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As a peer-reviewed journal of the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS),  Forensic Sciences Research  publishes latest research in various disciplines of forensic sciences. It aims to promote forensic sciences through quality research articles, reviews, case reports, and letters to editors.

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Recent advances in forensic science research

For immediate release, acs news service weekly presspac: april 20, 2022.

Forensic scientists collect and analyze evidence during a criminal investigation to identify victims, determine the cause of death and figure out “who done it.” Below are some recent papers published in ACS journals reporting on new advances that could help forensic scientists solve crimes. Reporters can request free access to these papers by emailing  newsroom@acs.org .

“Insights into the Differential Preservation of Bone Proteomes in Inhumed and Entombed Cadavers from Italian Forensic Caseworks” Journal of Proteome Research March 22, 2022 Bone proteins can help determine how long ago a person died (post-mortem interval, PMI) and how old they were at the time of their death (age at death, AAD), but the levels of these proteins could vary with burial conditions. By comparing bone proteomes of exhumed individuals who had been entombed in mausoleums or buried in the ground, the researchers found several proteins whose levels were not affected by the burial environment, which they say could help with AAD or PMI estimation.

“Carbon Dot Powders with Cross-Linking-Based Long-Wavelength Emission for Multicolor Imaging of Latent Fingerprints” ACS Applied Nanomaterials Jan. 21, 2022 For decades, criminal investigators have recognized the importance of analyzing latent fingerprints left at crime scenes to help identify a perpetrator, but current methods to make these prints visible have limitations, including low contrast, low sensitivity and high toxicity. These researchers devised a simple way to make fluorescent carbon dot powders that can be applied to latent fingerprints, making them fluoresce under UV light with red, orange and yellow colors.

“Proteomics Offers New Clues for Forensic Investigations” ACS Central Science Oct. 18, 2021 This review article describes how forensic scientists are now turning their attention to proteins in bone, blood or other biological samples, which can sometimes answer questions that DNA can’t. For example, unlike DNA, a person’s complement of proteins (or proteome) changes over time, providing important clues about when a person died and their age at death.

“Integrating the MasSpec Pen with Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization for Rapid Chemical Analysis and Forensic Applications” Analytical Chemistry May 19, 2021 These researchers previously developed a “MasSpec Pen,” a handheld device integrated with a mass spectrometer for direct analysis and molecular profiling of biological samples. In this article, they develop a new version that can quickly and easily detect and measure compounds, including cocaine, oxycodone and explosives, which can be important in forensics investigations.

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Satellite photo showing a container ship entangled with the wreckage of a bridge.

Baltimore bridge collapse: a bridge engineer explains what happened, and what needs to change

research paper forensic science

Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, Monash University

Disclosure statement

Colin Caprani receives funding from the Department of Transport (Victoria) and the Level Crossing Removal Project. He is also Chair of the Confidential Reporting Scheme for Safer Structures - Australasia, Chair of the Australian Regional Group of the Institution of Structural Engineers, and Australian National Delegate for the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.

Monash University provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation AU.

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When the container ship MV Dali, 300 metres long and massing around 100,000 tonnes, lost power and slammed into one of the support piers of the Francis Scott Key Bridge in Baltimore, the bridge collapsed in moments . Six people are presumed dead, several others injured, and the city and region are expecting a months-long logistical nightmare in the absence of a crucial transport link.

It was a shocking event, not only for the public but for bridge engineers like me. We work very hard to ensure bridges are safe, and overall the probability of being injured or worse in a bridge collapse remains even lower than the chance of being struck by lightning.

However, the images from Baltimore are a reminder that safety can’t be taken for granted. We need to remain vigilant.

So why did this bridge collapse? And, just as importantly, how might we make other bridges more safe against such collapse?

A 20th century bridge meets a 21st century ship

The Francis Scott Key Bridge was built through the mid 1970s and opened in 1977. The main structure over the navigation channel is a “continuous truss bridge” in three sections or spans.

The bridge rests on four supports, two of which sit each side of the navigable waterway. It is these two piers that are critical to protect against ship impacts.

And indeed, there were two layers of protection: a so-called “dolphin” structure made from concrete, and a fender. The dolphins are in the water about 100 metres upstream and downstream of the piers. They are intended to be sacrificed in the event of a wayward ship, absorbing its energy and being deformed in the process but keeping the ship from hitting the bridge itself.

Diagram of a bridge

The fender is the last layer of protection. It is a structure made of timber and reinforced concrete placed around the main piers. Again, it is intended to absorb the energy of any impact.

Fenders are not intended to absorb impacts from very large vessels . And so when the MV Dali, weighing more than 100,000 tonnes, made it past the protective dolphins, it was simply far too massive for the fender to withstand.

Read more: I've captained ships into tight ports like Baltimore, and this is how captains like me work with harbor pilots to avoid deadly collisions

Video recordings show a cloud of dust appearing just before the bridge collapsed, which may well have been the fender disintegrating as it was crushed by the ship.

Once the massive ship had made it past both the dolphin and the fender, the pier – one of the bridge’s four main supports – was simply incapable of resisting the impact. Given the size of the vessel and its likely speed of around 8 knots (15 kilometres per hour), the impact force would have been around 20,000 tonnes .

Bridges are getting safer

This was not the first time a ship hit the Francis Scott Bridge. There was another collision in 1980 , damaging a fender badly enough that it had to be replaced.

Around the world, 35 major bridge collapses resulting in fatalities were caused by collisions between 1960 and 2015, according to a 2018 report from the World Association for Waterborne Transport Infrastructure. Collisions between ships and bridges in the 1970s and early 1980s led to a significant improvement in the design rules for protecting bridges from impact.

A greenish book cover with the title Ship Collision With Bridges.

Further impacts in the 1970s and early 1980s instigated significant improvements in the design rules for impact.

The International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering’s Ship Collision with Bridges guide, published in 1993, and the American Association of State Highway and Transporation Officials’ Guide Specification and Commentary for Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridges (1991) changed how bridges were designed.

In Australia, the Australian Standard for Bridge Design (published in 2017) requires designers to think about the biggest vessel likely to come along in the next 100 years, and what would happen if it were heading for any bridge pier at full speed. Designers need to consider the result of both head-on collisions and side-on, glancing blows. As a result, many newer bridges protect their piers with entire human-made islands.

Of course, these improvements came too late to influence the design of the Francis Scott Key Bridge itself.

Lessons from disaster

So what are the lessons apparent at this early stage?

First, it’s clear the protection measures in place for this bridge were not enough to handle this ship impact. Today’s cargo ships are much bigger than those of the 1970s, and it seems likely the Francis Scott Key Bridge was not designed with a collision like this in mind.

So one lesson is that we need to consider how the vessels near our bridges are changing. This means we cannot just accept the structure as it was built, but ensure the protection measures around our bridges are evolving alongside the ships around them.

Photo shows US Coast Guard boat sailing towards a container ship entangled in the wreckage of a large bridge.

Second, and more generally, we must remain vigilant in managing our bridges. I’ve written previously about the current level of safety of Australian bridges, but also about how we can do better.

This tragic event only emphasises the need to spend more on maintaining our ageing infrastructure. This is the only way to ensure it remains safe and functional for the demands we put on it today.

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Ethical issues across different fields of forensic science

Praveen kumar yadav.

Department of Forensic Science, Punjabi University, Patiala, 147002 India

Many commentators have acknowledged the fact that the usual courtroom maxim to “tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth” is not so easy to apply in practicality. In any given situation, what does the whole truth include? In case, the whole truth includes all the possible alternatives for a given situation, what should a forensic expert witness do when an important question is not asked by the prosecutor? Does the obligation to tell the whole truth mean that all possible, all probable, all reasonably probable, all highly probable, or only the most probable alternatives must be given in response to a question? In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the various ethical issues in different fields of forensic science, forensic psychology, and forensic DNA databases. Some of the ethical issues are common to all fields whereas some are field specific. These ethical issues are mandatory for ensuring high levels of reliability and credibility of forensic scientists.

The difference between a trade and a profession is that the latter possesses a self-imposed code of conduct to which its members agree to submit. Such codes are usually ethical based and not imposed by outside legislations and hence members of each profession voluntarily adhere to such codes the members of a profession adhere to such codes. It is need-of-the-hour that each profession should create its set of codes that is a system of self-regulation. In absence of such self-regulatory codes, governments fill the gaps by imposing legal rules which are far less appropriate and suffer from serious shortcomings. The number of professionals working in the field of forensic science is relatively low in comparison to those working in other fields such as medicine and law. Since the interface between science and criminal justice system is filled by forensic scientists, therefore, many owe allegiance to other professional bodies. (Knight 1989 ; Murdock and Holmes 1991 ).

Forensic scientists help law enforcement officers, lawyers, judges, and juries in delivering justice by providing results and conclusion; hence they work in forensic science laboratories associated with law enforcement or other governmental agencies that have ethical codes developed specifically for their organizations. These codes address those areas of professional behavior that are important to the bulk of the people within that agency. Be it a police or prosecutor agency, ethical codes will be designed for police officers and prosecutors respectively. Since ethical codes are organization-specific and are applied partly to forensic scientists, then there is a need to establish codes that are specific to forensic scientists. Such codes will guide them in a situation where ethical issues arise from the type of work the criminalist does. What is ethical to one forensic scientist may be unethical to another and yet to another, therefore, in such situations; these codes may help to guide them to them to the most appropriate course of action. Moreover, such ethical codes stand for the hallmark of the professional status (Barnett 2001 ).

Many commentators have acknowledged the fact that the usual courtroom maxim that is “to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth” is not so easy to apply in practicality. In any given situation, what does the whole truth includes? In case the whole truth includes all the possible alternatives for a given situation, what should a forensic expert witness do when an important question is not asked by the prosecutor? Does the obligation to tell the whole truth mean that all possible, all probable, all reasonably probable, all highly probable, or only the most probable alternatives must be given in response to a question? (Barnett 2001 ).

Due to the absence of any regulatory organization, forensic science has no official recognition or registration that should provide certain rights and responsibilities to forensic scientists. In forensic science, individuals from various fields with adequate qualifications are employed without any statutory certification or registration. The only possible restraint upon professional misconduct of a forensic scientist is through membership of such a craft organization (Knight 1989 ). Therefore, there is an immense need to establish these codes, but this doesn’t mean that they can never be changed; on the contrary, they should be revised regularly from time to time to meet the growing demands of maintaining standards of forensic laboratories.

Laboratory results together with the expert’s opinion that interprets them must never be falsified, trimmed, tailored or otherwise modified to suit a third party, be the motive political, military, racial, financial or any other. Forensic scientists may work under threat of financial or career penalty or of physical violence to themselves or their families. Introducing a strong and widely publicized code of conduct helps to strengthen the resolve of the threatened scientist, especially if he knows that a strong body of internationally reputable colleagues are willing to expose any oppression or malpractice.

Improper conduct in the field of forensic science includes continued abuse of alcohol or drugs, criminal convictions for dishonesty or violence, defamation of professional colleagues etc. and is incompatible with those dealing with law enforcement on daily basis. In private, unfair practices to obtain clients, unacceptable means of advertising and false claims of expertise are present which must be discouraged.

Professional Vs personal ethics

Forensic science is the interface of science and law where principles of science are used for legal purposes. Hence, the ethics of forensic science are the ethics pertaining to the application of science to law. Forensic science has many controversial ethical facets and forensic scientists are often surrounded by baffling ethical disputes. There persists an arbitrary distinction between ethics and morals which enables them to avoid many ethical dilemmas. Personal ethics or morals in the field of forensic science refer to ‘the concerns a forensic scientist has, that are based on personal ethics (morals) or religious considerations which are not derived from professional and/or scientific roles. On the contrary, the professional ethics refer to the codes or guidelines that regulate the professional and scientific conduct which are more fundamental compared to personal ethics or morals. (Weinstock et al. 2013 ).

Ethical dilemmas in forensic science

Siegal ( 2012 ) has classified ethical dilemmas broadly into six categories.

Professional credentials

These include misrepresentation of the credentials before the court of law. Misrepresentations include educational degree attainment (e.g. claiming an unearned Ph.D. or a degree was earned from a particular institution when, in fact, it was not), professional licensures or certifications (e.g. falsely claiming certification as a forensic Pathologist from the American Board of Pathology or a common tactic of equating having attained actual certification with being board “eligible”), employment history and data about previous testimonies such as number of times, locations, etc. Most often this is done to impress the client, the judge or jury to ward off the challenges such as cross-examination by exaggerating the qualifications. Due to lack of resources and fact-checking methods, such exaggerations are seldom caught, and such acts are unethical and must be dissuaded.

Laboratory analytical procedures

Most laboratories have validated and well-established protocols to be followed during tests of analysis as well as recording these tests and their results. Laboratories place priority in the implementation of such protocols but, less than often, such protocols are not followed by the forensic scientist which is unethical. Unethical issues include making insufficient or indiscriminate analysis, and analysis to fit the written law. Sometimes forensic scientists report the results without even opening the containers; a practice known as ‘dry-labbing’. Results and conclusions offered by forensic scientists must be explicit and clear.

Interpretation of analytical data and presentation of testimony in a court of law

In the courtroom, forensic scientists face many ethical dilemmas while providing their testimonies. Ethical dilemmas associated with the interpretation of analytical data and presentation of testimony in a court of law may include bias on the part of forensic scientists, use of scientific jargons, use of confusing or deceptive testimonies, excessive equivocacy, and advocacy. Another issue with forensic laboratories is the way results and conclusions are reported. Some laboratories report minimal results without any useful or appropriate explanations. Also, many a time, the forensic scientist who performed the analysis is not even required to be present in the court for the testimony.

Privately employed forensic scientists

An increasing number of private consultant practices posed a serious likelihood to the ethics in the field of forensic science. No disciplinary code can be applied to such private consultants. The professional integrity of a member is perhaps less of a problem in forensic science than in other professions, as we possess or perhaps suffer the most stringent form of quality control in the form of cross-examination in courts, where any malpractice, omissions or fudging is very likely to be revealed. The private consultancy offers the greatest risk of malpractice as there are less supervision, less peer review, and more financial incentive.

Publicly employed forensic scientists

In the case of public forensic laboratories, it must be noted that they are neither a part of nor administered by the local governments or local law enforcement agencies. This leads to the development of a usual perception that these laboratories are part of a local law enforcement agency. In such case, it is very necessary to maintain the autonomy of these laboratories to maintain a high ethical ground.

Obligations to the forensic science profession and professional skill maintenance

As a scientist, researcher and practitioner, all forensic scientists have the innate responsibility and obligation towards the forensic science profession to maintain the higher ethical values and standards. Ethical dilemmas include three categories that are a failure to keep up to date with recent advancements and updated knowledge, improper use of proficiency tests, continuing the improper educational practice.

Objectivity in forensic science

Applebaum ( 1997 ) pointed in his paper on ethics in forensic psychiatry that the basic principle of ethics is telling the truth and distinguishes between subjective and objective truth telling. Subjective truth telling is to state what we believe is true whereas the objective is to recognize the limitations of methods used to reach conclusions. It includes recognizing the limitations of our scientific and professional knowledge which has led to deduction of conclusions. It is objective to include literature in reports which support, as well as contradicts our conclusions in order to use the explanatory framework that is widely accepted by the scientific community. In his treatise on general psychotherapy, Jasper ( 1997 ) differentiated between the objective and subjective phenomena; he identified the objective as ay trained observer where they are perceived by our senses whereas the subjective cannot be perceived by sense organs. Norko ( 2005 ) stated that the subjective element of truth telling involves the expert’s honesty whereas the objective element relates to his knowledge and testimony.

Similarly, forensic scientists must remain objective while reaching conclusions that can be attained through training and following a standard ethical code. The ethical forensic scientist is a scientist who strives to reach conclusions based on examinations performed without any bias or extending themselves beyond their capabilities or talents (Murdock and Holmes 1991 ). They must not forget that objectivity is their main attribute and that they must examine all the angles before reaching conclusion. They have responsibilities towards the public, therefore, their examinations and analyses must be accountable and objective (Murdock and Holmes 1991 ).

Ethical dilemmas in forensic psychology

Shapiro ( 2016 ) underlined the following ethical issues after reviewing various ethical codes present across the world.

Misuse of work

All over the world, available ethical codes made attempts to make it unambiguous that the psychology profession must not be misused by psychologists and other organizations alike. Under no circumstances, the use of the profession must involve a deprivation of basic human rights (American Psychological Association 2010 ). In cases where any violation of ethical codes is discovered, one must try to either resolve the issue or minimize its effect. Psychologists need to avoid or refuse to participate in practices contrary to the legal, civil or moral rights of others as well as refuse to assist anyone who might use a psychologist’s knowledge to advise, train or supply information to anyone to violate human rights (Canadian Psychological Association 2000 ).

It is stated that psychologists must work as per and to the best of their competence boundaries, based on their education, training, supervised experience, consultation, study or professional experience (American Psychological Association 2010 ). They either are or become reasonably familiar with the judicial or administrative rules governing the roles they play. To determine the competence, we must take into consideration the relative complexity and nature of the service to be provided, relevant training and experience, preparation and study they were able to devote to the matter, and the opportunity for consultation in a particular subject matter area (American Psychological Association 2010 ). It is the ethical duty of forensic psychologists to inform the referral source as to whether there is a known basis in either research or practice to answer the particular question being asked. They must avoid misrepresentation of research in any way. Awareness of legal and professional standards, law, rules and procedures involved must not lead to threatening or impairment of the rights of the affected individual as well as being sensitive to and knowledgeable about individuals (Canadian Psychological Association 2000 ).

The basis for scientific and professional judgments

These must be based on established scientific and professional knowledge, up to date research, with relevant literature and continuing education (American Psychological Association 2010 ; Canadian Psychological Association 2000 ).

Delegating work to others

Legally known as Vicarious Liability, is the concept of supervision, where the supervisor is responsible for the work of those under his supervision. He must take reasonable steps to avoid delegating the work to people who have some sort of multiple relationships with those being served, that would lead to exploitation or lack of objectivity. (American Psychological Association 2010 ; Canadian Psychological Association 2000 ).

Avoiding harm

Although it is rare for a psychologist to use this professional excellence to harm someone deliberately, sometimes the situation arises where harm is delivered unintentionally. Forensic psychologists must consider long-term harms before giving any evaluation. One such example of unintentional harm is a case where a forensic psychologist has to review execution of a criminal. If the culprit is found competent to be executed, he then will be causing harm to a life. In a counter argument, many will believe that if the culprit is not found competent to be executed, he is saving a life as well (Shapiro 2016 ).

Multiple relationships

It is defined as being in a professional role with a person and at the same time in another with the same person or a closely associated person or promising to enter into another relationship with a person or a closely related person (Shapiro 2016 ). If the psychologist is required by law, institutional policy or unusual circumstances, to serve multiple roles in legal proceedings, they must clarify their role expectations and the extent of confidentiality at the outset and as circumstances change (American Psychological Association 2010 ). In addition, forensic psychologists must not assume a professional role if they have any other interest that could possibly impair their competency, objectivity or effectiveness in doing psychological work (American Psychological Association 2010 ).

Shapiro ( 2016 ) presented a case that illustrated the dilemma of multiple relationships in a vivid manner. The psychologist in question was ordered by the court to provide treatment to a child who was sexually abused and to provide periodic reports to the court regarding the same case. She, at all times, regarded her role as a therapist, not a forensic examiner. Later, a complaint was filed by the alleged abuser regarding the incompetency of the psychologist on the grounds that she didn’t follow the ethical guidelines. The psychologist stated that her role, was not forensic, it was therapeutic, and for that reason, she did not need to follow the guidelines. However, she had not made this issue clear until the complaint was filed. In other words, at the time she accepted the child under her supervision, she failed to make herself clear that she was only providing the therapeutic services and that her reports were not to be considered for forensic evaluation.


A forensic psychologist must not exploit those whom one supervises or in which an authority role exists, such as clients, patients, students, supervisees, research participants and employees to further political or business interests, or the best interests of the research participants, students or employees. This exploitation may include soliciting of clients, sexual relationships or frightening individuals into receiving services.

Informed consent

One must seek the consent of both the person involved and the representing council. An attorney must be obtained if the person is legally incapable of providing the consent himself. The forensic psychologist must inform the individual about the different parameters related to the anticipated services such as the limits of confidentiality. Oral consent can be taken in cases where the written consent cannot be obtained. However, in this case, the intervention of examination must be clearly stated and explained to the individual (Shapiro 2016 ).

There is an intense obligation on the part of the psychologist to find out whether the client is represented by a council or not. The fees, previous personal or professional relationships or any such parameters which can affect the relationship in later stages must be sorted out at the beginning (American Psychological Association 2013 ). The forensic psychologist must take into consideration what might cause a possible bias such as conflict of interest, examiner’s competence, and the scientific basis or limitations. The informed consent also extends to collateral sources of information that might affect their decision to participate (American Psychological Association 2010 ).


It is the prime obligation of a forensic psychologist to take reasonable precautions to protect the client’s confidentiality and must make it clear as or its limits. The disclosure must be made only with the client’s consent or consent of the legally authorized individual; it can also be made without the client’s consent only if mandated by law or when the psychologist uses the information for consultation or protection of the client (American Psychological Association 2010 ).

Forensic methodology

It is the duty of the forensic practitioner that he must not withhold, distort or modify any relevant information, misinterpret the available evidence, and attempt to avoid or deny the contrary evidence. The forensic psychologist must not make any premature conclusions. Once the conclusion is reached, the psychologist must advocate his opinions forcefully and with appropriate vigor (American Psychological Association 2013 ). He must accurately represent his credentials, avoiding misrepresentation and maintaining competence in areas of practice and specialty (Canadian Psychological Association 2000 ). Information reporting must be as accurate not to lead to any alternative hypothesis (Meta code of Ethics 2005 ).


Proper records must be maintained to facilitate the provision of research, institutional requirements, accuracy in billing and compliance with the law. Obviously, confidentiality must still be maintained even while maintaining their records. However, these records can be used in emergency circumstances when required (American Psychological Association 2010 ). Records must be enough to support the continuity and appropriate coordination of activities with those of others (Canadian Psychological Association 2000 ).

It must be based on sufficient data including a personal examination unless it is not practical. Tests used for the assessment must be reliable and validated. Also, the strengths and limitations of the test data must be discussed.

Ethical dilemmas in forensic genetics

Wallace ( 2014 ) and Cordner ( 2001 ) outlined the ethical issues related to the forensic database.

Collection and storage of DNA samples

Obtaining samples for DNA database is one of the biggest and most debated upon issues. The first issue is who will be providing samples in respect to the criminal investigation? The second issue is who will be required to provide a sample, the profile from which will be stored in DNA database (Cordner 2001 )?

The UK National DNA database was first forensic DNA database established in 1995. Its expansion to include DNA profiles of millions of innocent citizens into the database was widely criticized for it was considered as a breach of personal space. In 2008, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Marper vs. the UK reached a unanimous judgment that the indefinite retention of innocent people’s DNA profiles, fingerprints and samples breached privacy (Wallace et al. 2014 ). Different countries have different criteria to whose DNA sample must be obtained. For instance, in Australia, samples of those who are suspected of having committed crimes for which the penalty is more than 5 years are taken. Samples and profile must be destroyed within 12 months if the charge sheets are not filed, the prosecution is abandoned, or the accused is acquitted. On the other hand, if the accused has been convicted, his profile is retained in the database. In the UK, the profiles of all the accused of recordable crimes that include offenses for which there is a jail term if convicted, are recorded in the database. In France, the database is reserved only for those accused of sexual crimes (Cordner 2001 ). An audit system to monitor and prevent the unethical use of such databases is also vital.

Testing the samples/ using the results

Correct sample collection, security, transport, storage along with processing and analysis are important conditions required for the high-quality database management. Meeting these conditions results in high level of confidence which in turn results in high reliability and high credibility. Contamination problems are a severe predicament and strong reason for doubtful credibility. Contamination can occur at various steps of analytical procedures such as sample collection, securing, transport, storage, and analysis. Although contaminations can never be prevented, it is imperative that they must be minimized and estimation errors are calculated (Cordner 2001 ).

Access and retention of DNA samples

DNA profiles are stored in databases. Many authors claim the correlation of DNA markers with the physical characteristics. Moreover, DNA might reveal illness history. In pursuit of establishing such correlations and investigating them, researcher tends to overuse these databases. This will further put pressure on other databases to provide information for researcher’s assistance (Cordner 2001 ).

Misuse of genetic research in application of genetics to forensic sciences

One of the discussed topics relate to the ethnic and racial labels to the genetic samples. Often forensic scientists try to use results from genetic research to put ethnic and racial labels on the samples encountered on the crime scene. However, many authors believe that the ethnic and racial differences are cultural in nature rather than biological or genetic. Many have raised questions on the scientific utility of racial classifications.

Scientists and researchers are always baffled by the role of ethics. In multiple situations, ethics and research cross the path. Ethics are the soul of any profession and without it, the meaning of profession is vague and ambiguous. Ethics also help in establishing quality, validity, and authenticity of the profession. Although what is ethical to one person may be unethical to another, principles of ethics must be followed. Forensic science deals with the legal aspects and may help in establishing the guilt or exonerating the accused. Therefore, it is mandatory for every forensic organization to have an ethical code which guides forensic scientists to perform their duty with honesty and passion. Definition and limits of following ethical guidelines may vary from person to person but the minimum set of ethics must be made mandatory to be followed especially in the field of forensic science.


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  1. Forensic Science

  2. UGC NET forensic science previous year question paper

  3. Principles of forensic science

  4. What is Forensic Science ?

  5. History and development of Forensic Science Part 1

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  1. Journal of Forensic Sciences

    The Journal of Forensic Sciences (JFS) is the official publication of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. JFS publishes articles in multiple forensic sciences disciplines, including anthropology, criminalistics, digital and multimedia sciences, engineering and applied sciences, forensic nursing science, jurisprudence, odontology, pathology/biology, psychiatry and behavioral science ...

  2. Forensic Sciences Research

    Forensic Sciences Research is an Open Access international, peer-reviewed journal publishing high-quality, original research and is an official journal of the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS).

  3. FSI

    An international journal dedicated to the applications of medicine and science in the administration of justice. Forensic Science International is the flagship journal in the prestigious Forensic Science International family, publishing the most innovative, cutting-edge, and influential …. View full aims & scope. $4190. Article publishing charge.

  4. 16762 PDFs

    A group to discuss the various aspects of forensic science | Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on FORENSIC SCIENCE. Find methods ...

  5. Towards more relevance in forensic science research and development

    Through an overview of current forensic science research, this paper aims at evaluating if and how research answer the challenges forensic science is currently facing. While forensic related publications have massively increased over the years, approximately half of the publications were published in non-forensic sources, indicating that ...

  6. About the journal

    As a peer-reviewed journal of the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS), Forensic Sciences Research publishes latest research in various disciplines of forensic sciences. It aims to promote forensic sciences through quality research articles, reviews, case reports, and letters to editors. The journal strives for an international authorship and ...

  7. Forensic Sciences

    Forensic Sciences is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal on all aspects of forensic science published quarterly online by MDPI. The Portuguese Association of Forensic Sciences (APCF) is affiliated with Forensic Sciences and their members receive a discount on the article processing charges.. Open Access — free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by ...

  8. Advancing a paradigm shift in evaluation of forensic evidence: The rise

    Research that is divorced from forensic practice may lead to academic papers but nothing else. Even research that does address real forensic-science problems will fail to have impact unless it ... Applications for funding for evidential-forensic-science research made to non-forensic-science-targeted calls are often rejected because reviewers do ...

  9. Recent advances in forensic science research

    Recent advances in forensic science research. Forensic scientists collect and analyze evidence during a criminal investigation to identify victims, determine the cause of death and figure out "who done it.". Below are some recent papers published in ACS journals reporting on new advances that could help forensic scientists solve crimes.

  10. Forensic Sciences Research

    Published by Oxford University Press from 2023.. As a peer-reviewed journal of the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS), Forensic Sciences Research publishes latest research in various disciplines of forensic sciences. It aims to promote forensic sciences through quality research articles, reviews, case reports, and letters to editors.

  11. From research integrity to research relevance to advance forensic science

    The answer is no. There are many examples of research papers that may easily pass the integrity test while being of little value to forensic science, let alone of dubious quality. There have been ongoing calls for more research and more research funding for forensic science [Citation 4-8]. It is difficult to disagree.

  12. Use of Advanced Artificial Intelligence in Forensic Medicine, Forensic

    The result of this paper is a detailed guide for forensic scientists to implement features of 3D CNN to forensic research and analyses of their own (in five themes described above). ... Albert A.M., Ricanek K., Patterson E. A Review of the Literature on the Aging Adult Skull and Face: Implications for Forensic Science Research and Applications ...

  13. Recent advances in forensic biology and forensic DNA typing: INTERPOL

    This review paper covers the forensic-relevant literature in biological sciences from 2019 to 2022 as a part of the 20th INTERPOL International Forensic Science Managers Symposium. ... The authors of this study noted that reported compliance with ethical guidelines in forensic science research and publication was below what is considered ...

  14. (PDF) Nano-Forensic: New Perspective and Extensive ...

    In forensic science, nanotechnology research has provided a new perspective for real-time crime investigation and developed advanced nanosensors, nano-manipulators, and nano-imaging tools for ...

  15. Unboxing the digital forensic investigation process

    1. Introduction. The sub-branch of forensic science known as digital forensics (DF) is now 'at the heart of delivering justice in the 21st century, spanning the entire criminal justice system, from the crime scene to the courtroom.It shapes policy, offers a range of capabilities that better enable us to counter new and emerging threats, and is central to achieving our shared outcomes around ...

  16. Forensic Science

    Abstract. Forensic science applies natural, physical, and social sciences to resolve legal matters. The term forensics has been attached to many different fields: economics, anthropology ...

  17. Forensic Science Research and Development

    NIJ FY24 Research and Development in Forensic Science for Criminal Justice Purposes. Grants.gov Deadline: April 11, 2024, 11:59 pm Eastern. Application JustGrants Deadline: April 18, 2024, 8:59 pm Eastern. NIJ FY24 Research and Evaluation for the Testing and Interpretation of Physical Evidence in Publicly Funded Forensic Laboratories.

  18. DNA Profiling in Forensic Science: A Review

    This method was described by Ruishi and Dilippanthe in 2017. DNA extraction method using filter paper can be used to isolate DNA from plant sources. A spin plate composed of 96-well plate is used, with a hole 1 mm in diameter drilled into bottom of each well used, and each well containing a disk of 8 mm diameter Whatman FTA filter paper.

  19. The development, status and future of forensics in India

    The 20th century has been called the age of science in which there have been tremendous scientific and technological developments. Forensic science institutions in India also came into being at the beginning of the 20th century. The networking of these institutions continued till the end of the 20th century and intensified in the 21st century.

  20. Full article: An examination of handwritten signatures forged using

    Determination of the authenticity of a handwritten signature on a questioned document is an important task for forensic document examiners in the forensic science field. ... With regard to experimental research on use of coloured paper as the carrier, because the proportion of coloured paper usage in actual cases was relatively small, no ...

  21. Intelligence and the Value of Forensic Science

    Recent research has seen a rapid expansion in the reference to front-end forensics as an indication of the untapped value of forensic science. While some of these contributions have centered on development of forensic intelligence from a single area of investigation, others call for a more fundamental change in the relationship between crime ...

  22. Direct Differentiation of Whole Blood for Forensic Serology Analysis by

    INTRODUCTION. Forensic serology has become a vital first step in forensic investigations, particularly when crime scenes involve stains that may be of biological origin such as blood. 1 Serological testing begins on site with a presumptive test to determine if the apparent stain is blood, 2 and if the bloodstain is of human origin or not. For this reason, several presumptive tests have been ...

  23. Baltimore bridge collapse: a bridge engineer explains what happened

    The Francis Scott Key Bridge was built through the mid 1970s and opened in 1977. The main structure over the navigation channel is a "continuous truss bridge" in three sections or spans. The ...

  24. Ethical issues across different fields of forensic science

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the various ethical issues in different fields of forensic science, forensic psychology, and forensic DNA databases. Some of the ethical issues are common to all fields whereas some are field specific. These ethical issues are mandatory for ensuring high levels of reliability and credibility of ...