Hill University 2013, Aalto University 2015). These events have exposed an international appetite for a renewed look at how costume is studied, practised and theorized. Significantly, Critical Costume is focused on an inclusive remit that is interdisciplinary and supports a range of ‘voices’: from theatre and anthropology scholars to working artists. In that regard, I offer an initial argument for how we might collectively navigate this interdisciplinary field of practice with reference to other self-identified critical approaches to art and design. By focusing on an interdisciplinary perspective on costume, my intention is to invite new readings and connections between popular practices, such as Halloween and cosplay, with the refined crafts of theatrical and film professionals. I argue that costume is a vital element of performance practice – as well as an extra-daily component of our social lives – that affords distinct methods for critiquing how appearance is sustained, disciplined and regulated. I conclude by offering a position on the provocation of critical costume and a word of caution on the argument for disciplinarity.

Dora Malnar

Over the last decade, as the world economies grow so does the global market, the fashion industry and the number of brands. Consequently, the competitiveness grows and the brands have been forced to trying in every way possible to distinguish themselves and stay relevant. In todays' world where social media play such an important role, the price of mistakes they might make for being offensive or not knowing how to tackle the ethical/ethnic/body positive/racist/cultural topics is truly great. This essay deals with the ever so popular question of cultural appropriation and tries to solve the enigma of the thin line between 'borrowing' and 'stealing' from other cultures in the fashion industry through products and through advertising campaigns. It discusses the definition and the question of the culture that is changing faster than ever. There is a great pressure for fashion brands today to be 'woke' and not only aware of the social issues, but to try and make a real difference themselves. What are the roots of the cultural misconceptions, stereotypes and appropriation and why are some cultures more sensitive to this problem than the others are some of the key questions this paper is trying to provide an answer to, while using the examples from around the globe-from the North America to Eastern Europe.

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Book Review

JENNIFER TOPALE, Kutztown University

Shakespeare and Indian Cinemas: “Local Habitations.” Poonam Trivedi and Paromita Chakravarti, eds. New York: Routledge, 2019. 344 pp. $170 (cloth); $52.95 (paper); $37.06 (eBook). ISBN 978-1-1389-4692-7; ISBN 978-0-3676-6577-7; ISBN 978-1-3156-7040-9.

The important attempts by scholars to diversify the literary canon and include marginalized figures and voices lead many early modernists to wonder what role Shakespeare will continue to play in academic settings. In what ways has Shakespeare affected education across the globe? How will the teaching of his texts change to include more diverse perspectives and identities? Outside of academia, how has Shakespeare contributed to cultural identity across time and location? Shakespeare and Indian Cinemas: “Local Habitations,” edited by Poonam Trivedi and Paromita Chakravarti, successfully broadens conversations in Shakespearean studies to include not only the ways that Shakespeare has affected Indian society through colonial influences, but also the ways that Indian culture and norms have modified Shakespeare to make him a transnational citizen of India. The book looks specifically at the ways that Indian cinema has used Shakespeare to tell Indian stories and represent Indian identities, including regional/local identities outside of the larger mainstream Bollywood film industry. Trivedi and Chakravarti best summarize Shakespeare’s influence on Indian cinema by saying that the films “show differing degrees of transculturation, transformation and citation” (2), where Shakespeare’s texts are not always strictly represented, but instead, his plays are used as reflections within larger Indian storytelling. Trivedi and Chakravarti write that Shakespeare becomes “truly ‘homed’, not just translated and adapted but adopted and assimilated as one of our own” (10).

The book acts as an encyclopedic reference for the numerous Indian films that have incorporated Shakespeare in some way. It is separated into four sections of essays, a fifth section of interviews, and a final section that provides a list of influential, relevant Indian films. Any scholar interested in delving into the expansive world of Indian cinematic adaptations of Shakespeare would benefit from reading this text, as would anyone who is interested in research that considers how Shakespeare studies will grow and develop in a postmodern, postcolonial, and diverse global world. Because the text considers not just how Shakespeare has influenced India, but also how regional/local Indian filmmakers have found their own voices strengthened through Shakespearean translation, adaptation, and appropriation, much of the research in the book can be further investigated by scholars across literature, film, and postcolonial studies.

The first essay section begins with Poonam Trivedi’s essay, “Woman as Avenger: ‘Indianising’ the Shakespearean Tragic in the Films of Vishal Bhardwaj,” which looks at how Indian adaptations of Macbeth, Othello , and Hamlet reimagine Shakespeare’s women. Trivedi writes that these films, Maqbool (2004), Omkara (2006), and Haider (2014), respectively, create “an alternative space for female agency and heroism” (40). Robert S. White’s essay “Eklavya: Shakespeare Meets the Mahabharata ” investigates an Indian version of Hamlet, where Shakespeare collaborates with Indian stories, philosophy, and identity, including the Hindu concept of Dharma. Similarly, “Reworking Shakespeare in Telugu Cinema: King Lear to Gunasundari Katha ” by Nishi Pulugurtha discusses how Telugu cinema uses a transcultural approach to Shakespeare by connecting King Lear with Indian myth and folktales. C. S. Venkiteswaran’s essay “Shakespeare in Malayalam Cinema: Cultural and Mythic Interface, Narrative Negotiations,” also connects Shakespeare to indigenous Indian myth in Malayalam cinema through different translations of his plays. The last essay in this section by Koel Chatterjee considers how the Bollywood film Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988) modifies the plot and characters from Romeo and Juliet to address cultural norms in India, including gender expectations and honor feuds.

The second essay section begins with Amrit Gangar’s “The Indian ‘Silent’ Shakespeare: Recouping an Archive,” which researches Shakespeare’s influence on silent films in Indian cinema studies, as well as on Parsi theater. The next essay by Anil Zankar titled “Shakespeare, Cinema and Indian Poetics” reviews the Indian philosophy of aesthetics, called Rasa, across Indian films that adapt or reimagine Shakespeare.

The essays in the third section probe the difference between a globalized Shakespeare and local interpretations/adaptations. Preti Taneja’s “Such a Long Journey: Rohinton Mistry’s Parsi King Lear from Fiction to Film” looks at postcolonial negotiations in Shakespeare and Indian films by comparing the novel Such a Long Journey by Rohinton Mistry and Sturla Gunnarsson’s film adaptation (2002). In “Cinematic Lears and Bengaliness: Locus, Identity, Language,” Paromita Chakravarti explores the way that dichotomies of east/west, tradition/modernity, colonial/postcolonial, and enlightenment values/popular prejudices of the Bengali identity are represented through Indian adaptations of Lear . Varsha Panjwani investigates the ways that Indian indie films have been largely ignored in cinema studies in the essay “Shakespeare and Indian Independent Cinema: 8x10 Tasveer and 10 ml Love .” Panjwani discusses two adaptations of Hamlet and A Midsummer Night’s Dream and how limited resources have affected the way that each film has been received by audiences, as well as how that has opened up creative liberties for the directors to interpret Shakespeare materially. Thea Buckley’s “‘Singing Is Such Sweet Sorrow’: Ambikapathy, Hollywood Shakespeare and Tamil Cinema’s Hybrid Heritage” looks at a Tamil love story adaptation of Romeo and Juliet to discuss sexual taboos and Indian politics.

The fourth section of essays includes four essays: “Gendered Play and Regional Dialogue in Nanjundi Kalyana ” by Mark Thornton Burnett, which investigates an Indian adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew ; “Not the Play but the Playing: Citation of Performing Shakespeare as a Trope in Tamil Cinema” by A. Mangai, which explores how Shakespeare evolved from a literary figure to film adaptation in Tamil cinema; “Indianising The Comedy of Errors: Bhranti Bilash and Its Aftermaths” by Amrita Sen, which discusses multiple different adaptations of the same Shakespearean play across different Indian languages and locations; and, “Regional Reflections: Shakespeare in Assamese Cinema” by Parthajit Baruah, which studies the influence of British colonial rule in Assam, the development of alternative cinema in Assam, and the use of Shakespeare to discuss political themes.

As a whole, the book helps us to better understand how the study of Shakespeare has affected nonwestern audiences, specifically in a postcolonial India, while also providing new innovative ways to interpret and reimagine Shakespeare’s themes and characters. Throughout the essays and interviews, it is evident that Indian cinema is not just appropriating Shakespeare to make a profit, but that these film makers, many of whom do not have formal literary degrees, love Shakespeare for his ability to represent humanity. Although many of the referenced films take creative liberties in their adaptations of Shakespeare, Indian cinema is shown to engage in deep close readings of Shakespeare’s plays, increasing dialogue across film and early modern literary studies.

IMAGES

  1. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation by Bruce Ziff

    borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

  2. Percival Everett's "The Appropriation of Cultures"

    borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

  3. Cultural Appropriation

    borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

  4. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

  5. Three Cheers for Cultural Appropriation

    borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

  6. 13 Cultural Appropriation Examples (2024)

    borrowed power essays on cultural appropriation

VIDEO

  1. Let’s talk about cultural appropriation

  2. The Decameron audiobook

  3. The Cultural Appropriation Conundrum

  4. Valdosta Railway with borrowed power heads into Valdosta

  5. Cultural Appropriation?

COMMENTS

  1. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    Borrowed Power. : Bruce H. Ziff, Pratima V. Rao. Rutgers University Press, 1997 - Law - 337 pages. This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less.

  2. Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropiation : Free Download

    Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropiation. Publication date 1997 Topics Anthropology -- Philosophy, Culture -- Philosophy, Intellectual property, Cultural property -- Protection, Appropriation (Art), Power (Social sciences) Publisher New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press Collection

  3. PDF BORROWED POWER: ESSAYS ON CULTURAL APPROPRIATION, Bruce Ziff

    BOOK REVIEWS. 9BORROWEDPOWER: ES. AYS ON CULTURALAPPROPRIATION, Bruce Ziff& Pr. tima Rao, eds. (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997).This book contains a collection of essays on the important topic of cultural appropriation and makes a valuable contribution to the current debate on protection of intellec.

  4. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  5. Ziff, Bruce and Pratima V. Rao, eds. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural

    musical modes of cultural appropriation (e.g., Messenger 1989). This move towards a more visible interdisciplinary dialogue - one in which Seeger long has been active - benefits all concerned. The remaining sections of Borrowed Power are titled "Appropriation in Art and Narrative," "Appropriation in Colonial and Postcolonial Discourse,"

  6. Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropriation

    Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropriation. An informative and insightful collection of essays about cultural appropriation, focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically. Topics span from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  7. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropiation

    This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  8. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation Kindle Edition

    This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  9. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    BRUCE ZIFF and PRATIMA V. RAO (eds.), Borrowed Power. Essays on Cultural Appropriation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1997, x + 337 p., paper. ... These (like many other) questions provide examples of cultural appropriation, the borrowing or taking from others. This is a process most directly relevant to anthropology and other...

  10. UBC Press

    Rutgers University Press. This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas ...

  11. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation Paperback

    Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation. Paperback - 31 Jan. 1997. This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ...

  12. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation Paperback

    This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  13. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    Professor Bruce Ziff. This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge ...

  14. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    An informative and insightful collection of essays on cultural appropriation, focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically. The topics in this book covers topics from the arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols. Like. Recommend. Bookmark.

  15. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation, Bruce Ziff & Pratima

    Welcome to the Alberta Law Review. The Alberta Law Review (ALR) is a student-run publication whose primary purpose is to enhance discourse on Canadian legal issues. Founded in 1955, the ALR is published by the Alberta Law Review Society, an organization consisting of law students at the University of Alberta and the University of Calgary. Built upon the hard work of student editors at both law ...

  16. Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropriation / edited by Bruce

    Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropriation / edited by Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao. Smithsonian Libraries and Archives. Social Media Share Tools. Share Icon. Print; Object Details

  17. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation|Paperback

    This book was a really informative and insightful collection of essays over cultural appropriation in our society today, mostly focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically more or less. The topics in this book covers a lot of ground from arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  18. Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropiation / edited by Bruce Ziff

    Borrowed power : essays on cultural appropiation / edited by Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao. Request Order a copy. Bib ID: 81043 Format: Book ... Full contents: Introduction to Cultural Appropriation: A Framework for Analysis / Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao; Pt. 1. The Appropriation of Music and Musical Forms. African-American Music: Dynamics of ...

  19. Bruce Ziff, and Pratima V. Rao, eds. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural

    Bruce Ziff, and Pratima V. Rao, eds. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997. x, 337 pp ...

  20. PDF BORROWED POWER

    BORROWED POWER ESSAYS ON CULTURAL Rutgers University Press New Brunswick, New Jersey . Contents Acknowledgments ix Bruce Ziff and Pratima V. Rao Introduction to Cultural Appropriation: A Framework for Analysis I Part I The Appropriation of Music and Musical Forms Perry A. Hall African-American Music: Dynamics of Appropriation and

  21. Wright, Shelley --- "Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    BORROWED POWER: ESSAYS ON CULTURAL APPROPRIATION by Bruce Ziff and Pratima V Rao, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1997, ISBN 0 8135 2372 9 SHELLEY WRIGHT [*] In their opening essay, Introduction to Cultural Appropriation: A Framework of Analysis, the editors of Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation give a number of ...

  22. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation

    An informative and insightful collection of essays on cultural appropriation, focusing on America's appropriation and use of Native American culture specifically. The topics in this book covers topics from the arts, land, and artifacts to ideas, knowledge, and symbols.

  23. (PDF) Cultural Appropriation: Yours, mine, theirs, or a new

    Bruce H. Ziff and Pratima V. Rao's edited collection Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation (1997) and philosopher James O. Young's Cultural Appropriation and the Arts (2008) provide scholarly entry points for this discussion. ... Such knowledge from source cultures, borrowed or appropriated, can impact the target culture in ways ...

  24. Borrowers and Lenders: The Journal of Shakespeare and Appropriation

    The fourth section of essays includes four essays: "Gendered Play and Regional Dialogue in Nanjundi Kalyana " by Mark Thornton Burnett, which investigates an Indian adaptation of The Taming of the Shrew; "Not the Play but the Playing: Citation of Performing Shakespeare as a Trope in Tamil Cinema" by A. Mangai, which explores how ...