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How to Write an Argumentative Essay

How to Write an Argumentative Essay

4-minute read

  • 30th April 2022

An argumentative essay is a structured, compelling piece of writing where an author clearly defines their stance on a specific topic. This is a very popular style of writing assigned to students at schools, colleges, and universities. Learn the steps to researching, structuring, and writing an effective argumentative essay below.

Requirements of an Argumentative Essay

To effectively achieve its purpose, an argumentative essay must contain:

●  A concise thesis statement that introduces readers to the central argument of the essay

●  A clear, logical, argument that engages readers

●  Ample research and evidence that supports your argument

Approaches to Use in Your Argumentative Essay

1.   classical.

●  Clearly present the central argument.

●  Outline your opinion.

●  Provide enough evidence to support your theory.

2.   Toulmin

●  State your claim.

●  Supply the evidence for your stance.

●  Explain how these findings support the argument.

●  Include and discuss any limitations of your belief.

3.   Rogerian

●  Explain the opposing stance of your argument.

●  Discuss the problems with adopting this viewpoint.

●  Offer your position on the matter.

●  Provide reasons for why yours is the more beneficial stance.

●  Include a potential compromise for the topic at hand.

Tips for Writing a Well-Written Argumentative Essay

●  Introduce your topic in a bold, direct, and engaging manner to captivate your readers and encourage them to keep reading.

●  Provide sufficient evidence to justify your argument and convince readers to adopt this point of view.

●  Consider, include, and fairly present all sides of the topic.

●  Structure your argument in a clear, logical manner that helps your readers to understand your thought process.

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●  Discuss any counterarguments that might be posed.

●  Use persuasive writing that’s appropriate for your target audience and motivates them to agree with you.

Steps to Write an Argumentative Essay

Follow these basic steps to write a powerful and meaningful argumentative essay :

Step 1: Choose a topic that you’re passionate about

If you’ve already been given a topic to write about, pick a stance that resonates deeply with you. This will shine through in your writing, make the research process easier, and positively influence the outcome of your argument.

Step 2: Conduct ample research to prove the validity of your argument

To write an emotive argumentative essay , finding enough research to support your theory is a must. You’ll need solid evidence to convince readers to agree with your take on the matter. You’ll also need to logically organize the research so that it naturally convinces readers of your viewpoint and leaves no room for questioning.

Step 3: Follow a simple, easy-to-follow structure and compile your essay

A good structure to ensure a well-written and effective argumentative essay includes:


●  Introduce your topic.

●  Offer background information on the claim.

●  Discuss the evidence you’ll present to support your argument.

●  State your thesis statement, a one-to-two sentence summary of your claim.

●  This is the section where you’ll develop and expand on your argument.

●  It should be split into three or four coherent paragraphs, with each one presenting its own idea.

●  Start each paragraph with a topic sentence that indicates why readers should adopt your belief or stance.

●  Include your research, statistics, citations, and other supporting evidence.

●  Discuss opposing viewpoints and why they’re invalid.

●  This part typically consists of one paragraph.

●  Summarize your research and the findings that were presented.

●  Emphasize your initial thesis statement.

●  Persuade readers to agree with your stance.

We certainly hope that you feel inspired to use these tips when writing your next argumentative essay . And, if you’re currently elbow-deep in writing one, consider submitting a free sample to us once it’s completed. Our expert team of editors can help ensure that it’s concise, error-free, and effective!

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8 Effective Strategies to Write Argumentative Essays

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In a bustling university town, there lived a student named Alex. Popular for creativity and wit, one challenge seemed insurmountable for Alex– the dreaded argumentative essay!

One gloomy afternoon, as the rain tapped against the window pane, Alex sat at his cluttered desk, staring at a blank document on the computer screen. The assignment loomed large: a 350-600-word argumentative essay on a topic of their choice . With a sigh, he decided to seek help of mentor, Professor Mitchell, who was known for his passion for writing.

Entering Professor Mitchell’s office was like stepping into a treasure of knowledge. Bookshelves lined every wall, faint aroma of old manuscripts in the air and sticky notes over the wall. Alex took a deep breath and knocked on his door.

“Ah, Alex,” Professor Mitchell greeted with a warm smile. “What brings you here today?”

Alex confessed his struggles with the argumentative essay. After hearing his concerns, Professor Mitchell said, “Ah, the argumentative essay! Don’t worry, Let’s take a look at it together.” As he guided Alex to the corner shelf, Alex asked,

Table of Contents

“What is an Argumentative Essay?”

The professor replied, “An argumentative essay is a type of academic writing that presents a clear argument or a firm position on a contentious issue. Unlike other forms of essays, such as descriptive or narrative essays, these essays require you to take a stance, present evidence, and convince your audience of the validity of your viewpoint with supporting evidence. A well-crafted argumentative essay relies on concrete facts and supporting evidence rather than merely expressing the author’s personal opinions . Furthermore, these essays demand comprehensive research on the chosen topic and typically follows a structured format consisting of three primary sections: an introductory paragraph, three body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph.”

He continued, “Argumentative essays are written in a wide range of subject areas, reflecting their applicability across disciplines. They are written in different subject areas like literature and philosophy, history, science and technology, political science, psychology, economics and so on.

Alex asked,

“When is an Argumentative Essay Written?”

The professor answered, “Argumentative essays are often assigned in academic settings, but they can also be written for various other purposes, such as editorials, opinion pieces, or blog posts. Some situations to write argumentative essays include:

1. Academic assignments

In school or college, teachers may assign argumentative essays as part of coursework. It help students to develop critical thinking and persuasive writing skills .

2. Debates and discussions

Argumentative essays can serve as the basis for debates or discussions in academic or competitive settings. Moreover, they provide a structured way to present and defend your viewpoint.

3. Opinion pieces

Newspapers, magazines, and online publications often feature opinion pieces that present an argument on a current issue or topic to influence public opinion.

4. Policy proposals

In government and policy-related fields, argumentative essays are used to propose and defend specific policy changes or solutions to societal problems.

5. Persuasive speeches

Before delivering a persuasive speech, it’s common to prepare an argumentative essay as a foundation for your presentation.

Regardless of the context, an argumentative essay should present a clear thesis statement , provide evidence and reasoning to support your position, address counterarguments, and conclude with a compelling summary of your main points. The goal is to persuade readers or listeners to accept your viewpoint or at least consider it seriously.”

Handing over a book, the professor continued, “Take a look on the elements or structure of an argumentative essay.”

Elements of an Argumentative Essay

An argumentative essay comprises five essential components:

Claim in argumentative writing is the central argument or viewpoint that the writer aims to establish and defend throughout the essay. A claim must assert your position on an issue and must be arguable. It can guide the entire argument.

2. Evidence

Evidence must consist of factual information, data, examples, or expert opinions that support the claim. Also, it lends credibility by strengthening the writer’s position.

3. Counterarguments

Presenting a counterclaim demonstrates fairness and awareness of alternative perspectives.

4. Rebuttal

After presenting the counterclaim, the writer refutes it by offering counterarguments or providing evidence that weakens the opposing viewpoint. It shows that the writer has considered multiple perspectives and is prepared to defend their position.

The format of an argumentative essay typically follows the structure to ensure clarity and effectiveness in presenting an argument.

How to Write An Argumentative Essay

Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to write an argumentative essay:

1. Introduction

  • Begin with a compelling sentence or question to grab the reader’s attention.
  • Provide context for the issue, including relevant facts, statistics, or historical background.
  • Provide a concise thesis statement to present your position on the topic.

2. Body Paragraphs (usually three or more)

  • Start each paragraph with a clear and focused topic sentence that relates to your thesis statement.
  • Furthermore, provide evidence and explain the facts, statistics, examples, expert opinions, and quotations from credible sources that supports your thesis.
  • Use transition sentences to smoothly move from one point to the next.

3. Counterargument and Rebuttal

  • Acknowledge opposing viewpoints or potential objections to your argument.
  • Also, address these counterarguments with evidence and explain why they do not weaken your position.

4. Conclusion

  • Restate your thesis statement and summarize the key points you’ve made in the body of the essay.
  • Leave the reader with a final thought, call to action, or broader implication related to the topic.

5. Citations and References

  • Properly cite all the sources you use in your essay using a consistent citation style.
  • Also, include a bibliography or works cited at the end of your essay.

6. Formatting and Style

  • Follow any specific formatting guidelines provided by your instructor or institution.
  • Use a professional and academic tone in your writing and edit your essay to avoid content, spelling and grammar mistakes .

Remember that the specific requirements for formatting an argumentative essay may vary depending on your instructor’s guidelines or the citation style you’re using (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). Always check the assignment instructions or style guide for any additional requirements or variations in formatting.

Did you understand what Prof. Mitchell explained Alex? Check it now!

Fill the Details to Check Your Score


Prof. Mitchell continued, “An argumentative essay can adopt various approaches when dealing with opposing perspectives. It may offer a balanced presentation of both sides, providing equal weight to each, or it may advocate more strongly for one side while still acknowledging the existence of opposing views.” As Alex listened carefully to the Professor’s thoughts, his eyes fell on a page with examples of argumentative essay.

Example of an Argumentative Essay

Alex picked the book and read the example. It helped him to understand the concept. Furthermore, he could now connect better to the elements and steps of the essay which Prof. Mitchell had mentioned earlier. Aren’t you keen to know how an argumentative essay should be like? Here is an example of a well-crafted argumentative essay , which was read by Alex. After Alex finished reading the example, the professor turned the page and continued, “Check this page to know the importance of writing an argumentative essay in developing skills of an individual.”

Importance of an Argumentative Essay


After understanding the benefits, Alex was convinced by the ability of the argumentative essays in advocating one’s beliefs and favor the author’s position. Alex asked,

“How are argumentative essays different from the other types?”

Prof. Mitchell answered, “Argumentative essays differ from other types of essays primarily in their purpose, structure, and approach in presenting information. Unlike expository essays, argumentative essays persuade the reader to adopt a particular point of view or take a specific action on a controversial issue. Furthermore, they differ from descriptive essays by not focusing vividly on describing a topic. Also, they are less engaging through storytelling as compared to the narrative essays.

Alex said, “Given the direct and persuasive nature of argumentative essays, can you suggest some strategies to write an effective argumentative essay?

Turning the pages of the book, Prof. Mitchell replied, “Sure! You can check this infographic to get some tips for writing an argumentative essay.”

Effective Strategies to Write an Argumentative Essay


As days turned into weeks, Alex diligently worked on his essay. He researched, gathered evidence, and refined his thesis. It was a long and challenging journey, filled with countless drafts and revisions.

Finally, the day arrived when Alex submitted their essay. As he clicked the “Submit” button, a sense of accomplishment washed over him. He realized that the argumentative essay, while challenging, had improved his critical thinking and transformed him into a more confident writer. Furthermore, Alex received feedback from his professor, a mix of praise and constructive criticism. It was a humbling experience, a reminder that every journey has its obstacles and opportunities for growth.

Frequently Asked Questions

An argumentative essay can be written as follows- 1. Choose a Topic 2. Research and Collect Evidences 3. Develop a Clear Thesis Statement 4. Outline Your Essay- Introduction, Body Paragraphs and Conclusion 5. Revise and Edit 6. Format and Cite Sources 7. Final Review

One must choose a clear, concise and specific statement as a claim. It must be debatable and establish your position. Avoid using ambiguous or unclear while making a claim. To strengthen your claim, address potential counterarguments or opposing viewpoints. Additionally, use persuasive language and rhetoric to make your claim more compelling

Starting an argument essay effectively is crucial to engage your readers and establish the context for your argument. Here’s how you can start an argument essay are: 1. Begin With an Engaging Hook 2. Provide Background Information 3. Present Your Thesis Statement 4. Briefly Outline Your Main 5. Establish Your Credibility

The key features of an argumentative essay are: 1. Clear and Specific Thesis Statement 2. Credible Evidence 3. Counterarguments 4. Structured Body Paragraph 5. Logical Flow 6. Use of Persuasive Techniques 7. Formal Language

An argumentative essay typically consists of the following main parts or sections: 1. Introduction 2. Body Paragraphs 3. Counterargument and Rebuttal 4. Conclusion 5. References (if applicable)

The main purpose of an argumentative essay is to persuade the reader to accept or agree with a particular viewpoint or position on a controversial or debatable topic. In other words, the primary goal of an argumentative essay is to convince the audience that the author's argument or thesis statement is valid, logical, and well-supported by evidence and reasoning.

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The importance of writing argumentative essays in education.

Write argumentative essay

If you want to create a convincing argumentative essay, follow these essential steps:

1. Choose a Controversial Topic: Select a topic that sparks debate and has two opposing sides.

2. Research Thoroughly: Gather credible sources to support your arguments and counterarguments.

3. Develop a Strong Thesis: Clearly state your position in a concise and debatable thesis statement.

4. Outline Your Argument: Organize your points logically and plan the structure of your essay.

5. Write with Conviction: Craft each paragraph with strong evidence and persuasive language.

6. Address Counterarguments: Acknowledge opposing views and refute them to strengthen your argument.

7. Conclude Effectively: Summarize your key points and leave a lasting impression on your readers.

Follow these steps to create a compelling argumentative essay that will engage your audience and showcase your writing skills.

Understanding the Topic

Before you start writing your argumentative essay, it is crucial to fully grasp the topic you are dealing with. Take the time to research and gather information about the issue from reliable sources. This will help you form a solid foundation for your arguments and ensure that you have a thorough understanding of the subject matter.

When analyzing the topic, consider different perspectives and viewpoints that exist around it. Identify the key components of the issue and determine the main arguments that are being made. This will enable you to present a well-rounded view in your essay and address potential counterarguments effectively.

Additionally, it is essential to define the scope of the topic and establish the boundaries of your argument. Be specific and focused in your approach to avoid ambiguity and ensure clarity in your writing. By understanding the topic thoroughly, you will be better equipped to craft a compelling argumentative essay that engages readers and persuades them to consider your point of view.

Researching Key Points

Once you have chosen a topic for your argumentative essay, the next step is to research key points that will support your argument. This involves conducting thorough research to gather evidence and data that will strengthen your position.

Identify Reliable Sources: Start by identifying credible sources such as academic journals, books, and reputable websites. Make sure to use sources that are current and relevant to your topic.

Analyze and Evaluate Information: As you gather information, critically analyze and evaluate the sources to determine their credibility and reliability. Consider the author’s credentials, the publication date, and any potential biases.

Organize Your Research: Create an outline or a structured plan to organize your research findings. This will help you stay focused and ensure that you include all the necessary information in your essay.

Take Notes: While researching key points, take detailed notes to keep track of important information and ideas. Note down key statistics, quotes, and arguments that you can use to support your thesis.

Use Different Perspectives: Explore different perspectives on the topic to gain a comprehensive understanding of the issue. Consider counterarguments and opposing viewpoints to address them effectively in your essay.

Stay Objective: It’s important to remain impartial and objective during the research process. Base your arguments on facts and evidence rather than personal opinions or emotions.

By thoroughly researching key points, you can develop a strong argumentative essay that persuasively presents your position on the topic.

Present the Key Arguments: In the body of your argumentative essay, elaborate on your main points. Each paragraph should focus on a single argument and provide supporting evidence or examples to back it up. Make sure to address opposing views and counterarguments to strengthen your stance.

Logical Organization: Structure your essay in a logical manner by following a clear progression of ideas. Start with an introduction that introduces the topic and presents your thesis statement. Then, develop your arguments in the body paragraphs, ensuring a smooth transition between each point. Conclude the essay with a strong summary that reinforces your main arguments.

Evidence and Examples: Support each argument with relevant evidence and examples to make your points convincing and persuasive. Use credible sources, statistics, quotations, and real-life examples to back up your claims. Make sure to explain how the evidence supports your argument to make your essay more compelling.

Engage the Reader: Keep your audience engaged by using varied sentence structures, transitions, and vivid language. Use persuasive techniques such as rhetorical questions, anecdotes, and emotional appeals to capture the reader’s attention and make your essay more impactful.

Creating a Thesis Statement

One of the most crucial elements of crafting a compelling argumentative essay is creating a strong thesis statement. Your thesis statement is the central argument that you will be defending or proving throughout your essay. It should be clear, concise, and specific, setting the tone for the rest of your paper.

When crafting your thesis statement, make sure to clearly state your position on the topic and provide a brief overview of the main points you will be discussing to support your argument. Avoid vague or general statements and strive to make your thesis statement debatable and thought-provoking.

Remember that your thesis statement should guide the reader through your essay, providing a roadmap for what to expect and highlighting the key points you will be addressing. It is the foundation upon which your argumentative essay will be built, so take the time to craft a compelling and effective thesis statement that will set the stage for a persuasive essay.

Structuring the Essay

Structuring the Essay

When structuring an argumentative essay, it is important to follow a clear and logical format. A well-structured essay will help you present your arguments effectively and persuade your audience. Here are some key steps to structuring your argumentative essay:

  • Introduction: Start with a strong introduction that provides background information on the topic and clearly states your thesis statement.
  • Body Paragraphs: Organize your arguments in separate paragraphs. Each paragraph should focus on a specific point and include evidence to support your argument.
  • Counterarguments: Acknowledge opposing views in your essay and counter them with compelling evidence and logical reasoning.
  • Conclusion: Summarize your key points and restate your thesis in the conclusion. Leave your readers with a strong closing statement that highlights the importance of your argument.

By structuring your essay in this way, you can effectively communicate your ideas and persuade your audience to agree with your viewpoint. Remember to use clear and concise language throughout your essay to make your argument compelling and convincing.

Developing Arguments

With a clear understanding of your topic and a strong thesis statement in place, the next step is to develop compelling arguments to support your position. Here are some key strategies to help you build a convincing argumentative essay:

By following these steps and crafting strong arguments, you can create a compelling argumentative essay that persuades your readers and effectively conveys your viewpoint.

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Writing a Strong Argumentative Essay: Techniques and Strategies

Mastering the Art of Persuasion

Table of contents

Choose a debatable topic, conduct thorough research, develop a thesis statement, organize your ideas, use persuasive language, address counterarguments, edit and revise.

In a world where opinions are constantly being voiced and debated, the ability to construct a well-crafted argumentative essay is more important than ever. This type of essay challenges the writer to present a clear and concise argument, supported by evidence and critical thinking. Whether you’re a student tackling an assignment or a professional looking to persuade your audience, the art of crafting a compelling argumentative essay is a skill that can be honed and mastered with practice and perseverance.

In this article, we will explore the techniques and strategies necessary to create a strong argumentative essay that effectively communicates your message and convinces your readers to see things from your perspective. So, let’s dive in and discover the power of a well-constructed argument.

Choosing a debatable topic is an essential part of writing a strong argumentative essay. To choose a suitable topic, start by brainstorming a list of potential issues that interest you. Then, evaluate each topic to determine if it is debatable and has enough substance to support a compelling argument.

When evaluating a potential topic, consider its relevance and significance in society, the availability of reliable sources and evidence to support your argument, and the opposing viewpoints and arguments that may exist. Additionally, it’s crucial to choose a topic that you are passionate about and interested in researching and exploring further.

Once you have identified a debatable topic, refine your focus by developing a clear thesis statement that presents your argument and establishes the scope of your essay. This will guide your research and writing and provide a strong foundation for your argumentative essay. Remember, a debatable topic is the foundation of a strong argumentative essay, and choosing the right one can make all the difference in the success of your writing.

Conducting thorough research is a crucial step in writing a strong argumentative essay. It’s important to gather as much information as possible to support your argument and anticipate counterarguments. To begin your research, start by brainstorming keywords related to your topic and conducting a search in academic databases, such as JSTOR or Google Scholar.

As you gather information, keep track of your sources and take detailed notes on the information you find. This will help you to organize your thoughts and ensure you have all the necessary information to make a compelling argument. Additionally, be sure to critically evaluate your sources to ensure they are credible and reliable.

When conducting research, it’s also important to consider multiple perspectives on the topic. Don’t just look for sources that support your argument, but also seek out sources that present differing opinions. This will help you to anticipate counterarguments and address them effectively in your essay.

Overall, conducting thorough research is a time-consuming but necessary step in crafting a strong argumentative essay. Take the time to gather and evaluate information from a variety of sources, and organize your thoughts effectively to make a compelling argument.

Developing a strong thesis statement is one of the important steps in writing a successful argumentative essay. The thesis statement is the central argument or claim that you will be making in your essay. It should be clear, concise, and specific. A well-crafted thesis statement helps guide your writing and ensures that your essay has a clear focus and direction.

To develop a thesis statement, start by identifying the topic of your essay and the main argument you want to make. Then, consider what evidence or support you have to back up your argument. This could include facts, statistics, expert opinions, or personal experiences. Use this information to craft a clear and concise statement that summarizes your argument in a single sentence.

It’s important to remember that your thesis statement should be debatable. This means that it should express an opinion or position that is open to debate or discussion. Avoid making statements that are too broad or general, such as “smoking is bad for your health.” Instead, make a specific argument, such as “smoking should be banned in all public spaces to protect the health of non-smokers.” Your thesis statement should also be relevant to your audience and the context of your essay.

The next step in writing an effective argumentative essay is to organize your ideas around your thesis statement. Once you have conducted thorough research and developed a clear thesis statement, it’s time to start organizing your thoughts and ideas in a way that makes sense and effectively supports your argument.

One effective technique for organizing your ideas is to create an outline. Start by identifying the main points you want to make in your essay and then organize them into a logical sequence. This will help you stay focused and on track as you write your essay, ensuring that you don’t stray too far off topic or leave out important information.

When creating your outline, consider using bullet points or numbered lists to break down your ideas into more manageable sections. This will make it easier to see how your argument is developing and identify any areas that may need further development or clarification.

Another important aspect of organizing your ideas is to consider the opposing viewpoints and potential counterarguments to your argument. By addressing these counterarguments and providing evidence to refute them, you can strengthen your own argument and show that you have considered all perspectives on the topic.

In addition, be sure to use transitional phrases and sentences throughout your essay to connect your ideas and ensure that your argument flows smoothly from one point to the next. This will help your reader follow your thought process and understand how your argument is developing. By organizing your ideas effectively, you can create a clear and compelling argumentative essay that persuades your reader to take your side.

Now, let’s talk about using persuasive language to make your argumentative essay even more powerful. To persuade your readers, you need to use language that is both strong and convincing. You want your readers to feel your passion and conviction, and to be swayed by your argument.

One way to use persuasive language is to use strong, emotive words that evoke a strong emotional response in your readers. For example, instead of saying “people should recycle,” you could say “it’s crucial that we all do our part to save the planet by recycling.” This kind of language helps to grab your reader’s attention and make them more invested in your argument.

Another important aspect of persuasive language is to use clear and concise sentences. Long, convoluted sentences can confuse your readers and make your argument harder to follow. Instead, try to break your ideas down into clear, concise statements that are easy to understand. This will help your readers to follow your argument more easily and to stay engaged with your essay.

Finally, it’s important to use persuasive language throughout your essay, not just in your introduction or conclusion. Make sure that every sentence you write is crafted to help make your argument more convincing. With these strategies in mind, you’ll be able to use persuasive language to create a powerful and convincing argumentative essay.

When writing an argumentative essay, it’s important to anticipate and address potential counterarguments that may weaken your position. By acknowledging opposing viewpoints and offering compelling responses, you can strengthen your argument and demonstrate your credibility as a writer.

One effective strategy for addressing counterarguments is to research the opposing viewpoints thoroughly and understand the underlying reasons and evidence that support them. By doing so, you can identify the key areas where your argument and the opposing argument differ and craft a compelling response that is based on sound evidence and reasoning.

Another strategy is to use the “agree and qualify” approach. In this approach, you acknowledge the validity of the opposing argument to some extent and then explain how your argument offers a more complete or nuanced perspective. This approach can be particularly effective in demonstrating your objectivity and credibility as a writer, as well as in building a stronger overall argument.

Ultimately, addressing counterarguments is an essential component of writing a successful argumentative essay. By anticipating and responding to opposing viewpoints, you can demonstrate your knowledge and expertise, build credibility, and craft a more compelling and persuasive argument.

Editing and revising your argumentative essay is a critical step to ensure that your arguments are persuasive, your ideas are organized coherently, and your writing is clear and concise. Here are some techniques and strategies to help you edit and revise your essay effectively:

Take a break: Before you start editing, take a break from your essay. Come back to it with a fresh mind and look at it from a different perspective. This will help you identify areas that need improvement.

Review for clarity and coherence: Review your essay for clarity and coherence. Make sure your ideas flow logically and your arguments are easy to follow. You can use transition words and phrases to connect your thoughts and create a smooth and coherent flow.

Eliminate irrelevant information: Eliminate any information that is not relevant to your argument. Your essay should be focused on your thesis statement and supporting arguments, and irrelevant information will only distract the reader from your main points.

Check for consistency: Check for consistency in your argument. Ensure that you have used the same terminology throughout the essay, and that your arguments are consistent with your thesis statement.

Proofread for grammar and spelling errors: Proofread your essay for grammar and spelling errors. Use grammar and spell-check tools to identify and correct any errors. Additionally, read your essay out loud to catch any errors that you may have missed.

Get feedback: Ask someone else to read your essay and provide feedback. Another person can offer a fresh perspective and identify areas that need improvement. Consider their feedback and make any necessary changes to your essay.

By following these techniques and strategies, you can effectively edit and revise your argumentative essay, ensuring that it is persuasive, organized, and clear. You don’t have to go it alone, though; you can hire academic editors ( this is our preferred service ) to review your finished work before submission.

In conclusion, writing a strong argumentative essay requires a combination of effective techniques and strategies. Choosing a debatable topic, conducting thorough research, developing a clear and concise thesis statement, organizing your ideas effectively, using persuasive language, addressing counterarguments, and revising and editing your work are all essential elements of crafting a compelling argumentative essay.

By employing these techniques and strategies, you can not only write a strong argumentative essay, but also engage your readers and persuade them to see your point of view. Remember to keep your focus on the topic, avoid fallacious arguments, and present your arguments logically and convincingly. With practice and dedication, you can master the art of writing a strong argumentative essay and succeed in any academic or professional setting . So go ahead and start writing your own argumentative essay today!

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Argumentative writing is made easy with this easy guide to the fundamentals of a good piece – from the what to the how.

Writing is difficult to define and even harder to write about. It is both the journey and destination at once. It is never a singular act conceived in isolation. The acts of writing, reading, and contemplation are all inextricably linked. Do we have to think in order to write? Writing allows us to give form to our ideas.

On the other hand, reading is essential to writing because most texts rely on previously acquired knowledge. The more one reads, the more one learns about the structure of various texts, one’s vocabulary grows, and one’s command of idioms grows. Reading expands your vocabulary, which in turn improves your ability to express yourself in writing. Composing something on paper requires a combination of mental and physical abilities.

There is no need to explain the distinction between writing with a keyboard and writing with a pen and paper; everyone is aware of the differences. It is precisely this focus on the differences wherein the branch of writing known as argumentative writing sprouts. It is the explication of differences, often balanced upon a thesis or premise which supports one difference over the other, and reaching a destination through rhetoric where the reader is convinced.

Simply put, argumentative writing is a kind of essay written in support of one view against another in order to sway the opinion of the reader.

Table of Contents

What is Argumentative Writing?

What is argumentative writing is a question with no simple answer. To begin with, the basics, let us talk about what an argumentative essay is.

An argumentative essay is a piece of writing that requires you to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the given topic in a manner that is clear and succinct. This particular type of essay is frequently found on a variety of different types of competitive exams. The purpose of writing an argumentative essay is to persuade the reader to take your point of view on the topic that you have been assigned.

An argumentative essay, as the name suggests, is made up of arguments that are supported by facts, statistics, expert opinions, and other forms of evidence in order to justify your stance on the topic. You can also draw support for your points of view from specific examples drawn from your own personal experiences.

Some keywords that are important while understanding the structure of argumentative writing are

  • Argumentation: the act or process of forming reasons, drawing conclusions, and applying them to a case in discussion.
  • Pro Argument (PRO): point or statement that supports one’s ideas.
  • Counter Argument (CON): point or statement in opposition to the argument being made in a written document or speech .
  • Refutation: the process of disproving an opposing argument.
  • Opponent: a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it.
  • Proponent: someone who argues in favor of something; advocate.

Features of argumentative writing

1.    dialectical nature.

What is argumentative writing without a solid argument at its heart? You must be mindful to mention the opposing viewpoints throughout your argument because they are different points of view on the subject that need to be evaluated as well. The reader gets the impression that you could be unsure, afraid, or unaware of opposing ideas if you avoid talking about beliefs that are in opposition to your own.

You should ideally address contrasting points of view earlier in your article rather than later. Theoretically, arranging your primary arguments later in the piece enables you to refute those viewpoints mentioned in the beginning. By doing this, you make sure that your reader considers your argument rather than someone else’s. You have the last say.

Gaining the audience’s trust by acknowledging viewpoints that are different from your own also helps you to sound more credible. They immediately recognize your awareness of competing viewpoints and your willingness to offer them your full attention.

2.    Balanced bias

Having a bias in any kind of writing is natural. The way you have categorized your experiences in your own mind as “good” and others as “bad,” cause this bias, and it is a great reason why you agree with some ideas and disagree with others. The ability to manage prejudice in writing and daily life however is what requires real effort.

Explicating your bias will enable you to express your own opinions while also defending them against contrasting ones. The goal of argumentative writing is to make your reader aware of the prejudice, but do not let this bias prevent you from recognizing the essential elements of a strong argument: solid, well-considered evidence and a fair discussion of opposing viewpoints. The prejudice should not be portrayed as an opinion, emptying the essay of its strong rational essence.

3.    The presence of the I

It is again imperative to keep in mind that your argument should still be reasonable and rationally charged. One way of doing that is not using first-person narrative or toning it down to the occasional presence. Remember, utilizing the first-person pronoun excessively gives your argument a reflective touch. You must realize that an argumentative piece is entirely different from a persuasive essay or an essay that expresses an opinion. This will be discussed in detail in the next section.

The objective is frequently to present arguments for the targeted readers to think about. You specifically make arguments based on information from news stories, well-respected research studies, books, and other credible academic sources.

Argumentative writing vs. persuasive writing

Although argumentative and persuasive writing are often confused with one another, and initially seem to be the same mode of writing, they differ in ways that drastically change the approach to writing.

The goal of an argumentative essay is more formal. To write effective and impactful argumentative essays, one needs to put in thorough research. We have already acknowledged that it is natural for writers to feel biased, but that bias in argumentative writing is substantiated with hard facts. The writer emphasizes using evidence to support their claims.

Therefore, whether or not the reader is persuaded to accept the author’s argument, the goal of an argumentative essay is to support a certain claim with evidence.

A persuasive essay, on the other hand, begins with an opinion; the writer of the essay in question holds a certain idea or belief and seeks to persuade the reader to share it. The goal is to influence the reader rather than necessarily provide indisputable facts. Because of this, persuasive writing is more likely to rely on emotive arguments and other informal forms of argumentation.

The goal of any argumentative essay should be to educate the reader on both the author’s position and the various opposing positions. An argumentative essay takes on a contentious topic head-on, laying out a variety of viewpoints and evidence to prove that the author’s stance is the most compelling.

In contrast, the final product of a persuasive essay isn’t quite as solid, as it presents the author’s stance as singularly the most important or even the only way of looking at the subject. The acknowledgment of an opposing claim is often absent. It can be thought of as more reflective than research-based. At the end of a well-written persuasive essay, the reader should have reached the same conclusion as the writer.

Types of argumentative writing

The classical model.

Because it follows a very straightforward train of thinking, this is the most popular technique for expressing your argument. Also known as Aristotelian, you offer the major argument, state your position, and try your utmost to persuade the reader that your perspective is correct. Because it concisely and clearly summarises all of the facts, this sort of argument works best when your audience lacks statistics and information or has a strong belief about the given topic.

The Toulmin model

This is the most popular technique because it is highly supported by facts that are tough to reject. You begin with an introduction, followed by a thesis/claim, grounds to support that claim, and finally data and evidence to justify and support that claim. This essay’s writing style also includes refutations or rebuttals of made arguments. However, this form of argument typically gives only one side of the problem, with the facts presented in such a way that the claim is difficult to refute.

The Rogerian Model

The third model examines both sides of an argument and concludes after assessing each side’s strengths and flaws. The writer introduces the problem, acknowledges the opposing side of the argument, expresses his/her point of view, and explains why his/her argument is the most advantageous to you, the reader. When writing on a polarising topic, use this method since it acknowledges the benefits and cons of both sides and presents a medium ground.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement is the primary contention that will be argued in an argumentative piece. It clearly identifies the issue under consideration, covers the points made in the paper, and is designed for a specific audience. Your thesis should ideally be placed toward the end of your first paragraph. Use it to pique your audience’s interest in your topic and persuade them to keep reading. Your readers want to read work that grabs them by the shoulder. Naturally, then, you must make thesis statements that are debatable rather than factual.

The main reason why a thesis statement should not be factual is due to the objective of the writing, which is to make an argument. If something is a fact, it has already been established through sustained and irrefutable argumentation. These theses prohibit you from exhibiting critical thinking and analytical skills to your instructor. If you were to create a paper based on the next two claims, your writing would most likely be dull because you would be restating information that the general public is already aware of.

To make your work more fascinating, you should create an arguable thesis statement. Sometimes you’ll write to persuade others to view things your way, and other times you’ll just give your strong opinion and lay out your case for it. However, you can use a fact and try to deny it, which is a thesis that requires sufficient substantiation.

A good thesis statement will ideally have three claims, which will go on to become the topic sentence or sub-arguments for the main body.

Some examples of good theses are:

  • Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches are the best types of sandwiches because they are versatile, easy to make, and taste good.
  • The rise in populism on the 2016 political stage was in reaction to increasing globalization, the decline of manufacturing jobs, and the Syrian refugee crisis.
  • A vegan diet, while a healthy and ethical way to consume food, indicates a position of privilege. It also limits you to other cultural food experiences if you travel around the world.

How to write a good argumentative essay: a step-by-step guide

There are many elements to a good argumentative piece. These can vary from linguistic to logical and technical. In order to write a great essay, it is important to follow the steps that ensure it. These include brainstorming, introduction-body-conclusion division, multiple types of evidence, proofreading, and editing.


Brainstorming is a method for coming up with creative solutions to problems in a free-flowing, open-ended fashion. If you are unsure about what should go into your essay, you should write it down on paper without caring too much about its logic. It’s a method of organizing all of your thoughts and determining what you already know about the subject. You will frequently discover that you know more than you think.

Brainstorming is a skill that you will not only use as a student. When you first start working, it’s a good way for coworkers to come up with new ways to solve company problems. Most of the time at university, you must learn to brainstorm successfully on your own. You will also need to do this at work as part of a team. Brainstorming is typically of three types, or rather there are three strategies that each for some and not for others: brain dump, outline, and word web.

A “Brain Dump” is exactly what the name implies. Allow yourself a few minutes after reading your assignment to absorb it. Then, set a five-minute timer and grab a pencil and paper. Start your timer and continue to write until it goes off. Even if you have thoughts that are unrelated to your paper, write them down.

The goal of this exercise is to keep you from overthinking things. After your timer goes off, take stock of your resources. Examine what has been written and cross out anything that isn’t relevant to your topic, then look at what remains. Do you have any ideas for body paragraph topics? How about the beginning of a topic sentence or thesis? You can repeat this process as many times as you like until you feel you have enough information to begin developing and outlining.

Outlining is a way of structurally bulleting or writing down in points the basic argument that you want to make. You’ve probably seen an outline before, have been given one by a professor, or even completed one for another paper. Whatever those outlines looked like, keep in mind that each one is unique and there is no right or wrong way to do one. However, if your professor has requested a specific format for your outline, make sure you follow their instructions.

This strategy is a great resource if you find that seeing the connections between things helps you relate to them better. them. Begin by writing a word in the inner circle that is either your topic or related to it. From there, try to think of things that relate to what you want to focus on (words, images, current events, etc). If one of your pertinent points makes you think of new ideas, you can add new bubbles and continue to explore the concept. After you’ve felt that you have exhausted your topic, look for similarities or differences in the ideas that you have written down, and find something interesting. Connections you made or unexpected ideas you had that you could discuss in your paper. You can use this exercise to examine your paper’s sub-claims or counter-arguments as well as to narrow down your thesis.

Once you have brainstormed a basic idea and drawn a rough map of what your essay is going to look like, you should try to give it all a coherent structure. This is commonly called the first draft and the process is known as drafting. Draft your essay in rough form. Particularly with argumentative essays that frequently cite outside sources, it is preferable to provide any facts and direct quotes as early as possible.

Once the first draft is ready and the points are coherently woven into a single account or narrative, the refinement stage begins. Improve your word choice, polish your rough draft, and, if necessary, reorganize your arguments. Verify that your language is clear and acceptable for the reader, and make sure that you have covered all of your bases in terms of points and refutations. You are now ready to start working on the essay.

Structuring the essay

The structure of an argumentative essay is essential because the success of one’s argument hinges on how well one conveys it. What is more, argumentative essays have a somewhat more complex structure than the other kinds of essays because the writer must additionally address opposing viewpoints. This raises further questions, such as when to provide substantial evidence and whose argument to address first. The most fundamental argumentative essay format is the straightforward five-paragraph framework that works best for short essays.

Paragraph 1: Introduction

Everything begins here – you introduce the subject of your essay and provide a coherent summary of the arguments that you’ll make in the paragraphs that follow. You should also state your thesis at the end of this paragraph. Because it expresses the argument you’re trying to make, your thesis is the most crucial section of your essay. It must adopt a strong position and refrain from using qualifiers like “seems to” or “maybe could” that undercut that position.

Consider your thesis statement as a summary of your essay for a simple method to write one. Your thesis summarises and backs up the main idea of your essay. Make sure your argument is communicated concisely in your introduction paragraph when you are finished editing your essay. If it’s not clear, go back and write a definitive thesis statement.

Paragraphs 2-4: Main Body

The body paragraphs of your essay are where you support your thesis statement with facts and evidence. Each body paragraph should discuss one supporting argument for your thesis by bringing up relevant data, content, or events.

Refer back to your thesis statement if you’re unsure whether to include a specific point or detail in your body paragraphs. If the detail is relevant to your thesis, it should be included in your essay. If it doesn’t, remove it. Because your thesis statement is the foundation of your basic essay structure, everything else in the essay should be related to it in some way.

Each of the three paragraphs should have a topic statement to relate to the thesis, which will be the claim linking the evidence to your thetical premise. These topic sentences can be thought of as sub-theses or sub-claims, that support your bigger claim, the thesis.

Each topic sentence should further be supported with multiple types of evidence, ideally two per topic sentence. This gives your main body structure and polishes your argument to seem coherent and effective.

Paragraph 5: Conclusion

In the concluding paragraph of your essay, you summarise the points you have made and bring your argument to a logical conclusion. Because your reader is now familiar with your thesis, your conclusion paragraph’s summary can be more direct and conclusive than the one in your introduction paragraph. It is important to remember that your conclusion should be wholly reiterative of your argument and should not make new claims or add new evidence not discussed in the main body or even the introduction.

A good way of thinking about your conclusion is in terms of rounding it up, by bringing it back to the very start.

Proofreading and editing

Once you have written your essay in its entirety, it is then time to proofread it for spelling, grammatical, or technical errors. At this point, it is advisable to take some distance from your essay as the writer and look at it from the neutral vantage point of a reader or evaluator. Edit your argument where it seems flawed or weak, iron out any contradictions, and make sure that the flow, upon final reading, is continuous.

Types of evidence

What makes a good piece of argumentative writing great is the type of evidence included. There are weak types of evidence like a personal anecdote or explanations of a fact or event, and strong types that include facts, studies, and statistics. These are some of them:

Facts are among the most effective tools for involving the reader in the argument. Because facts are unarguable, using them automatically wins the writer’s mutual agreement. The reader must accept the statement, “On January 28, 1986, the shuttle Challenger exploded upon lift-off,” because it is historical fact. Facts are primarily used to persuade the reader to agree with the writer’s point of view. For example, if a writer wanted to argue that smoking is bad for your health, he or she would start by citing statistics about the large number of people who die each year from smoking-related diseases. The reader would then be forced to agree with the writer on at least one point.

Facts, on the other hand, cannot carry the entire argument. It is also necessary for the writer to use Judgments. After carefully considering the facts, the writer makes these assumptions about his or her subject. For example, a writer could begin by presenting specific facts about scientists’ knowledge of the Challenger’s condition prior to takeoff. Based on these facts, the author concludes that the disaster could have been avoided if a few scientists had been willing to speak out about some troubling discoveries. This is a decision made by the author. There is nothing in history books or newspapers that supports this assumption. The overall success or failure of the argument is determined by whether or not the writer carries it over to the other side.

Testimony is the final type of evidence used in writing a convincing argument. There are two types of testimony: 1) an eyewitness account and 2) the opinion of an expert who has had the opportunity to examine and interpret the facts. Both of these add weight to an argument. The eyewitness can provide crucial facts for the writer to use, and the expert can provide valuable judgments to bolster the argument. In the case of the Space Shuttle Challenger, for example, the writer could rely on the testimony of one of the personnel who was present at NASA meetings prior to the launch. The author could also use an astrophysicist’s opinion on whether or not evidence of the crash existed prior to takeoff.

Statistics are used to back up claims with numbers. While statistics can be very useful in supporting broad claims, it is important to remember that no statistic is perfect. You could, for example, include statistics on how many children die each year because their parents failed to buckle them into a car seat. If you are writing an argumentative essay about the importance of car seats for children under the age of five, including a statistic about the number of deaths each year caused by children who are not buckled in.

Statistical evidence can also be used to dispel myths. If you’re writing an argumentative essay about the importance of getting enough sleep, you might want to include statistics about how many accidents are caused by drowsy drivers. You can also use statistics to demonstrate how frequently people make mistakes when they don’t get enough rest, which will help you make your point.

Anecdotes are stories or examples of personal experiences. They are frequently used to illustrate a general claim made in the essay in the form of a “lesson learned.” For example, if you were writing about the benefits of reading for pleasure on a regular basis, you could include an anecdote about how regular readers can pick up on literary devices used by the author, which will help them in high school English class.

Anecdotal evidence can also be used to refute a common misconception. If you are writing an essay on the benefits of exercise, you should include anecdotal evidence from people who have improved their health through regular exercise to counter the myth that exercise is bad for your health.

In conclusion, argumentative writing is a complex form of writing that requires the right balance between critical thinking and subjective values. There also needs to be the right amount of evidence to sway the reader or at least convince them to start thinking about your primary claim. A good piece of argumentative writing makes sufficient use of logic, emotional appeal, and ethical placement of the reader in the context of your argument.

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9.3: The Argumentative Essay

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Learning Objectives

  • Examine types of argumentative essays

Argumentative Essays

You may have heard it said that all writing is an argument of some kind. Even if you’re writing an informative essay, you still have the job of trying to convince your audience that the information is important. However, there are times you’ll be asked to write an essay that is specifically an argumentative piece.

An argumentative essay is one that makes a clear assertion or argument about some topic or issue. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, it’s important to remember that an academic argument is quite different from a regular, emotional argument. Note that sometimes students forget the academic aspect of an argumentative essay and write essays that are much too emotional for an academic audience. It’s important for you to choose a topic you feel passionately about (if you’re allowed to pick your topic), but you have to be sure you aren’t too emotionally attached to a topic. In an academic argument, you’ll have a lot more constraints you have to consider, and you’ll focus much more on logic and reasoning than emotions.

A cartoon person with a heart in one hand and a brain in the other.

Argumentative essays are quite common in academic writing and are often an important part of writing in all disciplines. You may be asked to take a stand on a social issue in your introduction to writing course, but you could also be asked to take a stand on an issue related to health care in your nursing courses or make a case for solving a local environmental problem in your biology class. And, since argument is such a common essay assignment, it’s important to be aware of some basic elements of a good argumentative essay.

When your professor asks you to write an argumentative essay, you’ll often be given something specific to write about. For example, you may be asked to take a stand on an issue you have been discussing in class. Perhaps, in your education class, you would be asked to write about standardized testing in public schools. Or, in your literature class, you might be asked to argue the effects of protest literature on public policy in the United States.

However, there are times when you’ll be given a choice of topics. You might even be asked to write an argumentative essay on any topic related to your field of study or a topic you feel that is important personally.

Whatever the case, having some knowledge of some basic argumentative techniques or strategies will be helpful as you write. Below are some common types of arguments.

Causal Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you argue that something has caused something else. For example, you might explore the causes of the decline of large mammals in the world’s ocean and make a case for your cause.

Evaluation Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you make an argumentative evaluation of something as “good” or “bad,” but you need to establish the criteria for “good” or “bad.” For example, you might evaluate a children’s book for your education class, but you would need to establish clear criteria for your evaluation for your audience.

Proposal Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you must propose a solution to a problem. First, you must establish a clear problem and then propose a specific solution to that problem. For example, you might argue for a proposal that would increase retention rates at your college.

Narrative Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you make your case by telling a story with a clear point related to your argument. For example, you might write a narrative about your experiences with standardized testing in order to make a case for reform.

Rebuttal Arguments

  • In a rebuttal argument, you build your case around refuting an idea or ideas that have come before. In other words, your starting point is to challenge the ideas of the past.

Definition Arguments

  • In this type of argument, you use a definition as the starting point for making your case. For example, in a definition argument, you might argue that NCAA basketball players should be defined as professional players and, therefore, should be paid.


Essay Examples

  • Click here to read an argumentative essay on the consequences of fast fashion . Read it and look at the comments to recognize strategies and techniques the author uses to convey her ideas.
  • In this example, you’ll see a sample argumentative paper from a psychology class submitted in APA format. Key parts of the argumentative structure have been noted for you in the sample.

Link to Learning

For more examples of types of argumentative essays, visit the Argumentative Purposes section of the Excelsior OWL .

Contributors and Attributions

  • Argumentative Essay. Provided by : Excelsior OWL. Located at : https://owl.excelsior.edu/rhetorical-styles/argumentative-essay/ . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Image of a man with a heart and a brain. Authored by : Mohamed Hassan. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : pixabay.com/illustrations/decision-brain-heart-mind-4083469/. License : Other . License Terms : pixabay.com/service/terms/#license

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What is an Argumentative Essay? How to Write It (With Examples)

Argumentative Essay

We define an argumentative essay as a type of essay that presents arguments about both sides of an issue. The purpose is to convince the reader to accept a particular viewpoint or action. In an argumentative essay, the writer takes a stance on a controversial or debatable topic and supports their position with evidence, reasoning, and examples. The essay should also address counterarguments, demonstrating a thorough understanding of the topic.

Table of Contents

  • What is an argumentative essay?  
  • Argumentative essay structure 
  • Argumentative essay outline 
  • Types of argument claims 

How to write an argumentative essay?

  • Argumentative essay writing tips 
  • Good argumentative essay example 

How to write a good thesis

  • How to Write an Argumentative Essay with Paperpal? 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an argumentative essay.

An argumentative essay is a type of writing that presents a coherent and logical analysis of a specific topic. 1 The goal is to convince the reader to accept the writer’s point of view or opinion on a particular issue. Here are the key elements of an argumentative essay: 

  • Thesis Statement : The central claim or argument that the essay aims to prove. 
  • Introduction : Provides background information and introduces the thesis statement. 
  • Body Paragraphs : Each paragraph addresses a specific aspect of the argument, presents evidence, and may include counter arguments. 

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  • Evidence : Supports the main argument with relevant facts, examples, statistics, or expert opinions. 
  • Counterarguments : Anticipates and addresses opposing viewpoints to strengthen the overall argument. 
  • Conclusion : Summarizes the main points, reinforces the thesis, and may suggest implications or actions. 

what are the techniques in writing argumentative essay

Argumentative essay structure

Aristotelian, Rogerian, and Toulmin are three distinct approaches to argumentative essay structures, each with its principles and methods. 2 The choice depends on the purpose and nature of the topic. Here’s an overview of each type of argumentative essay format.

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Argumentative essay outline

An argumentative essay presents a specific claim or argument and supports it with evidence and reasoning. Here’s an outline for an argumentative essay, along with examples for each section: 3  

1.  Introduction : 

  • Hook : Start with a compelling statement, question, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention. 

Example: “Did you know that plastic pollution is threatening marine life at an alarming rate?” 

  • Background information : Provide brief context about the issue. 

Example: “Plastic pollution has become a global environmental concern, with millions of tons of plastic waste entering our oceans yearly.” 

  • Thesis statement : Clearly state your main argument or position. 

Example: “We must take immediate action to reduce plastic usage and implement more sustainable alternatives to protect our marine ecosystem.” 

2.  Body Paragraphs : 

  • Topic sentence : Introduce the main idea of each paragraph. 

Example: “The first step towards addressing the plastic pollution crisis is reducing single-use plastic consumption.” 

  • Evidence/Support : Provide evidence, facts, statistics, or examples that support your argument. 

Example: “Research shows that plastic straws alone contribute to millions of tons of plastic waste annually, and many marine animals suffer from ingestion or entanglement.” 

  • Counterargument/Refutation : Acknowledge and refute opposing viewpoints. 

Example: “Some argue that banning plastic straws is inconvenient for consumers, but the long-term environmental benefits far outweigh the temporary inconvenience.” 

  • Transition : Connect each paragraph to the next. 

Example: “Having addressed the issue of single-use plastics, the focus must now shift to promoting sustainable alternatives.” 

3.  Counterargument Paragraph : 

  • Acknowledgement of opposing views : Recognize alternative perspectives on the issue. 

Example: “While some may argue that individual actions cannot significantly impact global plastic pollution, the cumulative effect of collective efforts must be considered.” 

  • Counterargument and rebuttal : Present and refute the main counterargument. 

Example: “However, individual actions, when multiplied across millions of people, can substantially reduce plastic waste. Small changes in behavior, such as using reusable bags and containers, can have a significant positive impact.” 

4.  Conclusion : 

  • Restatement of thesis : Summarize your main argument. 

Example: “In conclusion, adopting sustainable practices and reducing single-use plastic is crucial for preserving our oceans and marine life.” 

  • Call to action : Encourage the reader to take specific steps or consider the argument’s implications. 

Example: “It is our responsibility to make environmentally conscious choices and advocate for policies that prioritize the health of our planet. By collectively embracing sustainable alternatives, we can contribute to a cleaner and healthier future.” 

what are the techniques in writing argumentative essay

Types of argument claims

A claim is a statement or proposition a writer puts forward with evidence to persuade the reader. 4 Here are some common types of argument claims, along with examples: 

  • Fact Claims : These claims assert that something is true or false and can often be verified through evidence.  Example: “Water boils at 100°C at sea level.”
  • Value Claims : Value claims express judgments about the worth or morality of something, often based on personal beliefs or societal values. Example: “Organic farming is more ethical than conventional farming.” 
  • Policy Claims : Policy claims propose a course of action or argue for a specific policy, law, or regulation change.  Example: “Schools should adopt a year-round education system to improve student learning outcomes.” 
  • Cause and Effect Claims : These claims argue that one event or condition leads to another, establishing a cause-and-effect relationship.  Example: “Excessive use of social media is a leading cause of increased feelings of loneliness among young adults.” 
  • Definition Claims : Definition claims assert the meaning or classification of a concept or term.  Example: “Artificial intelligence can be defined as machines exhibiting human-like cognitive functions.” 
  • Comparative Claims : Comparative claims assert that one thing is better or worse than another in certain respects.  Example: “Online education is more cost-effective than traditional classroom learning.” 
  • Evaluation Claims : Evaluation claims assess the quality, significance, or effectiveness of something based on specific criteria.  Example: “The new healthcare policy is more effective in providing affordable healthcare to all citizens.” 

Understanding these argument claims can help writers construct more persuasive and well-supported arguments tailored to the specific nature of the claim.  

If you’re wondering how to start an argumentative essay, here’s a step-by-step guide to help you with the argumentative essay format and writing process.

  • Choose a Topic: Select a topic that you are passionate about or interested in. Ensure that the topic is debatable and has two or more sides.
  • Define Your Position: Clearly state your stance on the issue. Consider opposing viewpoints and be ready to counter them.
  • Conduct Research: Gather relevant information from credible sources, such as books, articles, and academic journals. Take notes on key points and supporting evidence.
  • Create a Thesis Statement: Develop a concise and clear thesis statement that outlines your main argument. Convey your position on the issue and provide a roadmap for the essay.
  • Outline Your Argumentative Essay: Organize your ideas logically by creating an outline. Include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Each body paragraph should focus on a single point that supports your thesis.
  • Write the Introduction: Start with a hook to grab the reader’s attention (a quote, a question, a surprising fact). Provide background information on the topic. Present your thesis statement at the end of the introduction.
  • Develop Body Paragraphs: Begin each paragraph with a clear topic sentence that relates to the thesis. Support your points with evidence and examples. Address counterarguments and refute them to strengthen your position. Ensure smooth transitions between paragraphs.
  • Address Counterarguments: Acknowledge and respond to opposing viewpoints. Anticipate objections and provide evidence to counter them.
  • Write the Conclusion: Summarize the main points of your argumentative essay. Reinforce the significance of your argument. End with a call to action, a prediction, or a thought-provoking statement.
  • Revise, Edit, and Share: Review your essay for clarity, coherence, and consistency. Check for grammatical and spelling errors. Share your essay with peers, friends, or instructors for constructive feedback.
  • Finalize Your Argumentative Essay: Make final edits based on feedback received. Ensure that your essay follows the required formatting and citation style.

Struggling to start your argumentative essay? Paperpal can help – try now!   

Argumentative essay writing tips

Here are eight strategies to craft a compelling argumentative essay: 

  • Choose a Clear and Controversial Topic : Select a topic that sparks debate and has opposing viewpoints. A clear and controversial issue provides a solid foundation for a strong argument. 
  • Conduct Thorough Research : Gather relevant information from reputable sources to support your argument. Use a variety of sources, such as academic journals, books, reputable websites, and expert opinions, to strengthen your position. 
  • Create a Strong Thesis Statement : Clearly articulate your main argument in a concise thesis statement. Your thesis should convey your stance on the issue and provide a roadmap for the reader to follow your argument. 
  • Develop a Logical Structure : Organize your essay with a clear introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion. Each paragraph should focus on a specific point of evidence that contributes to your overall argument. Ensure a logical flow from one point to the next. 
  • Provide Strong Evidence : Support your claims with solid evidence. Use facts, statistics, examples, and expert opinions to support your arguments. Be sure to cite your sources appropriately to maintain credibility. 
  • Address Counterarguments : Acknowledge opposing viewpoints and counterarguments. Addressing and refuting alternative perspectives strengthens your essay and demonstrates a thorough understanding of the issue. Be mindful of maintaining a respectful tone even when discussing opposing views. 
  • Use Persuasive Language : Employ persuasive language to make your points effectively. Avoid emotional appeals without supporting evidence and strive for a respectful and professional tone. 
  • Craft a Compelling Conclusion : Summarize your main points, restate your thesis, and leave a lasting impression in your conclusion. Encourage readers to consider the implications of your argument and potentially take action. 

what are the techniques in writing argumentative essay

Good argumentative essay example

Let’s consider a sample of argumentative essay on how social media enhances connectivity:

In the digital age, social media has emerged as a powerful tool that transcends geographical boundaries, connecting individuals from diverse backgrounds and providing a platform for an array of voices to be heard. While critics argue that social media fosters division and amplifies negativity, it is essential to recognize the positive aspects of this digital revolution and how it enhances connectivity by providing a platform for diverse voices to flourish. One of the primary benefits of social media is its ability to facilitate instant communication and connection across the globe. Platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram break down geographical barriers, enabling people to establish and maintain relationships regardless of physical location and fostering a sense of global community. Furthermore, social media has transformed how people stay connected with friends and family. Whether separated by miles or time zones, social media ensures that relationships remain dynamic and relevant, contributing to a more interconnected world. Moreover, social media has played a pivotal role in giving voice to social justice movements and marginalized communities. Movements such as #BlackLivesMatter, #MeToo, and #ClimateStrike have gained momentum through social media, allowing individuals to share their stories and advocate for change on a global scale. This digital activism can shape public opinion and hold institutions accountable. Social media platforms provide a dynamic space for open dialogue and discourse. Users can engage in discussions, share information, and challenge each other’s perspectives, fostering a culture of critical thinking. This open exchange of ideas contributes to a more informed and enlightened society where individuals can broaden their horizons and develop a nuanced understanding of complex issues. While criticisms of social media abound, it is crucial to recognize its positive impact on connectivity and the amplification of diverse voices. Social media transcends physical and cultural barriers, connecting people across the globe and providing a platform for marginalized voices to be heard. By fostering open dialogue and facilitating the exchange of ideas, social media contributes to a more interconnected and empowered society. Embracing the positive aspects of social media allows us to harness its potential for positive change and collective growth.
  • Clearly Define Your Thesis Statement:   Your thesis statement is the core of your argumentative essay. Clearly articulate your main argument or position on the issue. Avoid vague or general statements.  
  • Provide Strong Supporting Evidence:   Back up your thesis with solid evidence from reliable sources and examples. This can include facts, statistics, expert opinions, anecdotes, or real-life examples. Make sure your evidence is relevant to your argument, as it impacts the overall persuasiveness of your thesis.  
  • Anticipate Counterarguments and Address Them:   Acknowledge and address opposing viewpoints to strengthen credibility. This also shows that you engage critically with the topic rather than presenting a one-sided argument. 

How to Write an Argumentative Essay with Paperpal?

Writing a winning argumentative essay not only showcases your ability to critically analyze a topic but also demonstrates your skill in persuasively presenting your stance backed by evidence. Achieving this level of writing excellence can be time-consuming. This is where Paperpal, your AI academic writing assistant, steps in to revolutionize the way you approach argumentative essays. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to use Paperpal to write your essay: 

  • Sign Up or Log In: Begin by creating an account or logging into paperpal.com .  
  • Navigate to Paperpal Copilot: Once logged in, proceed to the Templates section from the side navigation bar.  
  • Generate an essay outline: Under Templates, click on the ‘Outline’ tab and choose ‘Essay’ from the options and provide your topic to generate an outline.  
  • Develop your essay: Use this structured outline as a guide to flesh out your essay. If you encounter any roadblocks, click on Brainstorm and get subject-specific assistance, ensuring you stay on track. 
  • Refine your writing: To elevate the academic tone of your essay, select a paragraph and use the ‘Make Academic’ feature under the ‘Rewrite’ tab, ensuring your argumentative essay resonates with an academic audience. 
  • Final Touches: Make your argumentative essay submission ready with Paperpal’s language, grammar, consistency and plagiarism checks, and improve your chances of acceptance.  

Paperpal not only simplifies the essay writing process but also ensures your argumentative essay is persuasive, well-structured, and academically rigorous. Sign up today and transform how you write argumentative essays. 

The length of an argumentative essay can vary, but it typically falls within the range of 1,000 to 2,500 words. However, the specific requirements may depend on the guidelines provided.

You might write an argumentative essay when:  1. You want to convince others of the validity of your position.  2. There is a controversial or debatable issue that requires discussion.  3. You need to present evidence and logical reasoning to support your claims.  4. You want to explore and critically analyze different perspectives on a topic. 

Argumentative Essay:  Purpose : An argumentative essay aims to persuade the reader to accept or agree with a specific point of view or argument.  Structure : It follows a clear structure with an introduction, thesis statement, body paragraphs presenting arguments and evidence, counterarguments and refutations, and a conclusion.  Tone : The tone is formal and relies on logical reasoning, evidence, and critical analysis.    Narrative/Descriptive Essay:  Purpose : These aim to tell a story or describe an experience, while a descriptive essay focuses on creating a vivid picture of a person, place, or thing.  Structure : They may have a more flexible structure. They often include an engaging introduction, a well-developed body that builds the story or description, and a conclusion.  Tone : The tone is more personal and expressive to evoke emotions or provide sensory details. 

  • Gladd, J. (2020). Tips for Writing Academic Persuasive Essays.  Write What Matters . 
  • Nimehchisalem, V. (2018). Pyramid of argumentation: Towards an integrated model for teaching and assessing ESL writing.  Language & Communication ,  5 (2), 185-200. 
  • Press, B. (2022).  Argumentative Essays: A Step-by-Step Guide . Broadview Press. 
  • Rieke, R. D., Sillars, M. O., & Peterson, T. R. (2005).  Argumentation and critical decision making . Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. 

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How To Write An Argumentative Essay

Monali Ghosh

Table of Contents

Crafting a convincing argumentative essay can be challenging. You might feel lost about where to begin. But with a systematic approach and helpful tools that simplify sourcing and structuring, mastering good argumentative essay writing becomes achievable.

In this article, we'll explore what argumentative essays are, the critical steps to crafting a compelling argumentative essay, and best practices for essay organization.

What is an argumentative essay?

An argumentative essay asserts a clear position on a controversial or debatable topic and backs it up with evidence and reasoning. They are written to hone critical thinking, structure clear arguments, influence academic and public discourse, underpin reform proposals, and change popular narratives.


The fundamentals of a good argumentative essay

Let's explore the essential components that make argumentative essays compelling.

1 . The foundation: crafting a compelling claim for your argumentative essay

The claim is the cornerstone of your argumentative essay. It represents your main argument or thesis statement , setting the stage for the discussion.

A robust claim is straightforward, debatable, and focused, challenging readers to consider your viewpoint. It's not merely an observation but a stance you're prepared to defend with logic and evidence.

The strength of your essay hinges on the clarity and assertiveness of your claim, guiding readers through your argumentative journey.

2. The structure: Organizing your argument strategically

An effective argumentative essay should follow a logical structure to present your case persuasively. There are three models for structuring your argument essay:

  • Classical: Introduce the topic, present the main argument, address counterarguments, and conclude . It is ideal for complex topics and prioritizes logical reasoning.
  • Rogerian: Introduce the issue neutrally, acknowledge opposing views, find common ground, and seek compromise. It works well for audiences who dislike confrontational approaches.
  • Toulmin: Introduce the issue, state the claim, provide evidence, explain the reasoning, address counterarguments, and reinforce the original claim. It confidently showcases an evidence-backed argument as superior.

Each model provides a framework for methodically supporting your position using evidence and logic. Your chosen structure depends on your argument's complexity, audience, and purpose.

3. The support: Leveraging evidence for your argumentative essay

The key is to select evidence that directly supports your claim, lending weight to your arguments and bolstering your position.

Effective use of evidence strengthens your argument and enhances your credibility, demonstrating thorough research and a deep understanding of the topic at hand.

4. The balance: Acknowledging counterarguments for the argumentative essay

A well-rounded argumentative essay acknowledges that there are two sides to every story. Introducing counterarguments and opposing viewpoints in an argument essay is a strategic move that showcases your awareness of alternative viewpoints.

This element of your argumentative essay demonstrates intellectual honesty and fairness, indicating that you have considered other perspectives before solidifying your position.

5. The counter: Mastering the art of rebuttal

A compelling rebuttal anticipates the counterclaims and methodically counters them, ensuring your position stands unchallenged. By engaging critically with counterarguments in this manner, your essay becomes more resilient and persuasive.

Ultimately, the strength of an argumentative essay is not in avoiding opposing views but in directly confronting them through reasoned debate and evidence-based.

How to write an argumentative essay

The workflow for crafting an effective argumentative essay involves several key steps:

Step 1 — Choosing a topic

Argumentative essay writing starts with selecting a topic with two or more main points so you can argue your position. Avoid topics that are too broad or have a clear right or wrong answer.


Use a semantic search engine to search for papers. Refine by subject area, publication date, citation count, institution, author, journal, and more to narrow down on promising topics. Explore citation interlinkages to ensure you pick a topic with sufficient academic discourse to allow crafting a compelling, evidence-based argument.


Seek an AI research assistant's help to assess a topic's potential and explore various angles quickly. They can generate both generic and custom questions tailored to each research paper. Additionally, look for tools that offer browser extensions . These allow you to interact with papers from sources like ArXiv, PubMed, and Wiley and evaluate potential topics from a broader range of academic databases and repositories.


Step 2 — Develop a thesis statement

Your thesis statement should clearly and concisely state your position on the topic identified. Ensure to develop a clear thesis statement which is a focused, assertive declaration that guides your discussion. Use strong, active language — avoid vague or passive statements.  Keep it narrowly focused enough to be adequately supported in your essay.


The SciSpace literature review tool can help you extract thesis statements from existing papers on your chosen topic. Create a custom column called 'thesis statement' to compare multiple perspectives in one place, allowing you to uncover various viewpoints and position your concise thesis statement appropriately.


Ask AI assistants questions or summarize key sections to clarify the positions taken in existing papers. This helps sharpen your thesis statement stance and identify gaps. Locate related papers in similar stances.

Step 3 — Researching and gathering evidence

The evidence you collect lends credibility and weight to your claims, convincing readers of your viewpoint. Effective evidence includes facts, statistics, expert opinions, and real-world examples reinforcing your thesis statement.

Use the SciSpace literature review tool to locate and evaluate high-quality studies. It quickly extracts vital insights, methodologies, findings, and conclusions from papers and presents them in a table format. Build custom tables with your uploaded PDFs or bookmarked papers. These tables can be saved for future reference or exported as CSV for further analysis or sharing.


AI-powered summarization tools can help you quickly grasp the core arguments and positions from lengthy papers. These can condense long sections or entire author viewpoints into concise summaries. Make PDF annotations to add custom notes and highlights to papers for easy reference. Data extraction tools can automatically pull key statistics from PDFs into spreadsheets for detailed quantitative analysis.


Step 4 — Build an outline

The argumentative model you choose will impact your outline's specific structure and progression. If you select the Classical model, your outline will follow a linear structure. On the other hand, if you opt for the Toulmin model, your outline will focus on meticulously mapping out the logical progression of your entire argument. Lastly, if you select the Rogerian model, your outline should explore the opposing viewpoint and seek a middle ground.

While the specific outline structure may vary, always begin the process by stating your central thesis or claim. Identify and organize your argument claims and main supporting points logically, adding 2-3 pieces of evidence under each point. Consider potential counterarguments to your position. Include 1-2 counterarguments for each main point and plan rebuttals to dismantle the opposition's reasoning. This balanced approach strengthens your overall argument.

As you outline, consider saving your notes, highlights, AI-generated summaries, and extracts in a digital notebook. Aggregating all your sources and ideas in one centralized location allows you to quickly refer to them as you draft your outline and essay.


To further enhance your workflow, you can use AI-powered writing or GPT tools to help generate an initial structure based on your crucial essay components, such as your thesis statement, main arguments, supporting evidence, counterarguments, and rebuttals.

Step 5 — Write your essay

Begin the introductory paragraph with a hook — a question, a startling statistic, or a bold statement to draw in your readers. Always logically structure your arguments with smooth transitions between ideas. Ensure the body paragraphs of argumentative essays focus on one central point backed by robust quantitative evidence from credible studies, properly cited.

Refer to the notes, highlights, and evidence you've gathered as you write. Organize these materials so that you can easily access and incorporate them into your draft while maintaining a logical flow. Literature review tables or spreadsheets can be beneficial for keeping track of crucial evidence from multiple sources.

what are the techniques in writing argumentative essay

Quote others in a way that blends seamlessly with the narrative flow. For numerical data, contextualize figures with practical examples. Try to pre-empt counterarguments and systematically dismantle them. Maintain an evidence-based, objective tone that avoids absolutism and emotional appeals. If you encounter overly complex sections during the writing process, use a paraphraser tool to rephrase and clarify the language. Finally, neatly tie together the rationale behind your position and directions for further discourse or research.

Step 6 — Edit, revise, and add references

Set the draft aside so that you review it with fresh eyes. Check for clarity, conciseness, logical flow, and grammar. Ensure the body reflects your thesis well. Fill gaps in reasoning. Check that every claim links back to credible evidence. Replace weak arguments. Finally, format your citations and bibliography using your preferred style.


To simplify editing, save the rough draft or entire essay as a PDF and upload it to an AI-based chat-with-PDF tool. Use it to identify gaps in reasoning, weaker arguments requiring ample evidence, structural issues hampering the clarity of ideas, and suggestions for strengthening your essay.


Use a citation tool to generate citations for sources instantly quoted and quickly compile your bibliography or works cited in RIS/BibTex formats. Export the updated literature review tables as handy CSV files to share with co-authors or reviewers in collaborative projects or attach them as supplementary data for journal submissions. You can also refer to this article that provides you with argumentative essay writing tips .

Final thoughts

Remember, the strength of your argumentative essay lies in the clarity of your strong argument, the robustness of supporting evidence, and the consideration with which you treat opposing viewpoints. Refining these core skills will make you a sharper, more convincing writer and communicator.

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How to write an argumentative essay

How to write an argumentative essay

The argumentative essay is a staple in university courses, and writing this style of essay is a key skill for students across multiple disciplines. Here’s what you need to know to write an effective and compelling argumentative essay.

What is an argumentative essay?

An argumentative essay takes a stance on an issue and presents an argument to defend that stance with the intent of persuading the reader to agree. It generally requires extensive research into a topic so that you have a deep grasp of its subtleties and nuances, are able to take a position on the issue, and can make a detailed and logical case for one side or the other.

It’s not enough to merely have an opinion on an issue—you have to present points to justify your opinion, often using data and other supporting evidence.

When you are assigned an argumentative essay, you will typically be asked to take a position, usually in response to a question, and mount an argument for it. The question can be two-sided or open-ended, as in the examples provided below.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts:

Two-sided Question

Should completing a certain number of volunteer hours be a requirement to graduate from high school? Support your argument with evidence.

Open-ended Question

What is the most significant impact that social media has had on this generation of young people?

Once again, it’s important to remember that you’re not just conveying facts or information in an argumentative essay. In the course of researching your topic, you should develop a stance on the issue. Your essay will then express that stance and attempt to persuade the reader of its legitimacy and correctness through discussion, assessment, and evaluation.

The main types of argumentative essays

Although you are advancing a particular viewpoint, your argumentative essay must flow from a position of objectivity. Your argument should evolve thoughtfully and rationally from evidence and logic rather than emotion.

There are two main models that provide a good starting point for crafting your essay: the Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

The Toulmin Model

This model is commonly used in academic essays. It mounts an argument through the following four steps:

  • Make a claim.
  • Present the evidence, or grounds, for the claim.
  • Explain how the grounds support the claim.
  • Address potential objections to the claim, demonstrating that you’ve given thought to the opposing side and identified its limitations and deficiencies.

As an example of how to put the Toulmin model into practice, here’s how you might structure an argument about the impact of devoting public funding to building low-income housing.

  • Make your claim that low-income housing effectively solves several social issues that drain a city’s resources, providing a significant return on investment.
  • Cite data that shows how an increase in low-income housing is related to a reduction in crime rates, homelessness, etc.
  • Explain how this data proves the beneficial impact of funding low-income housing.
  • Preemptively counter objections to your claim and use data to demonstrate whether these objections are valid or not.

The Rogerian Model

This model is also frequently used within academia, and it also builds an argument using four steps, although in a slightly different fashion:

  • Acknowledge the merits of the opposing position and what might compel people to agree with it.
  • Draw attention to the problems with this position.
  • Lay out your own position and identify how it resolves those problems.
  • Proffer some middle ground between the two viewpoints and make the case that proponents of the opposing position might benefit from adopting at least some elements of your view.

The persuasiveness of this model owes to the fact that it offers a balanced view of the issue and attempts to find a compromise. For this reason, it works especially well for topics that are polarizing and where it’s important to demonstrate that you’re arguing in good faith.

To illustrate, here’s how you could argue that smartphones should be permitted in classrooms.

  • Concede that smartphones can be a distraction for students.
  • Argue that what teachers view as disruptions are actually opportunities for learning.
  • Offer the view that smartphones, and students’ interest in them, can be harnessed as teaching tools.
  • Suggest teaching activities that involve smartphones as a potential resource for teachers who are not convinced of their value.

It’s not essential to adhere strictly to one model or the other—you can borrow elements from both models to structure your essay. However, no matter which model of argumentation you choose, your essay will need to have an outline that effectively presents and develops your position.

How to outline and write an argumentative essay

A clear and straightforward structure works best for argumentative essays since you want to make it easy for your reader to understand your position and follow your arguments. The traditional essay outline comprises an introductory paragraph that announces your thesis statement, body paragraphs that unfold your argument point by point, and a concluding paragraph that summarizes your thesis and supporting points.

Introductory paragraph

This paragraph provides an overview of your topic and any background information that your readers will need in order to understand the context and your position. It generally concludes with an explicit statement of your position on the topic, which is known as your thesis statement.

Over the last decade, smartphones have transformed nearly every aspect of our lives, socially, culturally, and personally. They are now incorporated into almost every facet of daily life, and this includes making their way into classrooms. There are many educators who view smartphones with suspicion and see them as a threat to the sanctity of the classroom. Although there are reasons to regard smartphones with caution, there are ways to use them responsibly to teach and educate the next generation of young minds. Indeed, the value they hold as teaching tools is nearly unlimited: as a way to teach digital literacy, to reach students through a medium that is familiar and fun for them, and to provide a nimble and adaptable learning environment.

Body paragraphs

Most argumentative essays have at least three body paragraphs that lay out the supporting points in favor of your argument. Each paragraph should open with a topic sentence that presents a separate point that is then fleshed out and backed up by research, facts, figures, data, and other evidence. Remember that your aim in writing an argumentative essay is to convince or persuade your reader, and your body paragraphs are where you present your most compelling pieces of information in order to do just that.

The body of your essay is also where you should address any opposing arguments and make your case against them, either disproving them or stating the reasons why you disagree. Responding to potential rebuttals strengthens your argument and builds your credibility with your readers.

A frequent objection that teachers have to smartphones in the classroom is that students use them to socialize when they should be learning. This view overlooks the fact that students are using smartphones to connect with each other and this is a valuable skill that should be encouraged, not discouraged, in the classroom. A 2014 study demonstrated the benefits of providing students with individual smartphones. Sanctioned smartphone use in the classroom proved to be of particular importance in improving educational outcomes for low-income and at-risk students. What’s more, learning apps have been developed specifically to take advantage of the potential of smartphones to reach learners of various levels and backgrounds, and many offer the ability to customize the method and delivery of lessons to individual learner preferences. This shows that the untapped potential of smartphones is huge, and many teachers would do well to consider incorporating them into their classrooms.

Your concluding paragraph wraps up your essay by restating your thesis and recapping the arguments you presented in your body paragraphs. No new information should be introduced in your conclusion, however, you may consider shifting the lens of your argument to make a comment on how this issue affects the world at large or you personally, always keeping in mind that objectivity and relevance are your guiding principles.

Smartphones have a growing place in the world of education, and despite the presence of legitimate concerns about their use, their value as teaching tools has been clearly established. With more and more of our lives going digital and with the growing emphasis on offering distance learning as an option, educators with an eye to the future won't wait to embrace smartphones and find ways to use them to their fullest effect. As much time and space as we could devote to weighing the pros and cons of smartphones, the fact is that they are not going to disappear from our lives, and our best bet is to develop their, and our students', potential.

Frequently Asked Questions about argumentative essays

Your argumentative essay starts with an introductory paragraph. This paragraph provides an overview of your topic and any background information that your readers will need in order to understand the context and your position.

Like any traditional essay, the argumentative essay consists of three parts:

  • Introduction

There are do's and don'ts in argumentative writing. This article summarizes some of them well - you should, for example, avoid coming to an argument based on feelings, without any evidence. Everything you say needs to be backed up by evidence, unless you are the renowned expert in the field.

Yes, you can start your argumentative essay with a question or with a thesis statement. Or you can do both - ask a question and then immediately answer it with a statement.

There are contrasting views on that. In some situations it can make sense to end your argumentative essay with a question - for example, when you want to create room for further discussions or want the reader to leave thinking about the question.

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Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you’ll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view. If you’re struggling to write an argumentative essay or just want to learn more about them, seeing examples can be a big help.

After giving an overview of this type of essay, we provide three argumentative essay examples. After each essay, we explain in-depth how the essay was structured, what worked, and where the essay could be improved. We end with tips for making your own argumentative essay as strong as possible.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made.

A good argumentative essay will use facts and evidence to support the argument, rather than just the author’s thoughts and opinions. For example, say you wanted to write an argumentative essay stating that Charleston, SC is a great destination for families. You couldn’t just say that it’s a great place because you took your family there and enjoyed it. For it to be an argumentative essay, you need to have facts and data to support your argument, such as the number of child-friendly attractions in Charleston, special deals you can get with kids, and surveys of people who visited Charleston as a family and enjoyed it. The first argument is based entirely on feelings, whereas the second is based on evidence that can be proven.

The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model.

  • The Toulmin model is the most common. It begins with an introduction, follows with a thesis/claim, and gives data and evidence to support that claim. This style of essay also includes rebuttals of counterarguments.
  • The Rogerian model analyzes two sides of an argument and reaches a conclusion after weighing the strengths and weaknesses of each.

3 Good Argumentative Essay Examples + Analysis

Below are three examples of argumentative essays, written by yours truly in my school days, as well as analysis of what each did well and where it could be improved.

Argumentative Essay Example 1

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain. They also believe it will encourage more people to read because they won’t have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are. They could also access more materials because libraries won’t have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets. First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources. A study done on tablet vs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20% less information, and understand 10% less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print. Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain, at much higher instances than reading print does. People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and muscle strain. I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts. We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people, more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending. Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location. Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people a way to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected. One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community. Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community. People see libraries as a way to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can’t offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution, it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them. It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to rely on. In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

The author begins by giving an overview of the counter-argument, then the thesis appears as the first sentence in the third paragraph. The essay then spends the rest of the paper dismantling the counter argument and showing why readers should believe the other side.

What this essay does well:

  • Although it’s a bit unusual to have the thesis appear fairly far into the essay, it works because, once the thesis is stated, the rest of the essay focuses on supporting it since the counter-argument has already been discussed earlier in the paper.
  • This essay includes numerous facts and cites studies to support its case. By having specific data to rely on, the author’s argument is stronger and readers will be more inclined to agree with it.
  • For every argument the other side makes, the author makes sure to refute it and follow up with why her opinion is the stronger one. In order to make a strong argument, it’s important to dismantle the other side, which this essay does this by making the author's view appear stronger.
  • This is a shorter paper, and if it needed to be expanded to meet length requirements, it could include more examples and go more into depth with them, such as by explaining specific cases where people benefited from local libraries.
  • Additionally, while the paper uses lots of data, the author also mentions their own experience with using tablets. This should be removed since argumentative essays focus on facts and data to support an argument, not the author’s own opinion or experiences. Replacing that with more data on health issues associated with screen time would strengthen the essay.
  • Some of the points made aren't completely accurate , particularly the one about digital books being cheaper. It actually often costs a library more money to rent out numerous digital copies of a book compared to buying a single physical copy. Make sure in your own essay you thoroughly research each of the points and rebuttals you make, otherwise you'll look like you don't know the issue that well.


Argumentative Essay Example 2

There are multiple drugs available to treat malaria, and many of them work well and save lives, but malaria eradication programs that focus too much on them and not enough on prevention haven’t seen long-term success in Sub-Saharan Africa. A major program to combat malaria was WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme. Started in 1955, it had a goal of eliminating malaria in Africa within the next ten years. Based upon previously successful programs in Brazil and the United States, the program focused mainly on vector control. This included widely distributing chloroquine and spraying large amounts of DDT. More than one billion dollars was spent trying to abolish malaria. However, the program suffered from many problems and in 1969, WHO was forced to admit that the program had not succeeded in eradicating malaria. The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa who contracted malaria as well as the number of malaria deaths had actually increased over 10% during the time the program was active.

One of the major reasons for the failure of the project was that it set uniform strategies and policies. By failing to consider variations between governments, geography, and infrastructure, the program was not nearly as successful as it could have been. Sub-Saharan Africa has neither the money nor the infrastructure to support such an elaborate program, and it couldn’t be run the way it was meant to. Most African countries don't have the resources to send all their people to doctors and get shots, nor can they afford to clear wetlands or other malaria prone areas. The continent’s spending per person for eradicating malaria was just a quarter of what Brazil spent. Sub-Saharan Africa simply can’t rely on a plan that requires more money, infrastructure, and expertise than they have to spare.

Additionally, the widespread use of chloroquine has created drug resistant parasites which are now plaguing Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used widely but inconsistently, mosquitoes developed resistance, and chloroquine is now nearly completely ineffective in Sub-Saharan Africa, with over 95% of mosquitoes resistant to it. As a result, newer, more expensive drugs need to be used to prevent and treat malaria, which further drives up the cost of malaria treatment for a region that can ill afford it.

Instead of developing plans to treat malaria after the infection has incurred, programs should focus on preventing infection from occurring in the first place. Not only is this plan cheaper and more effective, reducing the number of people who contract malaria also reduces loss of work/school days which can further bring down the productivity of the region.

One of the cheapest and most effective ways of preventing malaria is to implement insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs).  These nets provide a protective barrier around the person or people using them. While untreated bed nets are still helpful, those treated with insecticides are much more useful because they stop mosquitoes from biting people through the nets, and they help reduce mosquito populations in a community, thus helping people who don’t even own bed nets.  Bed nets are also very effective because most mosquito bites occur while the person is sleeping, so bed nets would be able to drastically reduce the number of transmissions during the night. In fact, transmission of malaria can be reduced by as much as 90% in areas where the use of ITNs is widespread. Because money is so scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa, the low cost is a great benefit and a major reason why the program is so successful. Bed nets cost roughly 2 USD to make, last several years, and can protect two adults. Studies have shown that, for every 100-1000 more nets are being used, one less child dies of malaria. With an estimated 300 million people in Africa not being protected by mosquito nets, there’s the potential to save three million lives by spending just a few dollars per person.

Reducing the number of people who contract malaria would also reduce poverty levels in Africa significantly, thus improving other aspects of society like education levels and the economy. Vector control is more effective than treatment strategies because it means fewer people are getting sick. When fewer people get sick, the working population is stronger as a whole because people are not put out of work from malaria, nor are they caring for sick relatives. Malaria-afflicted families can typically only harvest 40% of the crops that healthy families can harvest. Additionally, a family with members who have malaria spends roughly a quarter of its income treatment, not including the loss of work they also must deal with due to the illness. It’s estimated that malaria costs Africa 12 billion USD in lost income every year. A strong working population creates a stronger economy, which Sub-Saharan Africa is in desperate need of.  

This essay begins with an introduction, which ends with the thesis (that malaria eradication plans in Sub-Saharan Africa should focus on prevention rather than treatment). The first part of the essay lays out why the counter argument (treatment rather than prevention) is not as effective, and the second part of the essay focuses on why prevention of malaria is the better path to take.

  • The thesis appears early, is stated clearly, and is supported throughout the rest of the essay. This makes the argument clear for readers to understand and follow throughout the essay.
  • There’s lots of solid research in this essay, including specific programs that were conducted and how successful they were, as well as specific data mentioned throughout. This evidence helps strengthen the author’s argument.
  • The author makes a case for using expanding bed net use over waiting until malaria occurs and beginning treatment, but not much of a plan is given for how the bed nets would be distributed or how to ensure they’re being used properly. By going more into detail of what she believes should be done, the author would be making a stronger argument.
  • The introduction of the essay does a good job of laying out the seriousness of the problem, but the conclusion is short and abrupt. Expanding it into its own paragraph would give the author a final way to convince readers of her side of the argument.


Argumentative Essay Example 3

There are many ways payments could work. They could be in the form of a free-market approach, where athletes are able to earn whatever the market is willing to pay them, it could be a set amount of money per athlete, or student athletes could earn income from endorsements, autographs, and control of their likeness, similar to the way top Olympians earn money.

Proponents of the idea believe that, because college athletes are the ones who are training, participating in games, and bringing in audiences, they should receive some sort of compensation for their work. If there were no college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, college coaches wouldn’t receive there (sometimes very high) salaries, and brands like Nike couldn’t profit from college sports. In fact, the NCAA brings in roughly $1 billion in revenue a year, but college athletes don’t receive any of that money in the form of a paycheck. Additionally, people who believe college athletes should be paid state that paying college athletes will actually encourage them to remain in college longer and not turn pro as quickly, either by giving them a way to begin earning money in college or requiring them to sign a contract stating they’ll stay at the university for a certain number of years while making an agreed-upon salary.  

Supporters of this idea point to Zion Williamson, the Duke basketball superstar, who, during his freshman year, sustained a serious knee injury. Many argued that, even if he enjoyed playing for Duke, it wasn’t worth risking another injury and ending his professional career before it even began for a program that wasn’t paying him. Williamson seems to have agreed with them and declared his eligibility for the NCAA draft later that year. If he was being paid, he may have stayed at Duke longer. In fact, roughly a third of student athletes surveyed stated that receiving a salary while in college would make them “strongly consider” remaining collegiate athletes longer before turning pro.

Paying athletes could also stop the recruitment scandals that have plagued the NCAA. In 2018, the NCAA stripped the University of Louisville's men's basketball team of its 2013 national championship title because it was discovered coaches were using sex workers to entice recruits to join the team. There have been dozens of other recruitment scandals where college athletes and recruits have been bribed with anything from having their grades changed, to getting free cars, to being straight out bribed. By paying college athletes and putting their salaries out in the open, the NCAA could end the illegal and underhanded ways some schools and coaches try to entice athletes to join.

People who argue against the idea of paying college athletes believe the practice could be disastrous for college sports. By paying athletes, they argue, they’d turn college sports into a bidding war, where only the richest schools could afford top athletes, and the majority of schools would be shut out from developing a talented team (though some argue this already happens because the best players often go to the most established college sports programs, who typically pay their coaches millions of dollars per year). It could also ruin the tight camaraderie of many college teams if players become jealous that certain teammates are making more money than they are.

They also argue that paying college athletes actually means only a small fraction would make significant money. Out of the 350 Division I athletic departments, fewer than a dozen earn any money. Nearly all the money the NCAA makes comes from men’s football and basketball, so paying college athletes would make a small group of men--who likely will be signed to pro teams and begin making millions immediately out of college--rich at the expense of other players.

Those against paying college athletes also believe that the athletes are receiving enough benefits already. The top athletes already receive scholarships that are worth tens of thousands per year, they receive free food/housing/textbooks, have access to top medical care if they are injured, receive top coaching, get travel perks and free gear, and can use their time in college as a way to capture the attention of professional recruiters. No other college students receive anywhere near as much from their schools.

People on this side also point out that, while the NCAA brings in a massive amount of money each year, it is still a non-profit organization. How? Because over 95% of those profits are redistributed to its members’ institutions in the form of scholarships, grants, conferences, support for Division II and Division III teams, and educational programs. Taking away a significant part of that revenue would hurt smaller programs that rely on that money to keep running.

While both sides have good points, it’s clear that the negatives of paying college athletes far outweigh the positives. College athletes spend a significant amount of time and energy playing for their school, but they are compensated for it by the scholarships and perks they receive. Adding a salary to that would result in a college athletic system where only a small handful of athletes (those likely to become millionaires in the professional leagues) are paid by a handful of schools who enter bidding wars to recruit them, while the majority of student athletics and college athletic programs suffer or even shut down for lack of money. Continuing to offer the current level of benefits to student athletes makes it possible for as many people to benefit from and enjoy college sports as possible.

This argumentative essay follows the Rogerian model. It discusses each side, first laying out multiple reasons people believe student athletes should be paid, then discussing reasons why the athletes shouldn’t be paid. It ends by stating that college athletes shouldn’t be paid by arguing that paying them would destroy college athletics programs and cause them to have many of the issues professional sports leagues have.

  • Both sides of the argument are well developed, with multiple reasons why people agree with each side. It allows readers to get a full view of the argument and its nuances.
  • Certain statements on both sides are directly rebuffed in order to show where the strengths and weaknesses of each side lie and give a more complete and sophisticated look at the argument.
  • Using the Rogerian model can be tricky because oftentimes you don’t explicitly state your argument until the end of the paper. Here, the thesis doesn’t appear until the first sentence of the final paragraph. That doesn’t give readers a lot of time to be convinced that your argument is the right one, compared to a paper where the thesis is stated in the beginning and then supported throughout the paper. This paper could be strengthened if the final paragraph was expanded to more fully explain why the author supports the view, or if the paper had made it clearer that paying athletes was the weaker argument throughout.


3 Tips for Writing a Good Argumentative Essay

Now that you’ve seen examples of what good argumentative essay samples look like, follow these three tips when crafting your own essay.

#1: Make Your Thesis Crystal Clear

The thesis is the key to your argumentative essay; if it isn’t clear or readers can’t find it easily, your entire essay will be weak as a result. Always make sure that your thesis statement is easy to find. The typical spot for it is the final sentence of the introduction paragraph, but if it doesn’t fit in that spot for your essay, try to at least put it as the first or last sentence of a different paragraph so it stands out more.

Also make sure that your thesis makes clear what side of the argument you’re on. After you’ve written it, it’s a great idea to show your thesis to a couple different people--classmates are great for this. Just by reading your thesis they should be able to understand what point you’ll be trying to make with the rest of your essay.

#2: Show Why the Other Side Is Weak

When writing your essay, you may be tempted to ignore the other side of the argument and just focus on your side, but don’t do this. The best argumentative essays really tear apart the other side to show why readers shouldn’t believe it. Before you begin writing your essay, research what the other side believes, and what their strongest points are. Then, in your essay, be sure to mention each of these and use evidence to explain why they’re incorrect/weak arguments. That’ll make your essay much more effective than if you only focused on your side of the argument.

#3: Use Evidence to Support Your Side

Remember, an essay can’t be an argumentative essay if it doesn’t support its argument with evidence. For every point you make, make sure you have facts to back it up. Some examples are previous studies done on the topic, surveys of large groups of people, data points, etc. There should be lots of numbers in your argumentative essay that support your side of the argument. This will make your essay much stronger compared to only relying on your own opinions to support your argument.

Summary: Argumentative Essay Sample

Argumentative essays are persuasive essays that use facts and evidence to support their side of the argument. Most argumentative essays follow either the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. By reading good argumentative essay examples, you can learn how to develop your essay and provide enough support to make readers agree with your opinion. When writing your essay, remember to always make your thesis clear, show where the other side is weak, and back up your opinion with data and evidence.

What's Next?

Do you need to write an argumentative essay as well? Check out our guide on the best argumentative essay topics for ideas!

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Your college admissions essay may end up being one of the most important essays you write. Follow our step-by-step guide on writing a personal statement to have an essay that'll impress colleges.

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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

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What are the 6 Techniques of Argumentative Writing? Strategies with Examples

what are the techniques in writing argumentative essay

Are you a student? Curious to know about the six strategies for argumentative writing? Then this blog is going to be helpful for you. Here present our  assignment writing help  experts will guide you regarding the six argumentative writing techniques in detail. 

In academic writing, students get various types of writing and they need to follow a particular writing technique to proceed with the assignments. In this regard, knowing all the techniques in detail is a must. Over the decades, three main writing techniques have dominated academic writing i.e. narrative, explanatory, and argumentative. Most teachers prefer to give attention to these three writing techniques, but in modern days, teachers give attention to the other three techniques too. So, as a result, it has become an important part for the students to learn all the techniques thoroughly. 

What is an Argumentative Writing?

Before going to any conclusion, we need to know what argumentative writing is. Argumentative writing is a technique that seeks clear, logical thinking and it teaches you how to appeal to your readers through your writing. In present days, it has become a necessary part. If students learn this writing style thoroughly, it gives them additional benefits in flourishing their academic level and in their professional life too. 

Read this Article too:- How To Start A Narrative Essay For College? With Examples

What is the Main Purpose of Argumentative Writing?

The purpose of argumentative writing is to organize and present all your point of view and give special emphasis on a well-reasoned conclusion in order to persuade your readers or audience to accept your opinion or point of view. 

What are the Elements of an Argumentative Writing?

Proper argumentative writing is written based on some major components such as claims, reason, evidence, counter-claim, and rebuttal. 

  • Claim 

This particular component is taken by the writer where the writer tries to prove his or her own argument. 

  • Reason 

In reason or reasoning, the writer provides necessary support to the claim, and these reasons are supported by proper well-researched evidence. 

To prove your own point of view you need to give support to your reasoning. Here you can take the help of statistics, facts, surveys, quotations, etc through which you can satiate your readers’ minds. 

  • Counter-claim 

This particular segment opposes the position, counterarguments, etc.

  • Rebuttal 

This particular section disproves the counterclaim; sometimes it addresses the criticism of the claim of the writer. 

Below our  online assignment help Cyprus experts have explained these six argumentative writing techniques in detail; just read it and know it in detail. 

  • Distinguishing Argumentation from Persuasion

National writing standards and the tests through which writings are assessed it mainly focus on argumentation rather than persuasion. Sometimes, while practicing, these approaches overlap more than they can withdraw. But before applying these in writing, students need to understand the difference between these persuasions and argumentation. 

What is Persuasion?

It is a technique through which writers appeal to readers’ emotions and by which they make them believe to take that specific action. Such type of technique we find in the advertisement where they use such appealing tone, that easily draws the consumer’s attraction and make them bound to buy that product or avail the service. 

What is Argumentation?

It is a type of technique in which logic and evidence are used to build a case. In scientific methods and laws, we find the usage of argumentation. 

  • Constructing an Opinion Statement 

If you don’t make a clear main claim or opinion statement throughout your writing, it will not give a clear impact on your readers. If you write an argument without a claim it may look weird, and it will not be able to draw your readers’ attention. 

Read this Article too:- 5 Tricks to Make Your Academic Document More Original

Here students need to follow some simple formula to establish a claim based on truth, value, and policy. 

  • Appeal to Your Audience 

If you write a claim to make your readers attentive to your writing, then you should be conscious that there are various types of readers who are suspicious and don’t believe in any statement without having any proof. There are mainly three types of rhetorical appeals that are used to make your readers believable. The first two types define argumentation and the third type is used to persuade the readers. 

  • Appeal to Logos 

It indicates you must provide clear thinking and solid reasoning to your readers to support all your claims. These all claims are based on pure logic. 

  • Appeal to Ethos

It indicates you need to make your readers believe in your writing by citing from reputable sources, to build this, you can take the help of factual pieces of evidence. Here you need to present every issue in an organized way based on ethics. 

  • Appeal to Pathos

This particular technique is completely dependent on emotions. Here readers are persuaded by using emotions. 

  • Connecting with Anecdote 

Though we find that argumentative writing techniques never emphasize on emotional appeals, but still we need to connect the readers through emotions so that they can connect it with themselves. Almost every writer believe that any argumentative writing that fails to appeal to its readers with emotion, hopes, fears, self-interest, and then the writing is prone to fail. 

An actual anecdote always allows the students to add emotive impact and interest in all their writing. Students must practice using these anecdotes in formal writing, and make them habituated to using anecdotes in writing to connect with the readers. 

  • Answer to All Objections 

Sometimes students ignore the key opposing ideas in their writing, as a result, students lose their steam of writing. Here, you need to help your readers to understand that the readers’ opposition or disagreement does not make the argument weak, but actually makes it stronger. Below, we have added two facts to oppose any point of view. 

  • Counterarguments 

It mainly points out a weakness or flaw in any objection without remarking on the person who is actually objecting. 

  • Concessions 

It actually admits the value of an opposing viewpoint and helps the readers to return to the primary argument of the writers. 

  • Avoid All Logical Fallacies 

Like other types of writing, argumentative writing techniques also emphasize on clear and logical thinking. Sometimes such situation arises when students become eager to fight for a particular point of view that they intentionally or by default take misleading or illogical claims to prove their own point of view. In this regard, teachers must give necessary guidance to the students to avoid any unnecessary fallacies by thinking rationally. 

These six argumentative writing techniques are useful for students to write stronger and more convincing argumentative writing. In some forms of writing, we need the touch of description, a proper analysis, etc. in this regard, students need to learn all these in detail before they use it in their writing. 


I hope by reading the blog you have got adequate information regarding six techniques for argumentative writing. If you still have doubts and want to know more about these six techniques, then you can ask our  assignment writing service  experts without any hesitation. Our experts are available to serve you 24*7; as a result, you can contact with them anytime whenever you feel free. For more updates, you can visit our official website and check all the procedures for availing of our services. 


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what are the techniques in writing argumentative essay

Essential Rules for Writing Effective Conclusions (2024‪)‬ IELTS Podcast

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What Are the Essential Rules for Writing Effective Conclusions? * Address the question directly. * Recap or reaffirm your stance. * Avoid introducing new information. * Keep it concise. Which Vocabulary Should You Use for Conclusion Writing? Consequently, Ultimately, Therefore, In conclusion, Hence, To summarise, In summary.   What Ideas Should Guide Your Conclusion Writing? * Ensure your conclusion accurately reflects how much you agree with the prompt, especially in “to what extent” questions. * Balance your introduction and conclusion using the sandwich technique. * Vary your vocabulary without repeating the language of your introduction or the question word for word. * State your position clearly and choose your best argument for or against without trying to summarise all your arguments. Share this guide:Share on FacebookShare on LinkedIn Further Reading * IELTS Essay Structures * IELTS Writing Tips for a Higher Score * Essential IELTS Speaking Tips Discover more about effective writing techniques at Harvard University’s Writing Center. AUTHOR: By Ben Worthington, founder and manager of IELTSPodcast.com. An expert IELTS tutor with over 12 years of experience, helping thousands of students every year pass the IELTS exam with Band 7 or higher. Share on WhatsApp     https://traffic.libsyn.com/ieltspodcast/Powerful_conclusions_for_task_2_in_2024.mp3 |Direct Download Here | Stitcher | iTunes | Spotify | Soundcloud |

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By Ben Protess ,  Jonah E. Bromwich ,  Maggie Haberman and William K. Rashbaum

Donald J. Trump is a thrice-married man accused of covering up a sex scandal with a porn star after the world heard him brag about grabbing women by their genitals.

But when Mr. Trump’s lawyers introduced him to a jury at his Manhattan criminal trial this week, they dwelt on a different dimension: “He’s a husband. He’s a father. And he’s a person, just like you and just like me.”

That half-hour opening statement encapsulated the former president’s influence over his lawyers and their strategy. It reflected specific input from Mr. Trump, people with knowledge of the matter said, and it echoed his absolutist approach to his first criminal trial.

And while defendants often offer feedback to their lawyers, this particular hands-on client could hamstring them.

Others might concede personal failings so their lawyers can focus solely on holes in the prosecution’s evidence — on television, it’s often a version of “My client might not be a nice guy, but he’s no criminal.”

But that time-honored tactic is not available to a defendant who is also the presumptive Republican presidential nominee, a man who despises weakness and is allergic to anything but praise from the people around him. So Mr. Trump’s legal strategy mirrors his political talking points as his lawyers portray the case as an unjust assault on the former president’s character.

Since he was indicted in Manhattan, Mr. Trump has questioned the very notion that anything untoward occurred, deploying a mantra: “no crime.” His lead lawyer, Todd Blanche, followed that blueprint in his opening statement, asking jurors, “What on earth is a crime?” and sprinkling in other Trump-esque phrases, including that the former president had “built a very large, successful company.”

People in Mr. Trump’s legal orbit have privately observed that the effort to humanize him might be a tough sell to a jury in New York, his hometown, where his presidency was wildly unpopular and his sexual dalliances were gossip-page staples.

But as the trial grinds on in the weeks ahead, legal experts said, the defense team will need to walk a fine line to appease both of its audiences: 12 jurors and a singular defendant.

“Trying the case to your client’s vanity, rather than to the jury, is a losing game,” said J. Bruce Maffeo, a former federal prosecutor.

Despite their client’s whims and wishes, Mr. Trump’s lawyers have deployed some conventional tactics to poke holes in the prosecution’s core accusation — that he falsified records to conceal a hush-money payment to the porn star, Stormy Daniels. And the lawyers, known as skilled litigators, some former prosecutors themselves, appear to have scored points.

Mr. Blanche, the lawyer who delivered the opening statement, urged the jury to “use common sense,” arguing that Mr. Trump is accused of falsifying the sort of back-office paperwork that a president would never bother touching. He also noted that the prosecution’s star witness is a felon and an “admitted liar.” And Mr. Blanche’s colleague, Emil Bove, grilled the prosecution’s first witness on Friday, pointing out a potential inconsistency in his story.

Such traditional techniques can be effective without undercutting Mr. Trump’s self-image. Roland G. Riopelle, another former prosecutor, who spent three decades as a defense lawyer, noted that “part of being a lawyer and being in a service business is pleasing the client — and I’m sure this client is difficult to please.”

Mr. Trump is known to be mercurial and prone to outbursts. In private, he has dressed down lawyers in several of his cases, even questioning their entire strategy just minutes before they were set to appear in court, people who have seen him in action say.

And inside the courtroom at two recent civil trials, he badgered lawyers, directing them to object at inopportune moments, muttering grievances into their ears and twice storming away from the defense table. Once, Mr. Trump exhorted his lawyer, Alina Habba, to “get up” as he banged her arm with the back of his hand.

Those cases ended in defeat. Judges have said outright that the former president’s courtroom conduct — and refusal to accept any responsibility — only hurt him. The judge in a civil fraud case brought against Mr. Trump and his company wrote that the “complete lack of contrition” from the defendants “borders on pathological.”

Inside the criminal courthouse, Mr. Trump has been better behaved, and more subdued, save for one episode during jury selection that drew a rebuke from the judge. Mr. Blanche also appears to be resisting some of his client’s interjections; when Mr. Trump poked Mr. Blanche on the shoulder at the defense table, he shook his head and brushed off the former president.

The pestering is unsurprising from a man who values control and is unaccustomed to sitting still. And Mr. Trump, whose litigious streak has thrust him in and out of courtrooms for decades, knows more about legal proceedings than the average defendant.

But he is hardly a master of procedure, and this case presents a unique test to an armchair litigator: After years of filing and fighting lawsuits, it is his first criminal trial. With three other criminal cases against him mired in delay, it might be the only one he faces before Election Day, underscoring the stakes of the proceeding.

Mr. Trump, who faces up to four years in prison, is charged with 34 felony counts, one for each record he is accused of falsifying.

Prosecutors from the Manhattan district attorney’s office, for now at least, have the upper hand, enjoying a set of salacious facts, a list of insider witnesses and a jury pool drawn from an overwhelmingly Democratic county.

This week, they elicited testimony from the former publisher of The National Enquirer, David Pecker, who said he and Mr. Trump orchestrated a plot to conceal sex scandals that could have derailed his 2016 presidential campaign. Mr. Pecker told the jury how he bought and buried a story from a Playboy model, Karen McDougal, who said she had an affair with Mr. Trump, and helped set in motion the payoff to Ms. Daniels.

On cross-examination, Mr. Bove implied that the prosecution’s case strained credulity and suggested that the former publisher, rather than doing anything so grand as conspiring with a presidential candidate, was engaged in business as usual: paying sources and making coverage decisions that benefited his magazines.

Mr. Blanche offered a similar nothing-to-see-here defense during the opening statement. “They put something sinister on this idea, as if it was a crime,” he said of the conspiracy allegation. “You’ll learn it’s not.”

At its climax, Mr. Blanche’s opening statement took aim at Michael D. Cohen, the star prosecution witness who paid Ms. Daniels the hush money in the final days of the 2016 presidential campaign, silencing her story of a sexual encounter with Mr. Trump. Mr. Cohen is expected to testify that he acted at Mr. Trump’s direction to avoid damaging his campaign. And when Mr. Trump reimbursed him for the $130,000 hush-money payment, Mr. Cohen will likely say, the former president authorized his company to falsify internal records to disguise the true nature of the repayment.

Mr. Blanche assailed Mr. Cohen’s credibility in the opening statement, noting that the former fixer had previously pleaded guilty to federal crimes, including for his role in the hush-money payment. He described Mr. Cohen as an “obsessed” former employee seeking revenge, arguing that it was he, not Mr. Trump, who was responsible for the records.

Mr. Blanche also cast doubt on Ms. Daniels, characterizing her as an opportunist out for a payday. He contended that if she testified, it would be nothing more than a distraction, since she was not involved in the false records at the heart of the case.

“She doesn’t know anything about the charged 34 counts in this case,” he told the jury during his opening statement. “Her testimony, while salacious, does not matter.”

But Mr. Blanche took a step further, and denied that Mr. Trump had sex with Ms. Daniels, echoing a claim his client has consistently made since the story first became public when he was president. Mr. Blanche also accused Ms. Daniels of all but trying to extort Mr. Trump, drawing an objection from prosecutors that was sustained by the judge.

“There were all kinds of salacious allegations going out, going around about President Trump, and it was damaging to him and damaging to his family,” he said.

That argument might play well on the campaign trail, but it might cost the defense credibility at the courthouse.

Whether Mr. Trump and Ms. Daniels had sex was irrelevant to the underlying charges, legal experts said, noting that the defense’s effort to portray Mr. Trump as a family man might not fly with the jury, which includes five women and two lawyers.

During his opening, Mr. Blanche explained somewhat awkwardly to the jury that Mr. Trump’s lawyers call him President Trump because “this is a title that he has earned because he was our 45th president.”

“Todd Blanche is an experienced enough trial lawyer to know that starting off with a homily towards his client and describing him as a family man is not likely to resonate with a New York jury,” Mr. Maffeo, the former federal prosecutor, said.

In the hallway outside the courtroom on Friday, Mr. Trump wished his wife, Melania, a happy birthday and said that he would travel to Florida to spend the evening with her.

“It’d be nice to be with her, but I’m at a courthouse for a rigged trial,” he added.

He ignored several questions from reporters including what he was doing for his wife’s birthday, and whether he had cheated on her with Ms. McDougal.

Kate Christobek contributed reporting.

Ben Protess is an investigative reporter at The Times, writing about public corruption. He has been covering the various criminal investigations into former President Trump and his allies. More about Ben Protess

Jonah E. Bromwich covers criminal justice in New York, with a focus on the Manhattan district attorney’s office and state criminal courts in Manhattan. More about Jonah E. Bromwich

Maggie Haberman is a senior political correspondent reporting on the 2024 presidential campaign, down ballot races across the country and the investigations into former President Donald J. Trump. More about Maggie Haberman

William K. Rashbaum is a Times reporter covering municipal and political corruption, the courts and broader law enforcement topics in New York. More about William K. Rashbaum

Our Coverage of the Trump Hush-Money Trial

News and Analysis

The criminal trial of Trump featured vivid testimony about a plot to protect his first presidential campaign  and the beginnings  of a tough cross-examination  of the prosecution’s initial witness, David Pecker , former publisher of The National Enquirer. Here are the takeaways .

Dozens of protesters calling for the justice system to punish Trump  briefly blocked traffic on several streets near the Lower Manhattan courthouse where he is facing his first criminal trial.

Prosecutors accused Trump of violating a gag order four additional times , saying that he continues to defy the judge’s directions  not to attack witnesses , prosecutors and jurors in his hush-money trial.

More on Trump’s Legal Troubles

Key Inquiries: Trump faces several investigations  at both the state and the federal levels, into matters related to his business and political careers.

Case Tracker:  Keep track of the developments in the criminal cases  involving the former president.

What if Trump Is Convicted?: Could he go to prison ? And will any of the proceedings hinder Trump’s presidential campaign? Here is what we know , and what we don’t know .

Trump on Trial Newsletter: Sign up here  to get the latest news and analysis  on the cases in New York, Florida, Georgia and Washington, D.C.


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