Global Vitiligo Foundation

2020 Vitiligo International Symposium – John E. Harris, MD, PhD

Director, Vitiligo Clinic and Research Center

Chair Designate, Department of Dermatology

University of Massachusetts Medical School and UMass/Memorial Hospital

Worcester, MA  USA

Advances in Immune Mechanisms of Vitiligo

Recent advances in understanding the immune mechanisms of vitiligo are leading to new treatments for the disease. Current strategies include inhibiting T cell function and migration to the skin, as well as long-term survival of autoreactive memory T cells. An advanced understanding of cellular signaling within vitiligo lesions may lead to more advanced therapeutic approaches in the future.

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john e. harris md phd

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Join our vitiligo study

Help us stop vitiligo before it begins.

Now Enrolling Individuals With Vitiligo & Family Members!

Help us stop vitiligo before it starts

We're seeking individuals with vitiligo, as well as their family members who do not have vitiligo to help us conduct our V itiligo G enetics of O nset and R elapse (VIGOR) study. Our goal is to better understand the causes of vitiligo and predict who might be at risk of developing it. Thanks to the generous support of the vitiligo community, we have made a lot of progress to learn what is happening in the skin when vitiligo develops, and we believe this information could help us identify those who might eventually develop it.

Who Can Join?

  • Individuals 6 or older in the US or Canada.
  • Individuals with vitiligo and their family members without vitiligo.
  • Individuals willing to donate skin and blood samples using an easy-to use home device, along with periodic surveys. Learn more about our devices here .
  • Individuals motivated to participate for 5 years.

What’s involved?

  • One saliva sample collection.
  • Online survey completion every 3 months.
  • Skin and blood sample collection every 6 months completed at home. Click here to see how easy this is!

Learn More About Our Groundbreaking Study!

Latest Blog Posts

  • Team Spotlight: Elaine Flynn

Feb 19, 2024

  • Team Spotlight: Jane Vongvirath

Jan 22, 2024

  • Team Spotlight: Elizabeth MacDonald
  • Team Spotlight: George Kwapong
  • Team Spotlight: John Harris, MD, PhD

If you and your family member are interested in participating in this study, please follow the link below

john e. harris md phd

Manuel Garber, PhD

As a co-lead investigator of this study, I am a computational biologist with a strong background in mathematics and a passion for applying new technologies to the study of immune responses. My interest in biology began with the sequencing of the human genome and has since focused on identifying the molecular signatures associated with different immune states.

john e. harris md phd

John E Harris, MD, PhD

As a co-lead investigator of this study, a board-certified dermatologist, and a physician-scientist, my career goal is to translate basic research findings into clinical applications that benefit individuals with vitiligo. I have received the AAD Marion B. Sulzberger Award for conducting basic science research that has changed the practice of medicine

john e. harris md phd

Todd Pearson, PhD

I am an assistant professor in the department of Dermatology at UMass Chan Medical School. I received my Ph.D. in Immunology and Virology from the Morningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at UMass Chan Medical School and have had a lifelong focus on understanding the genetic and cellular mechanisms that cause autoimmune diseases.

john e. harris md phd

Celia Hartigan, RN, MPH

My role is to organize and oversee this study and make sure all of the regulatory requirements are maintained throughout the study.

john e. harris md phd

Elizabeth Macdonald

As a clinical research coordinator, I work closely with participants and guide them throughout the course of the study.

john e. harris md phd

Rich Spritz, MD

For over four decades, my laboratory studied genes that cause human diseases, particularly vitiligo, on which we carried out various studies.

Our team has focused on finding the cure for vitiligo for over 15 years. During this time our work supported FDA approval of the first treatment for vitiligo in 2022, and multiple ongoing clinical trials to test additional treatments for vitiligo are based on our research. We were invited to attend the Vitiligo Meeting at the FDA to advocate for the approval of these medicines. We run a weekly Vitiligo Clinic to diagnose and offer treatments to people with vitiligo who travel from all over the world. We helped negotiate a major policy change with a prominent health insurance payer in Massachusetts that resulted in thousands of patients finally getting their treatments covered. We have trained dermatologists and scientists from all over the world to treat and study vitiligo. In short, we care about people with vitiligo and we are working tirelessly to improve their quality of life in many ways.

Previous funding from philanthropists/supporters (thank you), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), private foundations, and other sources have enabled this important work as we relentlessly pursue a better understanding of how vitiligo works. We believe that exciting new treatments are coming in the next few years, which will change how we view and approach people who want to treat their vitiligo. But now we need to take the critical next step to find a cure. This new project, also generously funded by the NIH, will seek to understand how people get vitiligo in the first place. We hope that this will give us insight into the root causes of vitiligo, help us to correct those causes to cure it, and may even offer ideas on how to prevent vitiligo in the first place.

Participate in our study and help us find a cure for vitiligo

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Features | November 2023

Vitiligo: an update on treatment options, from phototherapy to immunosuppresants to topical therapies, there are a number of treatment options for vitiligo., iltefat hamzavi, md ; john e. harris, md, phd ; jordan talia, md ; and tori rodriguez.

Vitiligo affects an estimated 1% of the global population, with no clear etiology and a significant negative impact on quality of life and psychological functioning.1 An important treatment advance has expanded the treatment landscape for the disease, and researchers are currently exploring a range of additional promising treatment options for this patient population.

“Depending on the extent, stability, and location of vitiligo, treatment can range from topical creams and nutritional changes to phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressives, as well as surgical options for some types of vitiligo,” Iltefat Hamzavi, MD , told Practical Dermatology . 2 Dr. Hamzavi is a dermatologist at Hamzavi Dermatology and senior staff physician and researcher at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, MI.

Until recently, the typical treatment approach for vitiligo consisted of “topical immunosuppressants such as steroids alternating with calcineurin inhibitors to start, followed by narrow band UVB when necessary if the disease covered more than 5% of the body or was spreading,” said John E. Harris, MD, PhD , in an interview with Practical Dermatology . Dr. Harris is professor and chair in the department of dermatology, founding director of the Vitiligo Clinic and Research Center, and founding director of the Autoimmune Therapeutics Institute at UMass Chan Medical School in Worcester, MA.3 “The topical immunosuppressants inhibit the autoimmune attack on melanocytes in the skin. Narrow band UVB also inhibits the immune attack, while also stimulating melanocytes to regrow.”


In July 2022, topical ruxolitinib (Opzelura) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of nonsegmental vitiligo in patients aged 12 years and older, making it the first approved pharmacologic therapy for repigmentation in vitiligo.4

Ruxolitinib was approved based on results of two phase 3 randomized double-blind trials (Topical Ruxolitinib Evaluation in Vitiligo Study 1 [TRuE-V1] and 2 [TruE-V2]) demonstrating its safety and efficacy in this patient population. The trials included 330 and 344 participants, respectively, who were assigned to apply either ruxolitinib or placebo cream twice daily for 24 weeks; all subjects subsequently applied ruxolitinib for 28 additional weeks.5

After the 24-week treatment period, facial Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (F-VASI) values decreased by at least 75% (primary endpoint) in 29.8% of patients in the ruxolitinib group compared to 7.4% of the placebo group in TruE-V1 (relative risk [RR], 4.0; 95% CI, 1.9-8.4; P <0.001), and in 30.9% and 11.4% of patients in TruE-V2, respectively (RR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9; P <0.001).5

“Topical ruxolitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor and specifically interferes with IFNg signaling, a cytokine that drives the progression of vitiligo,” said Dr. Harris, who served as an investigator in the trials. “I’m very excited that we have an FDA-approved option for patients. We use ruxolitinib frequently instead of the other creams because it seems to work better and doesn’t have the same side effects as steroids.”

The most common side effects observed in patients treated with ruxolitinib were application-site acne (6.3% in TruE-V1 and 6.6% in TruE-V2), application-site pruritus (5.4% and 5.3%), and nasopharyngitis (5.4% and 6.1%).5

Other Options

Regarding additional approaches to vitiligo treatment, Jordan Talia, MD , assistant professor of dermatology, director of Complex Medical Dermatology, and director of the Skin of Color Center at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, cited in-office excimer laser as an effective option that can also be combined with other therapies for greater repigmentation; while this approach has a comparable or possibly higher efficacy than nbUVB, the cost is higher and may not be covered by insurance. In addition, this strategy is impractical for use on large areas of skin, and it must be used three times per week for the fastest results, he told Practical Dermatology . (See The Pros and Cons of Various Therapies for Vitiligo).

The Pros and Cons of Various Therapies for Vitiligo

By jordan talia, md.

“I think all of these approaches have a role and a place in vitiligo treatment, and depending on each patient, the location of the lesions, severity, the cost, and insurance coverage, each therapy may have a role as a first-line agent,” according to Dr. Talia. “I think the topical JAK therapy is very promising.”

In many cases, combining therapies – such as phototherapy with topical medications or systemic immunosuppressants – will provide better efficacy than either approach alone. The use of ruxolitinib in combination with biologics, other JAK inhibitors, or immunosuppressants such as azathioprine or cyclosporine, is not recommended. 4

Topical corticosteroids

  • Pros: Low-cost, effective medication; can be used in patients of all ages and during pregnancy
  • Cons: Often requires intermittent breaks in treatment to avoid side effects such as telangiectasias, skin atrophy, and striae; not preferred in intertriginous, genital, face, or neck regions; if used in these areas, lower potency steroids would be preferred, which are less effective

Topical calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus, pimecrolimus)

  • Pros: Beneficial for face (especially around eyelids), neck, intertriginous, and genital regions; can be used in children and adults, though this therapy is not approved for patients younger than 2 years of age
  • Cons: These agents have not been specifically studied in pregnancy but have been deemed generally safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding, 6 according to some published reports; may not be as beneficial as high-potency topical steroids for extra-facial lesions

Topical JAK inhibitor (ruxolitinib)

  • Pros: Can be used on various areas of the body
  • Cons: Only approved for patients aged 12 years of age and older; product labeling limits usage to up to 10% of the body surface area; safety during pregnancy has not been established and it is not known if ruxolitinib passes into breastmilk

nbUVB phototherapy (home-based or office-based)

  • Pros: Beneficial for patients with involvement of more than 10% of the body surface area and widespread disease where topical applications may be impractical for less than 10% of the body surface area or when the patient is not responding to topical medications alone; options exist for focal lesions and more extensive body surface involvement; better compliance given home use option in some cases
  • Cons: May be impractical for young age groups; requires three sessions per week, though two sessions can be acceptable; office phototherapy will depend on patient availability for scheduling

Oral steroids (dexamethasone, prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone)

  • Pros: Can be beneficial for rapidly progressive and extensive disease to halt progression of vitiligo
  • Cons: Numerous possible side effects, including weight gain, hypertension, increased blood glucose, changes to bone metabolism, bone loss, and many others; not very beneficial for repigmentation; often recommended to be used in combination with nbUVB phototherapy

Treatment with other systemic immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine, methotrexate, or azathioprine can be considered for progressive recalcitrant vitiligo.7 “Of note, there have not been extensive studies demonstrating efficacy in vitiligo, and these therapies can have notable side effects that require careful selection of appropriate patients, as well as side effects that require lab monitoring,” Dr. Talia cautioned.

Patients with small amounts of disease that is not spreading may be candidates for surgical treatment, which “consists of moving melanocytes from one part of the body to the vitiligo spots,” Dr. Harris explained.8 “Also, for very widespread disease, some patients opt to use a depigmenting cream to worsen their disease and become completely depigmented, or one color.” This represents a major decision for patients, especially those with darker skin tones, given the drastic change in appearance that can result from this option, he said.

Quality of Life and other considerations

Along with the dermatologic effects of vitiligo, the disease can have a substantial impact on quality of life (QoL), and a significant number of patients are diagnosed with anxiety or depression, Dr. Talia noted.9 In skin of color patients, vitiligo can have a starker contrast and may lead to greater QoL impairment and social stigma compared to White patients. 10

“Mental health effects are present for all populations but even greater for skin of color patients,” Dr. Hamzavi said. “Offering support groups and camouflage options becomes even more important for these individuals.”

Dr. Talia highlighted the following additional considerations for clinicians treating patients with vitiligo:

  • In general, if a patient is using a medication other than topical steroids or light therapy during pregnancy, and there is a paucity of data regarding safety during pregnancy, consult with the patient’s OB-GYN prior to use.
  • Topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors can be used in patients with a body surface involvement greater than 10%, though nbUVB phototherapy can be a very beneficial option at home or in office.
  • It is recommended to check TSH and anti-TPO antibodies in vitiligo patients as a routine screening.
  • Increased sensitivity has been noted in depigmented skin in vitiligo patients, and sunscreen is essential.

Looking forward, Dr. Harris emphasized the importance of continued research to develop novel and safer therapies for the treatment of vitiligo.

“It’s an exciting time for new treatments for vitiligo with many currently in clinical trials [going on], including for systemic JAK inhibitors that could be useful for widespread or very actively spreading disease, and biologics that may have longer-lasting effects and may be safer,” he said. “Vitiligo was first recognized in ancient Indian medical texts written 3,400 years ago, and it was treated with sunlight plus a medicinal plant with good effect. The use of sunlight, or nbUVB, hasn’t really changed for thousands of years, so the new advancements are particularly exciting now.”

1. Iwanowski T, Kołkowski K, Nowicki RJ, Sokołowska-Wojdyło M. Etiopathogenesis and emerging methods for treatment of vitiligo. Int J Mol Sci. 2023;24(11):9749. doi:10.3390/ijms24119749

2. Ahmed jan N, Masood S. Vitiligo. StatPearls. Updated August 7, 2023. Accessed October 24, 2023.

3. Joge RR, Kathane PU, Joshi SH. Vitiligo: A narrative review. Cureus. 2022;14(9):e29307. doi:10.7759/cureus.29307

4. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves topical treatment addressing repigmentation in vitiligo in patients aged 12 and older. Published July 19, 2022. Accessed October 24, 2023.

5. Rosmarin D, Passeron T, Pandya AG, et al; TRuE-V Study Group. Two phase 3, randomized, controlled trials of ruxolitinib cream for vitiligo. N Engl J Med . 2022;387(16):1445-1455. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2118828

6. Heilskov S, Deleuran MS, Vestergaard C. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulating therapy for atopic dermatitis in pregnancy: An appraisal of the literature. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2020;10(6):1215-1228. doi:10.1007/s13555-020-00457-w

7. Fatima S, Abbas T, Refat MA, et al. Systemic therapies in vitiligo: a review. Int J Dermatol. 2023;62(3):279-289. doi:10.1111/ijd.16114

8. Ju HJ, Bae JM, Lee RW, et al. Surgical interventions for patients with vitiligo: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol . 2021;157(3):307-316. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2020.5756

9. AL-smadi K, Imran M, Leite-Silva VR, Mohammed Y. Vitiligo: A review of aetiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and psychosocial impact. Cosmetics. 2023; 10(3):84. doi:10.3390/cosmetics10030084

10. Kussainova A, Kassym L, Akhmetova A, et al. Vitiligo and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One . 2020;15(11):e0241445. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241445

Iltefat Hamzavi, MD

Dr. Hamzavi serves as a consultant to Abbvie, Pfizer, Incyte, UCB, Boerhinger Ingelheim, Sonoma, Union Therapeutics, Novartis, Jansen, Avita, Galderma, Vimela, Almirall, and Sonoma; investigator for Lenicura, Pfizer, Incyte, Avita, Loreal/Laroche Posay, and ITN; and board member and past president of the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation and the Global Vitiligo Foundation.

John E. Harris, MD, PhD

Dr. Harris founded Villaris Therapeutics that developed a biologic drug, auremolimab, to treat vitiligo. Incyte, the company that developed Opzelura, acquired Villaris and will soon begin trials to test auremolimab. Dr. Harris serves as a consultant to Incyte to help further advance this potential treatment.

Jordan Talia, MD

Dr. Talia stated that he has no relevant disclosures.

Tori Rodriguez

AI and Skin of Color: Hidden Biases Raise Questions

Jane Yoo, MD

What Every Dermatologist Must Know About the History of Black Hair

Aliya Rodriguez, BS; and Brooke Jackson, MD, FAAD

November 2023 cover

From This Issue

Diversity in skin tone.

November 2023

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John E. Harris, MD, PhD: The Current State of Vitiligo and Alopecia Areata Research

In this episode of Derm Discussions, vitiligo expert John Harris, MD, PhD, discusses new tactics and therapeutic options in treating inflammatory skin disorders like vitiligo, alopecia areata, and atopic dermatitis.

Vitiligo, much like other inflammatory skin disorders such as alopecia areata and atopic dermatitis, is a complex condition with various physical and psychological burdens, affecting 1% to 2% of the global population.

For roughly 15 years, John E. Harris, MD, PhD, Professor and Chair, Department of Dermatology, Founding Director, Vitiligo Clinic and Research Center, has been intensely studying the pathogenesis of vitiligo, as well as potential treatments.

Harris initially studied type 1 diabetes when he was a student, but an encounter with a patient with vitiligo inspired him to become a dermatologist. In time, he became one of the most prominent vitiligo experts, whose skills are used daily at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) in Worcester, MA.

In this interview with Dr. Brad Glick, Harris provided insight into his decades of research on inflammatory skin disorder including vitiligo and alopecia areata. He also offered an in-depth analysis on the most recent data surrounding the conditions, and promising new therapies involving topical steroids, JAK inhibitors and more.

Addressing HS Risks at the Genetic Level, with Kai Li, BSc

Feelings of Depression, Stigmatization Strongly Associated with Itch Intensity of Dermatologic Conditions

W. Timothy Garvey, MD | Credit: UAB Medicine

Diabetes Dialogue: Tirzepatide and the Future of Incretin Therapies, with Timothy Garvey, MD

Andrew F. Alexis, MD, MPH: Discussing Controversies in Acne, Rosacea

Andrew F. Alexis, MD, MPH: Discussing Controversies in Acne, Rosacea

A. Michael Lincoff, MD | Credit: Cleveland Clinic

Diabetes Dialogue: SELECT, Semaglutide, & the Future of Incretin Therapies, with A. Michael Lincoff, MD

Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Allergens Vary by Age, Sex, Race

Pediatric Contact Dermatitis Allergens Vary by Age, Sex, Race

Andrew F. Alexis, MD, MPH: ADORING Trials, Tapinarof Cream, and Improving Skin of Color Research Representation

Andrew F. Alexis, MD, MPH: ADORING Trials, Tapinarof Cream, and Improving Skin of Color Research Representation

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john e. harris md phd


  • The Swedish No Risk Project

John Goldsmith on scientific misconduct and the Lilienfeld study (An oldie but still relevant today)

Background to the Lilienfeld study and the “Moscow signal”:

In the early 1960s it was discovered that from 1953 the Soviets had been beaming highly focused microwaves directly into the US Embassy in Moscow at an estimated power density that ranged from .005 mW/cm2 to .018 mW/cm2.112 Averaged measurements determined that although the intensity reaching the Embassy was approximately 500 times less than the US standard for occupational exposure, it was twice the highest limit allowed in the Soviet standard.This created a quandary for the US, for if they truly believed their thermally-based 10 mW/cm2 standard was safe they could hardly conclude that the level of microwaves at their Embassy was undermining the health of the Embassy staff. Concerns were raised about the purpose of irradiation of the Embassy. Was it eavesdropping or a more sinister attack on the health of the employees? An initial study was done on the Moscow personnel in 1967 that examined a group of 43 workers, (37 exposed and 7 not exposed). They were tested for abnormalities in chromosomes and 20 out of the 37 were above the normal range among the exposed, compared to 2/7 among the non-exposed. In the final report the scientists urged a repeat and follow-up study which was clinically indicated for 18 persons, but was not undertaken by the end of the contract period, June 30, 1969. The evidence of chromosome changes was strong enough to have triggered clinical guidelines that would have recommended ceasing reproductive activity until the condition had improved. At a Superpower summit in June 1967 the irradiation of the Moscow Embassy was the subject of a confidential exchange between US President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Prime Minister Alexi Kosygin. Johnson asked that the Soviet Union stop irradiating its Moscow Embassy with microwaves and harming the health of American citizens. In 1966 a covert study, called Project Pandora, was commenced to study the possible effects on health from the microwave irradiation of the Moscow Embassy staff, who were not told the true reason for the investigation. In a related study, Project Bizarre, a primate was exposed to microwaves at half that permitted by the US standard. The findings of this study concluded, “[t]here is no question that penetration of the central nervous system has been achieved, either directly or indirectly into that portion of the brain concerned with the changes in work functions”�.

A haematologic study by J & S Tonascia in 1976 found highly significant differences between Moscow Embassy employees and other foreign service staff (control group). White blood cell counts were much higher in the Moscow staff as well as several other significant changes noted over time. These results were never published, but obtained under the Freedom of Information Act. At this time there was a US Congressional radiation inquiry underway and the Department of Defense (DoD) was arguing that the US RF/MW Standard was already strict enough. They argued that there was no scientific evidence for the Soviet Standard being set at a level one thousand times lower than the US standard. The Moscow Embassy employees and dependants were studied for possible health effects of microwave irradiation by a team from John Hopkins University, under the direction of epidemiologist Professor Abraham Lilienfeld. Dr Lilienfeld noted that the study group was quite small and that the follow-up time too short to generally identify significant health effects such as cancer. He recommended that continued health status surveillance should be carried out, but this was not done. The incidence of sickness and death were compared with employees & dependents in other Eastern European embassies, and with the average US rates. The incidence of multiple-site cancers was far more frequent in the Moscow Embassy group than in any other population studied. It was noted that while multiple-site cancers are characteristic of older populations, the Moscow Embassy group was relatively young. According to Goldsmith, concerns of the John Hopkins team were “downgraded”� by the state department and the wording of the team report altered to lessen its impact. Lilienfeld strongly recommended that additional follow up studies be undertaken since the latency periods for some types of cancer had been insufficient for cancer to occur, if indeed it were to result from microwave exposure. Nevertheless, according to Goldsmith, the overall findings were consistent with excess cancer incidence both in the Moscow Embassy cohort and in the other Eastern European embassy personnel.Data on exposure and occurrence of some cases of cancer were withheld from Professor Lilienfeld until after his report was completed and it was too late to include in the results. Reviews of the work done by contract investigators were interpreted as inconclusive because the State Department had failed to complete the necessary follow-up work which was recommended by the Lilienfeld team.

From The Procrustean Approach , pp. 105 – 107


From Iris Atzmon, June 1, 2012:

Where the trail leads… Ethical problems arising when the trail of professional work lead to evidence of cover-up of serious risk and mis-representation of scientific judgement concerning human exposures to radar

– Prof. John R. Goldsmith, M.D., M.P.H.

Epidemiology and Health Services Evaluation Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, 84105 Beer-Sheva, Israel Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 5 (1995), 92-4. Introduction

Professional interaction over fifteen years between myself, an epidemiologist, and a lawyer started in 1974, when we were both in Washington, evaluating environmental health problems. The lawyer, recently disappointed with the outcome of a case which hinged on the testimony of an epidemiologist, began a dialogue about the criteria for use of probabilities in the scientific and judicial system. We agreed on the importance of making clear these differences, and he documented them in an article.

These differences can be misused in both legal and scientific procedures, under circumstances in which the failure to demonstrate conventional statistical significance (scientifically) is erroneously interpreted as meaning that preventing exposure would not be a reasonable public health measure.

When the lawyer started his private practice he sought expert epidemiological advice in the case of foreign service workers with cancer who had been exposed to microwave radiation in the US Embassy in Moscow.

The trail then led to a major investigation of health risks of Embassy staff by a leading U.S. epidemiologist. The report of this study was said to be negative but actually had some disturbing findings. The trail took a sharp turn when the lawyer provided me copies of documents, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, which indicated persistent cover-up and deliberate distortions of views of highly regarded scientists with respect to risks from these exposures. A published report on personnel risks from radar exposure in the U.S. Navy diluted the experience of increased leukemia in an exposed group with the low rates in a less exposed group, bringing down likelihood of a significant result and concluding that no effect occurred.

The ethical issues concern whether a scientist who inadvertently finds this evidence should disclose it, in light of security considerations among other matters. The trail, in this presentation, ends with an application of the legal use of probability in interpreting epidemiological evidence on the central scientific issue, the possible health risks from microwave radiation.

For the full paper:

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19th Edition of Global Conference on Catalysis, Chemical Engineering & Technology

Victor Mukhin

  • Scientific Program

Victor Mukhin, Speaker at Chemical Engineering Conferences

Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems

However, up to now, the main carriers of catalytic additives have been mineral sorbents: silica gels, alumogels. This is obviously due to the fact that they consist of pure homogeneous components SiO2 and Al2O3, respectively. It is generally known that impurities, especially the ash elements, are catalytic poisons that reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. Therefore, carbon sorbents with 5-15% by weight of ash elements in their composition are not used in the above mentioned technologies. However, in such an important field as a gas-mask technique, carbon sorbents (active carbons) are carriers of catalytic additives, providing effective protection of a person against any types of potent poisonous substances (PPS). In ESPE “JSC "Neorganika" there has been developed the technology of unique ashless spherical carbon carrier-catalysts by the method of liquid forming of furfural copolymers with subsequent gas-vapor activation, brand PAC. Active carbons PAC have 100% qualitative characteristics of the three main properties of carbon sorbents: strength - 100%, the proportion of sorbing pores in the pore space – 100%, purity - 100% (ash content is close to zero). A particularly outstanding feature of active PAC carbons is their uniquely high mechanical compressive strength of 740 ± 40 MPa, which is 3-7 times larger than that of  such materials as granite, quartzite, electric coal, and is comparable to the value for cast iron - 400-1000 MPa. This allows the PAC to operate under severe conditions in moving and fluidized beds.  Obviously, it is time to actively develop catalysts based on PAC sorbents for oil refining, petrochemicals, gas processing and various technologies of organic synthesis.

Victor M. Mukhin was born in 1946 in the town of Orsk, Russia. In 1970 he graduated the Technological Institute in Leningrad. Victor M. Mukhin was directed to work to the scientific-industrial organization "Neorganika" (Elektrostal, Moscow region) where he is working during 47 years, at present as the head of the laboratory of carbon sorbents.     Victor M. Mukhin defended a Ph. D. thesis and a doctoral thesis at the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (in 1979 and 1997 accordingly). Professor of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia. Scientific interests: production, investigation and application of active carbons, technological and ecological carbon-adsorptive processes, environmental protection, production of ecologically clean food.   

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john e. harris md phd

First refuelling for Russia’s Akademik Lomonosov floating NPP


john e. harris md phd

The FNPP includes two KLT-40S reactor units. In such reactors, nuclear fuel is not replaced in the same way as in standard NPPs – partial replacement of fuel once every 12-18 months. Instead, once every few years the entire reactor core is replaced with and a full load of fresh fuel.

The KLT-40S reactor cores have a number of advantages compared with standard NPPs. For the first time, a cassette core was used, which made it possible to increase the fuel cycle to 3-3.5 years before refuelling, and also reduce by one and a half times the fuel component in the cost of the electricity produced. The operating experience of the FNPP provided the basis for the design of the new series of nuclear icebreaker reactors (series 22220). Currently, three such icebreakers have been launched.

The Akademik Lomonosov was connected to the power grid in December 2019, and put into commercial operation in May 2020.

Electricity generation from the FNPP at the end of 2023 amounted to 194 GWh. The population of Pevek is just over 4,000 people. However, the plant can potentially provide electricity to a city with a population of up to 100,000. The FNPP solved two problems. Firstly, it replaced the retiring capacities of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant, which has been operating since 1974, as well as the Chaunskaya Thermal Power Plant, which is more than 70 years old. It also supplies power to the main mining enterprises located in western Chukotka. In September, a 490 km 110 kilovolt power transmission line was put into operation connecting Pevek and Bilibino.

Image courtesy of TVEL

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