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The Top 3 Types of Dissertation Research Explained

adult-student-completing-dissertation-research

Preparing for your doctoral dissertation takes serious perseverance. You’ve endured years of studies and professional development to get to this point. After sleepless nights and labor-intensive research, you’re ready to present the culmination of all of your hard work. Even with a strong base knowledge, it can be difficult — even daunting — to decide how you will begin writing.

By taking a wide-lens view of the dissertation research process , you can best assess the work you have ahead of you and any gaps in your current research strategy. Subsequently, you’ll begin to develop a timeline so you can work efficiently and cross that finish line with your degree in hand.

What Is a Dissertation?

A dissertation is a published piece of research on a novel topic in your chosen field. Students complete a dissertation as part of a doctoral or PhD program. For most students, a dissertation is the first substantive piece of academic research they will write. 

Because a dissertation becomes a published piece of academic literature that other academics may cite, students must defend it in front of a board of experts consisting of peers in their field, including professors, their advisor, and other industry experts. 

For many students, a dissertation is the first piece of research in a long career full of research. As such, it’s important to choose a topic that’s interesting and engaging.

Types of Dissertation Research

Dissertations can take on many forms, based on research and methods of presentation in front of a committee board of academics and experts in the field. Here, we’ll focus on the three main types of dissertation research to get you one step closer to earning your doctoral degree.

1. Qualitative

The first type of dissertation is known as a qualitative dissertation . A qualitative dissertation mirrors the qualitative research that a doctoral candidate would conduct throughout their studies. This type of research relies on non-numbers-based data collected through things like interviews, focus groups and participant observation. 

The decision to model your dissertation research according to the qualitative method will depend largely on the data itself that you are collecting. For example, dissertation research in the field of education or psychology may lend itself to a qualitative approach, depending on the essence of research. Within a qualitative dissertation research model, a candidate may pursue one or more of the following:

  • Case study research
  • Autoethnographies
  • Narrative research 
  • Grounded theory 

Although individual approaches may vary, qualitative dissertations usually include certain foundational characteristics. For example, the type of research conducted to develop a qualitative dissertation often follows an emergent design, meaning that the content and research strategy changes over time. Candidates also rely on research paradigms to further strategize how best to collect and relay their findings. These include critical theory, constructivism and interpretivism, to name a few. 

Because qualitative researchers integrate non-numerical data, their methods of collection often include unstructured interview, focus groups and participant observations. Of course, researchers still need rubrics from which to assess the quality of their findings, even though they won’t be numbers-based. To do so, they subject the data collected to the following criteria: dependability, transferability and validity. 

When it comes time to present their findings, doctoral candidates who produce qualitative dissertation research have several options. Some choose to include case studies, personal findings, narratives, observations and abstracts. Their presentation focuses on theoretical insights based on relevant data points. 

2. Quantitative

Quantitative dissertation research, on the other hand, focuses on the numbers. Candidates employ quantitative research methods to aggregate data that can be easily categorized and analyzed. In addition to traditional statistical analysis, quantitative research also hones specific research strategy based on the type of research questions. Quantitative candidates may also employ theory-driven research, replication-based studies and data-driven dissertations. 

When conducting research, some candidates who rely on quantitative measures focus their work on testing existing theories, while others create an original approach. To refine their approach, quantitative researchers focus on positivist or post-positivist research paradigms. Quantitative research designs focus on descriptive, experimental or relationship-based designs, to name a few. 

To collect the data itself, researchers focus on questionnaires and surveys, structured interviews and observations, data sets and laboratory-based methods. Then, once it’s time to assess the quality of the data, quantitative researchers measure their results against a set of criteria, including: reliability, internal/external validity and construct validity. Quantitative researchers have options when presenting their findings. Candidates convey their results using graphs, data, tables and analytical statements.

If you find yourself at a fork in the road deciding between an online and  in-person degree program, this infographic can help you visualize each path.

3. Mixed-Method

Many PhD candidates also use a hybrid model in which they employ both qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Mixed dissertation research models are fairly new and gaining traction. For a variety of reasons, a mixed-method approach offers candidates both versatility and credibility. It’s a more comprehensive strategy that allows for a wider capture of data with a wide range of presentation optimization. 

In the most common cases, candidates will first use quantitative methods to collect and categorize their data. Then, they’ll rely on qualitative methods to analyze that data and draw meaningful conclusions to relay to their committee panel. 

With a mixed-method approach, although you’re able to collect and analyze a more broad range of data, you run the risk of widening the scope of your dissertation research so much that you’re not able to reach succinct, sustainable conclusions. This is where it becomes critical to outline your research goals and strategy early on in the dissertation process so that the techniques you use to capture data have been thoroughly examined. 

How to Choose a Type of Dissertation Research That’s Right for You

After this overview of application and function, you may still be wondering how to go about choosing a dissertation type that’s right for you and your research proposition. In doing so, you’ll have a couple of things to consider: 

  • What are your personal motivations? 
  • What are your academic goals? 

It’s important to discern exactly what you hope to get out of your doctoral program . Of course, the presentation of your dissertation is, formally speaking, the pinnacle of your research. However, doctoral candidates must also consider:

  • Which contributions they will make to the field
  • Who they hope to collaborate with throughout their studies
  • What they hope to take away from the experience personally, professionally and academically

Personal Considerations

To discern which type of dissertation research to choose, you have to take a closer look at your learning style, work ethic and even your personality. 

Quantitative research tends to be sequential and patterned-oriented. Steps move in a logical order, so it becomes clear what the next step should be at all times. For most candidates, this makes it easier to devise a timeline and stay on track. It also keeps you from getting overwhelmed by the magnitude of research involved. You’ll be able to assess your progress and make simple adjustments to stay on target. 

On the other hand, maybe you know that your research will involve many interviews and focus groups. You anticipate that you’ll have to coordinate participants’ schedules, and this will require some flexibility. Instead of creating a rigid schedule from the get-go, allowing your research to flow in a non-linear fashion may actually help you accomplish tasks more efficiently, albeit out of order. This also allows you the personal versatility of rerouting research strategy as you collect new data that leads you down other paths. 

After examining the research you need to conduct, consider more broadly: What type of student and researcher are you? In other words, What motivates you to do your best work? 

You’ll need to make sure that your methodology is conducive to the data you’re collecting, and you also need to make sure that it aligns with your work ethic so you set yourself up for success. If jumping from one task to another will cause you extra stress, but planning ahead puts you at ease, a quantitative research method may be best, assuming the type of research allows for this. 

Professional Considerations

The skills you master while working on your dissertation will serve you well beyond the day you earn your degree. Take into account the skills you’d like to develop for your academic and professional future. In addition to the hard skills you will develop in your area of expertise, you’ll also develop soft skills that are transferable to nearly any professional or academic setting. Perhaps you want to hone your ability to strategize a timeline, gather data efficiently or draw clear conclusions about the significance of your data collection. 

If you have considerable experience with quantitative analysis, but lack an extensive qualitative research portfolio, now may be your opportunity to explore — as long as you’re willing to put in the legwork to refine your skills or work closely with your mentor to develop a strategy together. 

Academic Considerations

For many doctoral candidates who hope to pursue a professional career in the world of academia, writing your dissertation is a practice in developing general research strategies that can be applied to any academic project. 

Candidates who are unsure which dissertation type best suits their research should consider whether they will take a philosophical or theoretical approach or come up with a thesis that addresses a specific problem or idea. Narrowing down this approach can sometimes happen even before the research begins. Other times, candidates begin to refine their methods once the data begins to tell a more concrete story.

Next Step: Structuring Your Dissertation Research Schedule

Once you’ve chosen which type of dissertation research you’ll pursue, you’ve already crossed the first hurdle. The next hurdle becomes when and where to fit dedicated research time and visits with your mentor into your schedule. The busyness of day-to-day life shouldn’t prevent you from making your academic dream a reality. In fact, search for programs that assist, not impede, your path to higher levels of academic success. 

Find out more about SNU’s online and on-campus education opportunities so that no matter where you are in life, you can choose the path that’s right for you.

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Grad Coach

Dissertation Structure & Layout 101: How to structure your dissertation, thesis or research project.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Reviewed By: David Phair (PhD) | July 2019

So, you’ve got a decent understanding of what a dissertation is , you’ve chosen your topic and hopefully you’ve received approval for your research proposal . Awesome! Now its time to start the actual dissertation or thesis writing journey.

To craft a high-quality document, the very first thing you need to understand is dissertation structure . In this post, we’ll walk you through the generic dissertation structure and layout, step by step. We’ll start with the big picture, and then zoom into each chapter to briefly discuss the core contents. If you’re just starting out on your research journey, you should start with this post, which covers the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis .

Dissertation structure and layout - the basics

*The Caveat *

In this post, we’ll be discussing a traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout, which is generally used for social science research across universities, whether in the US, UK, Europe or Australia. However, some universities may have small variations on this structure (extra chapters, merged chapters, slightly different ordering, etc).

So, always check with your university if they have a prescribed structure or layout that they expect you to work with. If not, it’s safe to assume the structure we’ll discuss here is suitable. And even if they do have a prescribed structure, you’ll still get value from this post as we’ll explain the core contents of each section.  

Overview: S tructuring a dissertation or thesis

  • Acknowledgements page
  • Abstract (or executive summary)
  • Table of contents , list of figures and tables
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Literature review
  • Chapter 3: Methodology
  • Chapter 4: Results
  • Chapter 5: Discussion
  • Chapter 6: Conclusion
  • Reference list

As I mentioned, some universities will have slight variations on this structure. For example, they want an additional “personal reflection chapter”, or they might prefer the results and discussion chapter to be merged into one. Regardless, the overarching flow will always be the same, as this flow reflects the research process , which we discussed here – i.e.:

  • The introduction chapter presents the core research question and aims .
  • The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question.
  • The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
  • The conclusion chapter (attempts to) answer the core research question .

In other words, the dissertation structure and layout reflect the research process of asking a well-defined question(s), investigating, and then answering the question – see below.

A dissertation's structure reflect the research process

To restate that – the structure and layout of a dissertation reflect the flow of the overall research process . This is essential to understand, as each chapter will make a lot more sense if you “get” this concept. If you’re not familiar with the research process, read this post before going further.

Right. Now that we’ve covered the big picture, let’s dive a little deeper into the details of each section and chapter. Oh and by the way, you can also grab our free dissertation/thesis template here to help speed things up.

The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. But what makes for a good title? A strong title needs to be 3 things:

  • Succinct (not overly lengthy or verbose)
  • Specific (not vague or ambiguous)
  • Representative of the research you’re undertaking (clearly linked to your research questions)

Typically, a good title includes mention of the following:

  • The broader area of the research (i.e. the overarching topic)
  • The specific focus of your research (i.e. your specific context)
  • Indication of research design (e.g. quantitative , qualitative , or  mixed methods ).

For example:

A quantitative investigation [research design] into the antecedents of organisational trust [broader area] in the UK retail forex trading market [specific context/area of focus].

Again, some universities may have specific requirements regarding the format and structure of the title, so it’s worth double-checking expectations with your institution (if there’s no mention in the brief or study material).

Dissertations stacked up

Acknowledgements

This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey. Generally, it’s optional (and won’t count towards your marks), but it is academic best practice to include this.

So, who do you say thanks to? Well, there’s no prescribed requirements, but it’s common to mention the following people:

  • Your dissertation supervisor or committee.
  • Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies.
  • Any tutors, mentors or advisors.
  • Your family and friends, especially spouse (for adult learners studying part-time).

There’s no need for lengthy rambling. Just state who you’re thankful to and for what (e.g. thank you to my supervisor, John Doe, for his endless patience and attentiveness) – be sincere. In terms of length, you should keep this to a page or less.

Abstract or executive summary

The dissertation abstract (or executive summary for some degrees) serves to provide the first-time reader (and marker or moderator) with a big-picture view of your research project. It should give them an understanding of the key insights and findings from the research, without them needing to read the rest of the report – in other words, it should be able to stand alone .

For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points (at a minimum):

  • Your research questions and aims – what key question(s) did your research aim to answer?
  • Your methodology – how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question(s)?
  • Your findings – following your own research, what did do you discover?
  • Your conclusions – based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question(s)?

So, in much the same way the dissertation structure mimics the research process, your abstract or executive summary should reflect the research process, from the initial stage of asking the original question to the final stage of answering that question.

In practical terms, it’s a good idea to write this section up last , once all your core chapters are complete. Otherwise, you’ll end up writing and rewriting this section multiple times (just wasting time). For a step by step guide on how to write a strong executive summary, check out this post .

Need a helping hand?

differents types dissertation

Table of contents

This section is straightforward. You’ll typically present your table of contents (TOC) first, followed by the two lists – figures and tables. I recommend that you use Microsoft Word’s automatic table of contents generator to generate your TOC. If you’re not familiar with this functionality, the video below explains it simply:

If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Oftentimes, this can be done without detracting from the usefulness of the TOC.

Right, now that the “admin” sections are out of the way, its time to move on to your core chapters. These chapters are the heart of your dissertation and are where you’ll earn the marks. The first chapter is the introduction chapter – as you would expect, this is the time to introduce your research…

It’s important to understand that even though you’ve provided an overview of your research in your abstract, your introduction needs to be written as if the reader has not read that (remember, the abstract is essentially a standalone document). So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions:

  • What will you be investigating (in plain-language, big picture-level)?
  • Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original?
  • What are your research aims and research question(s)? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review (next chapter).
  • What is the scope of your study? In other words, what will and won’t you cover ?
  • How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt?
  • How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them?

These are just the bare basic requirements for your intro chapter. Some universities will want additional bells and whistles in the intro chapter, so be sure to carefully read your brief or consult your research supervisor.

If done right, your introduction chapter will set a clear direction for the rest of your dissertation. Specifically, it will make it clear to the reader (and marker) exactly what you’ll be investigating, why that’s important, and how you’ll be going about the investigation. Conversely, if your introduction chapter leaves a first-time reader wondering what exactly you’ll be researching, you’ve still got some work to do.

Now that you’ve set a clear direction with your introduction chapter, the next step is the literature review . In this section, you will analyse the existing research (typically academic journal articles and high-quality industry publications), with a view to understanding the following questions:

  • What does the literature currently say about the topic you’re investigating?
  • Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement?
  • How does your research fit into the bigger picture?
  • How does your research contribute something original?
  • How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own?

Depending on the nature of your study, you may also present a conceptual framework towards the end of your literature review, which you will then test in your actual research.

Again, some universities will want you to focus on some of these areas more than others, some will have additional or fewer requirements, and so on. Therefore, as always, its important to review your brief and/or discuss with your supervisor, so that you know exactly what’s expected of your literature review chapter.

Dissertation writing

Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research. Enter the methodology chapter – the most “science-ey” of the chapters…

In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions:

  • Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?
  • Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?

Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills . Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.

Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.

In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. Its natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!

You’ve now collected your data and undertaken your analysis, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. In this chapter, you’ll present the raw results of your analysis . For example, in the case of a quant study, you’ll present the demographic data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics , etc.

Typically, Chapter 4 is simply a presentation and description of the data, not a discussion of the meaning of the data. In other words, it’s descriptive, rather than analytical – the meaning is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some universities will want you to combine chapters 4 and 5, so that you both present and interpret the meaning of the data at the same time. Check with your institution what their preference is.

Now that you’ve presented the data analysis results, its time to interpret and analyse them. In other words, its time to discuss what they mean, especially in relation to your research question(s).

What you discuss here will depend largely on your chosen methodology. For example, if you’ve gone the quantitative route, you might discuss the relationships between variables . If you’ve gone the qualitative route, you might discuss key themes and the meanings thereof. It all depends on what your research design choices were.

Most importantly, you need to discuss your results in relation to your research questions and aims, as well as the existing literature. What do the results tell you about your research questions? Are they aligned with the existing research or at odds? If so, why might this be? Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English.

The final chapter – you’ve made it! Now that you’ve discussed your interpretation of the results, its time to bring it back to the beginning with the conclusion chapter . In other words, its time to (attempt to) answer your original research question s (from way back in chapter 1). Clearly state what your conclusions are in terms of your research questions. This might feel a bit repetitive, as you would have touched on this in the previous chapter, but its important to bring the discussion full circle and explicitly state your answer(s) to the research question(s).

Dissertation and thesis prep

Next, you’ll typically discuss the implications of your findings? In other words, you’ve answered your research questions – but what does this mean for the real world (or even for academia)? What should now be done differently, given the new insight you’ve generated?

Lastly, you should discuss the limitations of your research, as well as what this means for future research in the area. No study is perfect, especially not a Masters-level. Discuss the shortcomings of your research. Perhaps your methodology was limited, perhaps your sample size was small or not representative, etc, etc. Don’t be afraid to critique your work – the markers want to see that you can identify the limitations of your work. This is a strength, not a weakness. Be brutal!

This marks the end of your core chapters – woohoo! From here on out, it’s pretty smooth sailing.

The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.g. APA , Harvard, etc.

It’s essential that you use reference management software for your dissertation. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually – its far too error prone. On a reference list of multiple pages, you’re going to make mistake. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Both are free and provide a very straightforward interface to ensure that your referencing is 100% on point. I’ve included a simple how-to video for the Mendeley software (my personal favourite) below:

Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same . A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation. So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one.

The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. This is where you’ll include any supporting data and evidence. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here.

Your appendices should provide additional “nice to know”, depth-adding information, which is not critical to the core analysis. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count (see this post which covers how to reduce word count ). In other words, don’t place content that is critical to the core analysis here, just to save word count. You will not earn marks on any content in the appendices, so don’t try to play the system!

Time to recap…

And there you have it – the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows:

  • Acknowledgments page

Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process (asking, investigating and answering your research question). Moreover, the research question(s) should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. Everything should revolve around the research questions, and as you’ve seen, they should form both the start point (i.e. introduction chapter) and the endpoint (i.e. conclusion chapter).

I hope this post has provided you with clarity about the traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the  Grad Coach Blog .

differents types dissertation

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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36 Comments

ARUN kumar SHARMA

many thanks i found it very useful

Derek Jansen

Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation.

Sue

Such clear practical logical advice. I very much needed to read this to keep me focused in stead of fretting.. Perfect now ready to start my research!

hayder

what about scientific fields like computer or engineering thesis what is the difference in the structure? thank you very much

Tim

Thanks so much this helped me a lot!

Ade Adeniyi

Very helpful and accessible. What I like most is how practical the advice is along with helpful tools/ links.

Thanks Ade!

Aswathi

Thank you so much sir.. It was really helpful..

You’re welcome!

Jp Raimundo

Hi! How many words maximum should contain the abstract?

Karmelia Renatee

Thank you so much 😊 Find this at the right moment

You’re most welcome. Good luck with your dissertation.

moha

best ever benefit i got on right time thank you

Krishnan iyer

Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions .

I guess Great researcher = great ideas + knowledge + great and fast data collection and modeling + great writing + high clarity on all these

You have given immense clarity from start to end.

Alwyn Malan

Morning. Where will I write the definitions of what I’m referring to in my report?

Rose

Thank you so much Derek, I was almost lost! Thanks a tonnnn! Have a great day!

yemi Amos

Thanks ! so concise and valuable

Kgomotso Siwelane

This was very helpful. Clear and concise. I know exactly what to do now.

dauda sesay

Thank you for allowing me to go through briefly. I hope to find time to continue.

Patrick Mwathi

Really useful to me. Thanks a thousand times

Adao Bundi

Very interesting! It will definitely set me and many more for success. highly recommended.

SAIKUMAR NALUMASU

Thank you soo much sir, for the opportunity to express my skills

mwepu Ilunga

Usefull, thanks a lot. Really clear

Rami

Very nice and easy to understand. Thank you .

Chrisogonas Odhiambo

That was incredibly useful. Thanks Grad Coach Crew!

Luke

My stress level just dropped at least 15 points after watching this. Just starting my thesis for my grad program and I feel a lot more capable now! Thanks for such a clear and helpful video, Emma and the GradCoach team!

Judy

Do we need to mention the number of words the dissertation contains in the main document?

It depends on your university’s requirements, so it would be best to check with them 🙂

Christine

Such a helpful post to help me get started with structuring my masters dissertation, thank you!

Simon Le

Great video; I appreciate that helpful information

Brhane Kidane

It is so necessary or avital course

johnson

This blog is very informative for my research. Thank you

avc

Doctoral students are required to fill out the National Research Council’s Survey of Earned Doctorates

Emmanuel Manjolo

wow this is an amazing gain in my life

Paul I Thoronka

This is so good

Tesfay haftu

How can i arrange my specific objectives in my dissertation?

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Key Types Of Dissertation Research

  • Posted on February 7, 2023
  • / Under General

Are you preparing for your doctoral dissertation? Then you’ll agree that it requires serious perseverance. You spent many years on the journey of your professional development and studies. From the sleepless nights to the labor-intensive research and all of the hard work. Everything can be super difficult and daunting. Even with the most outstanding base knowledge, starting a dissertation can be really daunting.

One of the first things that you should understand is that there are different types of dissertations, and this article will focus on three of the main types of dissertations that you should know, especially for a doctoral degree.

Qualitative Dissertation

This is the first type that you should know, and it basically mirrors qualitative research that a student will help people throughout their academic journey. The research utilizes non-number-based data collection that is done through focus groups, participant observations, and interviews. Also, the data you collect is the main factor that determines whether you model your dissertation according to the qualitative method.

differents types dissertation

Another key thing to note is that there are different aspects of the qualitative dissertation, and this includes the following:

  • Grounded theory
  • Narrative research
  • Autoethnographic
  • Case study research

As mentioned earlier, a qualitative dissertation does not involve numerical data, so the method of collecting data is usually based on participant observation, focus groups, and unstructured interviews. However, the researcher will also need rubrics to help them assess the quality of their findings.

Quantitative Dissertation

This type of dissertation focuses on numbers, and it uses quantitative research methods to aggregate data so that they can be analyzed and categorized. Apart from the conventional statistical analysis, it’s important to note that quantitative research also uses key strategies that depend on the type of questions asked. This type of dissertation can also employ the use of replication-based studies, data-driven dissertations, and theory-driven research.

When performing this type of research, candidates can utilize quantitative measures that allow them to test different theories, even as they try to make their approach original. Another thing worth noting is that quantitative dissertations focus on post-positivist and positivist research paradigms. The focus is also on experimental, relationship-based, or descriptive designs.

Surveys, data sets, structured interviews and observations, questionnaire, and lab-based testing methods do data collection. In addition, qualitative researchers also measure results based on criteria like construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability.

Mixed-Method Dissertation

The hybrid method is also a strategy that is commonly used by most researchers. This is a mix of both the qualitative and quantitative dissertation methods mentioned above. However, this is a relatively new option, and it’s still gaining popularity. The main benefit of this approach is that it offers more credibility and versatility. Also, it’s a more comprehensive approach that makes it possible for researchers to obtain a wider array of information and a larger range of optimization.

Most candidates prefer to collect data first with quantitative methods and categorize the data. After that, they proceed to collect data using qualitative methods and analyze the collected data. With that, they can start drawing meaningful conclusions about the collected data.

The mixed-method approach allows candidates to collect and analyze more data. With this, they can easily increase the scope of their dissertation and reach a more sustainable and succinct conclusion. If you’re using this form of dissertation, one of the most important things you’ll need to do is to make an outline of your research goals and strategy, and this should be as early as possible, especially at the beginning of the dissertation process. With that, you can easily capture only the data that you need.

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How to Write a Dissertation | A Guide to Structure & Content

A dissertation or thesis is a long piece of academic writing based on original research, submitted as part of an undergraduate or postgraduate degree.

The structure of a dissertation depends on your field, but it is usually divided into at least four or five chapters (including an introduction and conclusion chapter).

The most common dissertation structure in the sciences and social sciences includes:

  • An introduction to your topic
  • A literature review that surveys relevant sources
  • An explanation of your methodology
  • An overview of the results of your research
  • A discussion of the results and their implications
  • A conclusion that shows what your research has contributed

Dissertations in the humanities are often structured more like a long essay , building an argument by analysing primary and secondary sources . Instead of the standard structure outlined here, you might organise your chapters around different themes or case studies.

Other important elements of the dissertation include the title page , abstract , and reference list . If in doubt about how your dissertation should be structured, always check your department’s guidelines and consult with your supervisor.

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Table of contents

Acknowledgements, table of contents, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations, introduction, literature review / theoretical framework, methodology, reference list.

The very first page of your document contains your dissertation’s title, your name, department, institution, degree program, and submission date. Sometimes it also includes your student number, your supervisor’s name, and the university’s logo. Many programs have strict requirements for formatting the dissertation title page .

The title page is often used as cover when printing and binding your dissertation .

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The acknowledgements section is usually optional, and gives space for you to thank everyone who helped you in writing your dissertation. This might include your supervisors, participants in your research, and friends or family who supported you.

The abstract is a short summary of your dissertation, usually about 150-300 words long. You should write it at the very end, when you’ve completed the rest of the dissertation. In the abstract, make sure to:

  • State the main topic and aims of your research
  • Describe the methods you used
  • Summarise the main results
  • State your conclusions

Although the abstract is very short, it’s the first part (and sometimes the only part) of your dissertation that people will read, so it’s important that you get it right. If you’re struggling to write a strong abstract, read our guide on how to write an abstract .

In the table of contents, list all of your chapters and subheadings and their page numbers. The dissertation contents page gives the reader an overview of your structure and helps easily navigate the document.

All parts of your dissertation should be included in the table of contents, including the appendices. You can generate a table of contents automatically in Word.

If you have used a lot of tables and figures in your dissertation, you should itemise them in a numbered list . You can automatically generate this list using the Insert Caption feature in Word.

If you have used a lot of abbreviations in your dissertation, you can include them in an alphabetised list of abbreviations so that the reader can easily look up their meanings.

If you have used a lot of highly specialised terms that will not be familiar to your reader, it might be a good idea to include a glossary . List the terms alphabetically and explain each term with a brief description or definition.

In the introduction, you set up your dissertation’s topic, purpose, and relevance, and tell the reader what to expect in the rest of the dissertation. The introduction should:

  • Establish your research topic , giving necessary background information to contextualise your work
  • Narrow down the focus and define the scope of the research
  • Discuss the state of existing research on the topic, showing your work’s relevance to a broader problem or debate
  • Clearly state your objectives and research questions , and indicate how you will answer them
  • Give an overview of your dissertation’s structure

Everything in the introduction should be clear, engaging, and relevant to your research. By the end, the reader should understand the what , why and how of your research. Not sure how? Read our guide on how to write a dissertation introduction .

Before you start on your research, you should have conducted a literature review to gain a thorough understanding of the academic work that already exists on your topic. This means:

  • Collecting sources (e.g. books and journal articles) and selecting the most relevant ones
  • Critically evaluating and analysing each source
  • Drawing connections between them (e.g. themes, patterns, conflicts, gaps) to make an overall point

In the dissertation literature review chapter or section, you shouldn’t just summarise existing studies, but develop a coherent structure and argument that leads to a clear basis or justification for your own research. For example, it might aim to show how your research:

  • Addresses a gap in the literature
  • Takes a new theoretical or methodological approach to the topic
  • Proposes a solution to an unresolved problem
  • Advances a theoretical debate
  • Builds on and strengthens existing knowledge with new data

The literature review often becomes the basis for a theoretical framework , in which you define and analyse the key theories, concepts and models that frame your research. In this section you can answer descriptive research questions about the relationship between concepts or variables.

The methodology chapter or section describes how you conducted your research, allowing your reader to assess its validity. You should generally include:

  • The overall approach and type of research (e.g. qualitative, quantitative, experimental, ethnographic)
  • Your methods of collecting data (e.g. interviews, surveys, archives)
  • Details of where, when, and with whom the research took place
  • Your methods of analysing data (e.g. statistical analysis, discourse analysis)
  • Tools and materials you used (e.g. computer programs, lab equipment)
  • A discussion of any obstacles you faced in conducting the research and how you overcame them
  • An evaluation or justification of your methods

Your aim in the methodology is to accurately report what you did, as well as convincing the reader that this was the best approach to answering your research questions or objectives.

Next, you report the results of your research . You can structure this section around sub-questions, hypotheses, or topics. Only report results that are relevant to your objectives and research questions. In some disciplines, the results section is strictly separated from the discussion, while in others the two are combined.

For example, for qualitative methods like in-depth interviews, the presentation of the data will often be woven together with discussion and analysis, while in quantitative and experimental research, the results should be presented separately before you discuss their meaning. If you’re unsure, consult with your supervisor and look at sample dissertations to find out the best structure for your research.

In the results section it can often be helpful to include tables, graphs and charts. Think carefully about how best to present your data, and don’t include tables or figures that just repeat what you have written  –  they should provide extra information or usefully visualise the results in a way that adds value to your text.

Full versions of your data (such as interview transcripts) can be included as an appendix .

The discussion  is where you explore the meaning and implications of your results in relation to your research questions. Here you should interpret the results in detail, discussing whether they met your expectations and how well they fit with the framework that you built in earlier chapters. If any of the results were unexpected, offer explanations for why this might be. It’s a good idea to consider alternative interpretations of your data and discuss any limitations that might have influenced the results.

The discussion should reference other scholarly work to show how your results fit with existing knowledge. You can also make recommendations for future research or practical action.

The dissertation conclusion should concisely answer the main research question, leaving the reader with a clear understanding of your central argument. Wrap up your dissertation with a final reflection on what you did and how you did it. The conclusion often also includes recommendations for research or practice.

In this section, it’s important to show how your findings contribute to knowledge in the field and why your research matters. What have you added to what was already known?

You must include full details of all sources that you have cited in a reference list (sometimes also called a works cited list or bibliography). It’s important to follow a consistent reference style . Each style has strict and specific requirements for how to format your sources in the reference list.

The most common styles used in UK universities are Harvard referencing and Vancouver referencing . Your department will often specify which referencing style you should use – for example, psychology students tend to use APA style , humanities students often use MHRA , and law students always use OSCOLA . M ake sure to check the requirements, and ask your supervisor if you’re unsure.

To save time creating the reference list and make sure your citations are correctly and consistently formatted, you can use our free APA Citation Generator .

Your dissertation itself should contain only essential information that directly contributes to answering your research question. Documents you have used that do not fit into the main body of your dissertation (such as interview transcripts, survey questions or tables with full figures) can be added as appendices .

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Research Methods for Dissertation – Types with Comparison

Published by Carmen Troy at August 13th, 2021 , Revised On June 14, 2023

Introduction

“Research methods for a dissertation refer to the specific approaches, procedures, and techniques employed by researchers to investigate and gather data for their dissertation projects.”

These methods provide a systematic and structured framework for conducting research, ensuring the reliability, validity, and rigour of the study.

What are the different research methods for the dissertation, and which one should I use?

Choosing the right research method for a dissertation is a grinding and perplexing aspect of the dissertation research process. A well-defined  research methodology  helps you conduct your research in the right direction, validates the  results  of your research, and makes sure that the study you’re conducting answers the set  research questions .

The research  title,  research questions,  hypothesis , objectives, and study area generally determine the best research method in the dissertation.

This post’s primary purpose is to highlight what these different  types of research  methods involve and how you should decide which type of research fits the bill. As you read through this article, think about which one of these research methods will be the most appropriate for your research.

The practical, personal, and academic reasons for choosing any particular method of research are also analysed. You will find our explanation of experimental , descriptive , historical , quantitative , qualitative , and mixed research methods useful regardless of your field of study.

While choosing the right method of research for your own research, you need to:

  • Understand the difference between research methods and  methodology .
  • Think about your research topic, research questions, and research objectives to make an intelligent decision.
  • Know about various types of research methods so that you can choose the most suitable and convenient method as per your research requirements.

Research Methodology Vs. Research Methods

A well-defined  research methodology  helps you conduct your research in the right direction, validates the  results  of your research, and makes sure that the study you are conducting answers the set  research questions .

Research Methodology Vs. Research Methods

Research methods are the techniques and procedures used for conducting research. Choosing the right research method for your writing is an important aspect of the  research process .

You need to either collect data or talk to the people while conducting any research. The research methods can be classified based on this distinction.

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Types of Research Methods

Research methods are broadly divided into six main categories.

Experimental Research Methods

Descriptive research methods, historical research methods, quantitative research methods, qualitative research methods, mixed methods of research.

Experimental research  includes the experiments conducted in the laboratory or observation under controlled conditions. Researchers try to study human behavior by performing various experiments. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons. It includes three  types of variables;

  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • Controlled variable

Types of Experimental Methods

Laboratory experiments

The experiments were conducted in the laboratory. Researchers have control over the variables of the experiment.

Field experiment

The experiments were conducted in the open field and environment of the participants by incorporating a few artificial changes. Researchers do not have control over variables under measurement. Participants know that they are taking part in the experiment.

Natural experiments

The experiment is conducted in the natural environment of the participants. The participants are generally not informed about the experiment being conducted on them.

Example : Estimating the health condition of the population.

Quasi-experiments

A quasi-experiment is an experiment that takes advantage of natural occurrences. Researchers cannot assign random participants to groups.

Example: Comparing the academic performance of the two schools.

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Descriptive research aims at collecting the information to answer the current affairs. It follows the Ex post facto research, which predicts the possible reasons behind the situation that has already occurred. It aims to answer questions like how, what, when, where, and what rather than ‘why.’

In  historical research , an investigator collects, analyses the information to understand, describe, and explain the events that occurred in the past. Researchers try to find out what happened exactly during a certain period of time as accurately and as closely as possible. It does not allow any manipulation or control of variables.

Quantitative research  is associated with numerical data or data that can be measured. It is used to study a large group of population. The information is gathered by performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.

Quantitative research isn’t simply based on  statistical analysis or quantitative techniques but rather uses a certain approach to theory to address research hypotheses or research questions, establish an appropriate research methodology, and draw findings &  conclusions .

Some most commonly employed quantitative research strategies include data-driven dissertations, theory-driven studies, and reflection-driven research. Regardless of the chosen approach, there are some common quantitative research features as listed below.

  • Quantitative research is based on testing or building on existing theories proposed by other researchers whilst taking a reflective or extensive route.
  • Quantitative research aims to test the research hypothesis or answer established research questions.
  • It is primarily justified by positivist or post-positivist research paradigms.
  • The  research design can be relationship-based, quasi-experimental, experimental, or descriptive.
  • It draws on a small sample to make generalisations to a wider population using probability sampling techniques.
  • Quantitative data is gathered according to the established research questions and using research vehicles such as structured observation, structured interviews, surveys, questionnaires, and laboratory results.
  • The researcher uses  statistical analysis  tools and techniques to measure variables and gather inferential or descriptive data. In some cases, your tutor or members of the dissertation committee might find it easier to verify your study results with numbers and statistical analysis.
  • The accuracy of the study results is based on external and internal validity and the authenticity of the data used.
  • Quantitative research answers research questions or tests the hypothesis using charts, graphs, tables, data, and statements.
  • It underpins  research questions  or hypotheses and findings to make conclusions.
  • The researcher can provide recommendations for future research and expand or test existing theories.

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It is a type of scientific research where a researcher collects evidence to seek answers to a  question . It is associated with studying human behaviour from an informative perspective. It aims at obtaining in-depth details of the problem.

As the term suggests,  qualitative research  is based on qualitative research methods, including participants’ observations, focus groups, and unstructured interviews.

Qualitative research is very different in nature when compared to quantitative research. It takes an established path towards the  research process , how  research questions  are set up, how existing theories are built upon, what research methods are employed, and how the  findings  are unveiled to the readers.

You may adopt conventional methods, including phenomenological research, narrative-based research, grounded theory research,  ethnographies ,  case studies , and auto-ethnographies.

Again, regardless of the chosen approach to qualitative research, your dissertation will have unique key features as listed below.

  • The research questions that you aim to answer will expand or even change as the  dissertation writing process continues. This aspect of the research is typically known as an emergent design where the research objectives evolve with time.
  • Qualitative research may use existing theories to cultivate new theoretical understandings or fall back on existing theories to support the research process. However, the original goal of testing a certain theoretical understanding remains the same.
  • It can be based on various research models, such as critical theory, constructivism, and interpretivism.
  • The chosen research design largely influences the analysis and discussion of results and the choices you make. Research design depends on the adopted research path: phenomenological research, narrative-based research, grounded theory-based research, ethnography, case study-based research, or auto-ethnography.
  • Qualitative research answers research questions with theoretical sampling, where data gathered from an organisation or people are studied.
  • It involves various research methods to gather qualitative data from participants belonging to the field of study. As indicated previously, some of the most notable qualitative research methods include participant observation, focus groups, and unstructured  interviews .
  • It incorporates an  inductive process where the researcher analyses and understands the data through his own eyes and judgments to identify concepts and themes that comprehensively depict the researched material.
  • The key quality characteristics of qualitative research are transferability, conformity, confirmability, and reliability.
  • Results and discussions are largely based on narratives, case study and personal experiences, which help detect inconsistencies, observations, processes, and ideas.s
  • Qualitative research discusses theoretical concepts obtained from the results whilst taking research questions and/or hypotheses  to draw general  conclusions .

Now that you know the unique differences between quantitative and qualitative research methods, you may want to learn a bit about primary and secondary research methods.

Here is an article that will help you  distinguish between primary and secondary research and decide whether you need to use quantitative and/or qualitative primary research methods in your dissertation.

Alternatively, you can base your dissertation on secondary research, which is descriptive and explanatory in essence.

Types of Qualitative Research Methods

Action research

Action research  aims at finding an immediate solution to a problem. The researchers can also act as the participants of the research. It is used in the educational field.

A  case study  includes data collection from multiple sources over time. It is widely used in social sciences to study the underlying information, organisation, community, or event. It does not provide any solution to the problem. Researchers cannot act as the participants of the research.

Ethnography

In  this type of research, the researcher examines the people in their natural environment. Ethnographers spend time with people to study people and their culture closely. They can consult the literature before conducting the study.

When you combine quantitative and qualitative methods of research, the resulting approach becomes mixed methods of research.

Over the last few decades, much of the research in academia has been conducted using mixed methods because of the greater legitimacy this particular technique has gained for several reasons including the feeling that combining the two types of research can provide holistic and more dependable results.

Here is what mixed methods of research involve:

  • Interpreting and investigating the information gathered through quantitative and qualitative techniques.
  • There could be more than one stage of research. Depending on the research topic, occasionally it would be more appropriate to perform qualitative research in the first stage to figure out and investigate a problem to unveil key themes; and conduct quantitative research in stage two of the process for measuring relationships between the themes.

Note: However, this method has one prominent limitation, which is, as previously mentioned, combining qualitative and quantitative research can be difficult because they both are different in terms of design and approach. In many ways, they are contrasting styles of research, and so care must be exercised when basing your dissertation on mixed methods of research.

When choosing a research method for your own dissertation, it would make sense to carefully think about your  research topic ,  research questions , and research objectives to make an intelligent decision in terms of the philosophy of  research design .

Dissertations based on mixed methods of research can be the hardest to tackle even for PhD students.

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Please Find Below an Example of Research Methods Section in a Dissertation or Thesis.

Background and Problem

Diversity management became prominent in the late twentieth century, with foundations in America. Historically homogeneous or nondiverse nations, such as Finland, have not yet experienced the issues associated with rising cultural and ethnic diversity in the workforce. Regardless of the environment, workforce diversity garners greater attention and is characterised by its expanding relevance due to globalised and international companies, global and national worker mobility, demographic shifts, or enhancing productivity.

As a result, challenges of diversity management have been handled through legal, financial, and moral pressures (Hayes et al., 2020). The evolving structure of the working population in terms of language, ethnic background, maturity level, faith, or ethnocultural history is said to pose a challenge to human resource management (HRM) in utilising diversity: the understanding, abilities, and expertise prospects of the entire workforce to deal with possible developments.

The European approach to diversity management is regarded as growing. However, it is found to emphasise the relationship to business and lack competence in diversity management problems. Mass immigration concentrates variety, sometimes treated as cultural minority issues, implying the normalisation of anti-discrimination actions (Yadav and Lenka, 2020).

These causes, in turn, have provided the basis of comprehensive diversity research, which has generated different theories, frameworks, concepts, and guidelines from interdisciplinary viewpoints, such as industrial and organisational psychology and behaviour (OB), cultural studies, anthropology, migration, economics, postcolonialism, and so on. And in the form of international, social and cultural, organisational, group, and individual scale diversity analysis. This dissertation focuses on diversity concerns from impression management, specifically from HRM as an executive-level phenomenon (Seliverstova, 2021).

As conceptual frameworks, organisational structures concentrating on the production of diversity and social psychology, notably social identity theory with diverse ‘identities’ of persons or intergroup connections, are primarily employed. The study’s primary goal in the workplace is to discover inequities or examine the effects of diversity on workplace outcomes.

Individual study interests include behaviours, emotions, intelligence, intercultural skills or competencies, while group research interests include group dynamics, intergroup interactions, effectiveness, and cooperation or collaboration. Organisational studies address themes such as workforce composition, workplace equality, and diversity challenges and how they may be managed accordingly. Domestic diversity, omitting national distinctions, or global diversity, about diverse country cultures, might be studied further (AYDIN and ÖZEREN, 2018).

Diversity is a context-dependent, particular, comparative, complicated, plural phrase or idea with varying interpretations in different organisations and cultures and no unified definition. As a result, in addition to many internal and external elements, diversity may be managed, individuals taught, and organisations have grown in various ways. This dissertation considers diversity in an organisational environment as a construct of ‘differences’ to be handled (Cummings, 2018).

Various management systems have grown in stages, bringing diverse diversity management concepts. Equality/equal opportunities (EO) legislation and diversity management are the two conventional approaches and primary streams with differing theoretical foundations for managing and dealing with workforce diversity challenges (DM).

These approaches relate to whether diversity is handled by increasing sameness by legal pressures or by voluntarily respecting people’s differences, which shows an organisation’s responsiveness and proactivity toward managing diversity. But most of the literature in this area has avoided the impression management theories (Coad and Guenther, 2014). Therefore, this study will add a new dimension in this area by introducing impression management analysis.

Research Aim and Objectives

This research aims to analyse the impact of organisational structure on human resources diversification from the viewpoint of impression managerial theory. It has the following objectives:

  • It will examine the existing impression management literature to draw insights into the relationship under consideration.
  • It will identify various factors such as competency, social inclusion, etc., affecting the management’s decision to recruit diverse human resources.
  • It will recommend appropriate organisational structures and HR policies to improve diversification of HR by reviewing impression management theories.

Research Questions

This research will answer the following questions:

  • How does organisational structure affect human resources diversification from the viewpoint of impression managerial theory?
  • What factors such as competency, social inclusion, etc., affect the management decision to recruit diverse human resources?
  • What are appropriate organisational structures and HR policies to improve diversification of HR by reviewing impression management theories?

Research Hypothesis

The organisational structure significantly impacts the recruitment of diverse human resources.

Literature Review

According to Staniec and Zakrzewska-Bielawska (2010), considering strategy-oriented activities and organisational components are the critical foundation in the organisational structure required to align structure strategy. Each company’s internal organisation is somewhat distinctive, resulting from various corporate initiatives and historical conditions.

Furthermore, each design is based on essential success elements and vital tasks inherent in the firm plan. This article offers empirical research on unique organisational structure elements in Polish firms in the context of concentration and diversification tactics. And companies that adopted concentration techniques mainly used functional organisational structures.

Tasks were primarily classified and categorised based on functions and phases of the technical process, with coordination based on hierarchy. Jobs were also highly centralised and formalised. Organisational structures of an active type were also prevalent in many firms. Only a handful of the evaluated organisations possessed flexible contemporary divisional or matrix structures appropriate to differentiation. However, it appears that even such organisations should adjust their organisational solutions to perform successfully in an immensely complex and chaotic environment.

Similarly, according to Yang and Konrad (2011), diversity management techniques are the institutionalised methods created and applied by organisations to manage diversity among all organisational shareholders. They examined the existing research on the causes and significance of diversity management approaches.

They construct a research model indicating many potential routes for future study using institutional and resource-based theories. They also offer prospective avenues for study on diversity management techniques to further the two theoretical viewpoints. The findings indicate that research on diverse management practises might provide perceptions into the two ideologies. Diversity management provides a method for reconciling the agency vs structure issue for institutional concept.

Furthermore, diversity management is a suitable framework for studying how institutional pressures are translated into organisational action and the relationship between complying with institutional mandates and attaining high performance. Research on diversity management raises the importance of environmental normative elements in resource-based reasoning.

It allows for exploring essential resource sources and the co-evolution of diversity resources and management capacities, potentially developing dynamic resource-based theory. Furthermore, a review of the existing research on diversity management practices reveals that research in this field has nearly entirely concentrated on employee-related activities.

However, in establishing the idea of diversity management practises, we included the practises that companies put in place to manage diversity across all stakeholder groups on purpose. Management techniques for engaging with consumers, dealers, supervisors, board directors, and community members are critical for meeting institutional theory’s social and normative commitments.

Moreover, according to Sippola (2014), this research looks at diversity management from the standpoint of HRM. The study aims to discover the effects of expanding workforce diversity on HRM inside firms. This goal will be accomplished through four papers examining diversity management’s impacts on HRM from various viewpoints and mostly in longitudinal contexts.

The purpose of the first article, as a pilot survey, is to determine the reasons, advantages, and problems of rising cultural diversity and the consequences for HRM to get a preliminary grasp of the issue in the specific setting. According to the report, diversity is vital for productivity but is not often emphasised in HRM strategy.

The key areas that were changed were acquisition, development, and growth. The second article examines how different diversity management paradigms recognised in businesses affect HRM. It offers an experimentally verified typology that explains reactive or proactive strategic and operational level HRM activities in light of four alternative diversity management perspectives.

The third essay will examine how a ‘working culture bridge group’ strategy fosters and enhances workplace diversity. The research looks into how development goals are defined, what training and development techniques are used, and the consequences and causal factors when an analysis measures the training and development approach.

The primary goal of article four is to establish which components of diversity management design are globally integrated into multinational corporations (MNCs) and which integrating (delivery) methods are employed to facilitate it. Another goal is to identify the institutional problems faced by the Finnish national diversity setting during the integration process.

The findings show that the example organisation achieved more excellent global uniformity at the level of diversification concept through effective use of multiple frameworks but was forced to rely on a more multinational approach to implementing diversification policies and procedures. The difficulties faced emphasised the distinctiveness of Finland’s cognitive and normative institutional setting for diversity.

Furthermore, according to Guillaume et al. (2017), to compensate for the dual-edged character of demographic workplace diversity impacts on social inclusion, competence, and well-being-related factors, research has shifted away from straightforward main effect methods and begun to investigate factors that moderate these effects.

While there is no shortage of primary research on the circumstances that lead to favourable or poor results, it is unknown which contextual elements make it work. Using the Classification framework as a theoretical lens, they examine variables that moderate the impacts of workplace diversity on social integration, performance, and well-being outcomes, emphasising characteristics that organisations and managers can influence.

They suggest future study directions and end with practical applications. They concluded that faultlines, cross-categorisation, and status variations across demographic groupings highlight variety. Cross-categorisation has been proven to reduce intergroup prejudice while promoting social inclusion, competence, and well-being. Whether faultlines and subgroup status inequalities promote negative or good intergroup interactions and hinder social integration, performance, and well-being depends on whether situational factors encourage negative or positive intergroup connections. The impacts were not mitigated by team size or diversity type.

Furthermore, our data demonstrate that task characteristics are essential for workgroup diversity. Any demographic diversity in workgroups can promote creativity, but only when combined with task-relevant expertise improves the performance of teams undertaking complicated tasks. The type of team and the industrial context do not appear to play an effect. It is unclear if these findings apply to relational demography and organisational diversity impacts. There is some evidence that, under some settings, relational demography may increase creativity, and, as previously said, demographic variety may help firms function in growth-oriented strategy contexts.

Likewise, according to Ali, Tawfeq, and Dler (2020), diversity management refers to organisational strategies that strive to increase the integration of people from diverse backgrounds into the framework of corporate goals. Organisations should develop productive ways to implement diversity management (DM) policies to establish a creative enterprise that can enhance their operations, goods, and services.

Furthermore, human resource management HRM is a clever tool for any firm to manage resources within the company. As a result, this article explores the link between DM, HR policies, and workers’ creative work-related behaviours in firms in Kurdistan’s Fayoum city. According to the questionnaire, two hypotheses were tested: the influence of HRM on diversity management, HRM on innovation, and the impact of diversity management on innovation.

The first premise is that workplace diversity changes the nature of working relationships, how supervisors and managers connect, and how workers respond to one another. It also addresses human resource functions such as record-keeping, training, recruiting, and employee competence needs. The last premise on the influence of diversity management on innovation is that workplace diversity assists a business in hiring a diverse range of personnel.

In other words, a vibrant population need individuals of varied personalities. Workplace diversity refers to a company’s workforce consisting of employees of various genders, ages, faiths, races, ethnicities, cultural backgrounds, religions, dialects, training, capabilities, etc. According to the study’s findings, human resource management strategies have a substantial influence on diversity management.

Second, diversity management was found to have a considerable impact on creativity. Finally, human resource management techniques influenced innovation significantly. Based on the findings, it was discovered that diversity management had a more significant influence on creation than human resource management.

Lastly, according to Li et al. (2021), the universal trend of rising workplace age diversity has increased the study focus on the organisational effects of age-diverse workforces. Prior research has mainly concentrated on the statistical association between age diversity and organisational success rather than experimentally examining the probable processes behind this relationship.

They argue that age diversity influences organisational performance through human and social capital using an intellectual capital paradigm. Moreover, they investigate workplace functional diversity and age-inclusive management as two confounding factors affecting the benefits of age diversity on physical and human capital.

Their hypotheses were evaluated using data from the Association for Human Resource Management’s major manager-reported workplace survey. Age diversity was favourably linked with organisational performance via the mediation of higher human and social capital. Furthermore, functional diversity and age-inclusive management exacerbated the favourable benefits of age variety on human and social capital. Their study gives insight into how age-diverse workforces might generate value by nurturing knowledge-based organisational resources.

Research Gap/ Contribution

Although there is a vast body of research in diversity in the human resource management area, many researchers explored various dimensions. But no study explicitly discovers the impact of organisational culture on human resource diversification. Moreover, no researchers examined the scope of impression management in this context.

Therefore, this research will fill this considerable literature gap by finding the direct impact of organisational structure on human resource diversification. Secondly, by introducing a new dimension of impression management theory. It will open new avenues for research in this area, and it will help HR managers to formulate better policies for a more inclusive organisational structure.

Research Methodology

It will be mixed quantitative and qualitative research based on the secondary data collected through different research journals and case studies of various companies. Firstly, the quantitative analysis will be conducted through a regression analysis to show the organisational structure’s impact on human resource diversification.

The dummy variable will be used to show organisational structure, and diversification will be captured through the ethnic backgrounds of the employees. Moreover, different variables will be added to the model, such as competency, social inclusion, etc. It will fulfil the objective of identifying various factors which affect the management decision to recruit diverse human resources. Secondly, a systematic review of the literature will be conducted for qualitative analysis to add the impression management dimension to the research. Google Scholar, JSTOR, Scopus, etc., will be used to search keywords such as human resource diversity, impression management, and organisation structure.

Research Limitation

Although research offers a comprehensive empirical analysis on the relationship under consideration due to lack of resources, the study is limited to secondary data. It would be better if the research would’ve been conducted on the primary data collected through the organisations. That would’ve captured the actual views of the working professionals. It would’ve increased the validity of the research.

Ali, M., Tawfeq, A., & Dler, S. (2020). Relationship between Diversity Management and Human Resource Management: Their Effects on Employee Innovation in the Organizations. Black Sea Journal of Management and Marketing, 1 (2), 36-44.

AYDIN, E., & ÖZEREN, E. (2018). Rethinking workforce diversity research through critical perspectives: emerging patterns and research agenda. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 6 (3), 650-670.

Coad, A., & Guenther, C. (2014). Processes of firm growth and diversification: theory and evidence. Small Business Economics, 43 (4), 857-871.

Cummings, V. (2018). Economic Diversification and Empowerment of Local Human Resources: Could Singapore Be a Model for the GCC Countries?. In. Economic Diversification in the Gulf Region, II , 241-260.

Guillaume, Y., Dawson, J., Otaye‐Ebede, L., Woods, S., & West, M. (2017). Harnessing demographic differences in organizations: What moderates the effects of workplace diversity? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38 (2), 276-303.

Hayes, T., Oltman, K., Kaylor, L., & Belgudri, A. (2020). How leaders can become more committed to diversity management. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 72 (4), 247.

Li, Y., Gong, Y., Burmeister, A., Wang, M., Alterman, V., Alonso, A., & Robinson, S. (2021). Leveraging age diversity for organizational performance: An intellectual capital perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106 (1), 71.

Seliverstova, Y. (2021). Workforce diversity management: a systematic literature review. Strategic Management, 26 (2), 3-11.

Sippola, A. (2014). Essays on human resource management perspectives on diversity management. Vaasan yliopisto.

Staniec, I., & Zakrzewska-Bielawska, A. (2010). Organizational structure in the view of single business concentration and diversification strategies—empirical study results. Recent advances in management, marketing, finances. WSEAS Press, Penang, Malaysia .

Yadav, S., & Lenka, U. (2020). Diversity management: a systematic review. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal .

Yang, Y., & Konrad, A. (2011). Understanding diversity management practices: Implications of institutional theory and resource-based theory. Group & Organization Management, 36 (1), 6-38.

FAQs About Research Methods for Dissertations

What is the difference between research methodology and research methods.

Research methodology helps you conduct your research in the right direction, validates the results of your research and makes sure that the study you are conducting answers the set research questions.

Research methods are the techniques and procedures used for conducting research. Choosing the right research method for your writing is an important aspect of the research process.

What are the types of research methods?

The types of research methods include:

  •     Experimental research methods.
  •     Descriptive research methods
  •     Historical Research methods

What is a quantitative research method?

Quantitative research is associated with numerical data or data that can be measured. It is used to study a large group of population. The information is gathered by performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.

What is a qualitative research method?

It is a type of scientific research where a researcher collects evidence to seek answers to a question . It is associated with studying human behavior from an informative perspective. It aims at obtaining in-depth details of the problem.

What is meant by mixed methods research?

Mixed methods of research involve:

  • There could be more than one stage of research. Depending on the research topic, occasionally, it would be more appropriate to perform qualitative research in the first stage to figure out and investigate a problem to unveil key themes; and conduct quantitative research in stage two of the process for measuring relationships between the themes.

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Choosing between types

There are a number of reasons why you may choose one type of dissertation over another. Some are more academic in nature, whilst others tend to be more personal or practical . Academic justifications are important because the person marking your dissertation will expect to see such academic justifications in your final product. Personal and practical justifications are similarly important, not because these are something that a marker is looking for, but because the dissertation process can be tough. As a result, many of the decisions you make throughout the dissertation process (e.g., the choice of sampling strategy or data analysis techniques) will be influenced by factors such as cost, ease, convenience, and what skills you have or can learn in time. We briefly discuss these considerations below, and explain how they may influence the particular choice of dissertation type; after all, the academic, personal and practical justifications for a quantitative dissertation are different for qualitative or mixed methods dissertations.

Academic justifications

You'll almost always been able to find an academic justification for your choice of dissertation, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. These academic justifications include factors that are generally philosophical or theoretical , or which refer to a particular research problem or idea .

The reasons that act as a justification for your dissertation will often become clear when you decide on the route you will follow within one of these three types of dissertation (i.e., a qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods dissertation). We have chosen not to go into any more detail about such academic justifications now because they are so specific to the route that you choose. However, you'll learn about these justifications in detail in the Quantitative Dissertations part of Lærd Dissertation, where you can choose between one of three routes (i.e., Route #1: Replication-based dissertations , Route #2: Data-driven dissertations , and Route #3: Theory-driven dissertations ).

Personal or practical justifications

One of the major challenges of doing a dissertation, especially if you are an undergraduate, is uncertainty : Can I plan out the dissertation process from the start? Will I be able to finish on time? Can I get my head around the research paradigms and research designs that guide my choice of dissertation (i.e., qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods)? Do I have the right skills to analyse qualitative or quantitative data? What software packages will I have to learn to do this, if any?

Dissertations are often worth a good proportion of your final year mark, if not the grade of your entire degree, so how tolerant you are to uncertainty matters. On this basis, think about the following:

Am I a bit of a planning freak?

If you are, you may prefer to take on a quantitative dissertation rather than qualitative dissertation . One of the broad advantages of quantitative dissertations is that they tend to be more sequential in nature, such that you can often set out, right from the start of the dissertation process, the various stages you will need to go through in order to answer your research questions or hypotheses. This is because in quantitative dissertations, it is far less common to change major components of the research process (e.g., your research questions or hypotheses, or research design), after you've decided what these are going to be, which you typically do at the very start of the dissertation process. Not only does this make it possible to plan what you will be doing from month-to-month, but it also reduces the uncertainty through the dissertation process. You'll see in the Quantitative Dissertations section how we have been able to provide comprehensive, step-by-step guides to walk you through the dissertation process, as well as chapter-by-chapter guides to show you how to write up.

By contrast, qualitative dissertations are not sequential, but reflexive and emergent in nature, which means that what you planned to do at the start of the dissertation process is more likely to have to be modified. Such modification takes place because one of the tenets of qualitative research is flexibility to allow for things that are learnt during the research process to be integrated (e.g., initial interviews may suggest that you need to add or omit a particular research question). Whilst such changes may only happen a few times, and may be minor in many cases, they do add an element of uncertainty. At a basic level, imagine the difference between knowing how many participants you need to have to fill in your questionnaire, and therefore, roughly how long this will take (i.e., a quantitative dissertation ), as opposed to being quite uncertain how many interviews you need to arrange to collect sufficient data to answer your research questions (i.e., a qualitative dissertation ). Whilst these might sound like small points, it can mean having to put aside another month to collect sufficient interview data in a qualitative dissertation compared with a quantitative one.

What are my strong points?

Whilst qualitative and quantitative dissertations are more than just the use of qualitative or qualitative research methods and data, there is no escaping the fact that qualitative dissertations use qualitative research methods and collect qualitative data (i.e., from unstructured interviews, focus groups, participant observation, etc.), and quantitative dissertations use quantitative research methods, collecting quantitative data (i.e., from data sets, surveys, structured interviews, structured observation, etc.). If you've spent your degree working with quantitative research designs (e.g., randomized control trials, pre- and post-test designs, relationship-based designs, etc.), as well as quantitative research methods and data, the logical choice might be to take on a quantitative dissertation . The same can be said for qualitative dissertations , since in both cases, the learning curve will be a lot higher if you're completely unaccustomed to the components that make up these different types of dissertation.

What am I interested in?

At the end of the day, the dissertation process is a long one, lasting around 6 months (in most cases). If you're not interested in experimental research, you prefer working with more unstructured research methods (e.g., depth interviews, unstructured observation, etc.), or you hate quantitative data analysis (i.e., any form of statistics), taking on a quantitative dissertation may not be a good idea. The same can be said for qualitative dissertations , which require a lot of perseverance and dedication, especially during the data collection process, which can be time consuming and requires a lot of toeing-and-froing. Choose a type of dissertation that is going to keep you interested, and which you will not find boring or demoralizing.

If you're taking on a qualitative dissertation , we wish you good luck (although you will still be able to learn a little about appropriate research methods and sampling techniques in the Fundamentals section of Lærd Dissertation). However, if you're taking on a quantitative dissertation (or a mixed methods dissertation that is mainly quantitative in its focus), go to the Quantitative Dissertations part of Lærd Dissertation now. We have extensive guides to help you through the process.

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Different fields and disciplines may have varying approaches, but fear not!  In this comprehensive guide, we'll explore the various types of dissertations , shedding light on their unique characteristics and helping you make an informed choice.

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What are the types of dissertation.

In academic research, the types of dissertation research you choose can greatly impact your study. From experimental and analytical to descriptive and systematic reviews, let's explore the various types and their unique characteristics.

Experimental Dissertation  

The experimental dissertation focuses on empirical research, conducting experiments to gather data and draw conclusions. 

It involves designing, implementing, and analysing experiments to test hypotheses and explore relationships between variables. 

This type of thesis research is prevalent in scientific and social science disciplines, allowing researchers to generate new knowledge through systematic experimentation.

Analytical Dissertation

An analytical dissertation emphasises critically analysing and interpreting existing literature , theories, or data. This type examines multiple sources, evaluates their merits, and synthesises the information to create a coherent argument or theory.

Analytical thesis types are common in humanities and social science, where researchers explore complex ideas and contribute meaningfully to existing knowledge.

How to Write a Unique Dissertation Title: Tips and Examples

Descriptive Dissertation

The descriptive dissertation focuses on providing an in-depth account of a particular phenomenon, event, or experience. 

Researchers analyse the subject of study and aim to present a comprehensive idea. Descriptive dissertations are often employed in fields such as anthropology, history, and qualitative social sciences, shedding light on specific cultural practices, historical events, or social dynamics.

Systematic Review Dissertation

The systematic review dissertation involves conducting a comprehensive review of existing literature on a specific topic, critically analysing and synthesising relevant studies.

This type of thesis research allows researchers to identify trends, gaps, and inconsistencies in the literature, offering a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge. 

Systematic review dissertations are crucial in fields like medicine, psychology, and education, providing evidence-based insights and guiding future research directions. 

How to Develop a Conceptual Framework in Dissertation?

Practice-Based Dissertation

Practice-based dissertations combine theoretical knowledge with practical application. 

These creative outputs are accompanied by a written component that reflects on the research process, theoretical frameworks, and the significance of the creative work itself.

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How to Pick a Type of Dissertation Research That's Right for You

With various options available, choosing dissertation types that align with your research goals, strengths, and interests is important.

 In this blog, we'll guide you through the process of selecting different types of dissertation research that are right for you, ensuring a smooth and fulfilling research experience.

Assess Your Research Goals 

Begin by clarifying your research goals. What do you want to achieve through your dissertation? 

Identifying your specific research goals will help you narrow down the types of research that are best suited for your study.

Research Strategy Dissertation

Evaluate Your Skill Set 

Reflect on your strengths and skills as a researcher. Do you excel in designing experiments, analysing data, critically evaluating literature, or engaging in creative practice?

 Assessing your skill set will guide you towards a type of research that capitalises on your strengths and interests.

Seek Guidance from Advisors and Peers 

Consult with your academic advisors, professors, and peers who have expertise in your field. You can find valuable insights and recommendations based on their experiences. 

Share your research goals and interests with them, and ask for their guidance in choosing a suitable type of research. 

Craft an Exceptional Concept Paper: A Comprehensive Guide

Explore Existing Literature 

The existing literature relates to your research topic. Read dissertations, research papers , and scholarly articles in your field to gain an understanding of the topic. Examine how researchers have approached similar questions and problems. 

This exploration will expand your knowledge and enable you to make an informed decision based on the strengths and weaknesses of each research type.

Reflect on Personal Interest and Motivation

Consider your personal interests and motivation. Which type of research excites and motivates you the most?

Choosing a type of thesis research that aligns with your passions will sustain your enthusiasm throughout the dissertation process. Remember, conducting a dissertation is a long and challenging endeavour, so selecting a research type that genuinely interests you will make the journey more enjoyable and rewarding.

Final Thought 

As you are going to write a dissertation, understanding the different types of dissertations is essential. Whether you're conducting experiments, analysing existing literature, describing phenomena, reviewing literature systematically, or engaging in practice-based research, each type offers its unique approach and contributes to advancing knowledge in your field.

Remember, the choice of dissertation type should align with your research question, methodology, and desired outcomes. With the right dissertation type, passion, and dedication, you'll be well on your way to contributing to the body of knowledge in your field of study. Good luck!

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3 Main Types of Dissertations: Differences and Similarities

We may have qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods in dissertations. This blog will elaborate on quantitative dissertations, qualitative dissertations, and mixed methods dissertations by addressing their similarities and differences.

differents types dissertation

Dissertation types

We may have qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods in dissertations. Therefore, this blog will elaborate on quantitative dissertations, qualitative dissertations, and mixed methods dissertations by addressing their similarities and differences. 

Quantitative dissertations

Using the word quantitative does not mean that the dissertation must have quantitative research methods or statistical analysis techniques. Quantitative research deals with addressing research questions, hypotheses, or both. This research type relates to establishing a research strategy, concluding results, and making inferences. Classic investigations involve replication-based studies, theory-driven research, and data-driven dissertations. Nonetheless, many core characteristics pertain to quantitative dissertations regardless of the particular route you adopt on a quantitative dissertation.

They build on or test theories. These may include adopting an original or comprehensive approach with replication or modification.

They address quantitative research questions and test research hypotheses by rejecting or failure to reject the null hypothesis.

Positivist or post-positivist research paradigms affect them heavily.

They can have descriptive, experimental, quasi-experimental, or relationship-based research designs.

They resort to utilizing probability sampling techniques, generalizing from the sample to a broader population. In contrast, they may have to apply non-probability sampling techniques.

Research methods produce quantitative data (e.g., data sets, laboratory-based methods, questionnaires/surveys, structured interviews, and structured observation).

They depend on statistical analysis techniques while examining the data collected, irrespective of their descriptive or inferential structure.

They check the findings’ reliability and internal and external validity and may provide confidence intervals for the population parameters.

Statements, data, tables, and graphs are used to report their findings addressing each research question, hypothesis, or both.

Conclusions align with the findings, research questions, hypotheses, or both, and theories test or expand on extant ideas or provide insight for future approaches.

Qualitative dissertations

Qualitative dissertations involve qualitative research methods such as unstructured interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. As they use research methods not employed in quantitative dissertations, qualitative research is beyond a choice between research methods. Qualitative research regards the research process differently by establishing research questions, developing and utilizing theory, choosing a research strategy, and presenting and discussing research findings in a substantially unique way. Thus, qualitative dissertations will have a distinct approach, relying on the specific route you adopt (for example, case study research compared to ethnographies). The traditional ways are autoethnography, case study, ethnographies, grounded theory, narrative, and phenomenological research . Nonetheless, whatever path you pursue, many broad characteristics relate to qualitative dissertations:

They are considered emergent designs, implying that the research process, and sometimes even the qualitative research questions you handle, often develop during the dissertation process.

They employ many ways to tackle the theory - sometimes capitalizing on theory to assist the research process; in other times, utilizing it to develop new theoretical insights. They sometimes use both techniques. However, the goal is seldom to test a particular theory from the outset.

Many research paradigms support them, including interpretivism, constructivism, and critical theory.

 They pursue research designs that radically affect your choices during the research process and the analysis and discussion of findings. Such research designs substantially vary based on the approach taken, whether autoethnography, case study research, ethnography, grounded theory, narrative research, and phenomenological research.

They employ theoretical sampling - non-probability sampling techniques – to explore cases most fit to address their research questions.

They study people in their natural settings by using multiple research methods. This process generates qualitative data involving unstructured interviews, focus groups, and participant observation.

They interpret the qualitative data from the researcher’s perspective and employ an inductive method to specific themes or abstractions, establishing a holistic/gestalt picture of the study.

They assess their findings’ quality concerning their dependability, confirmability, conformability, and transferability.

They elaborate on their findings primarily using personal accounts, case studies, and narratives. Moreover, they employ other means of describing themes or abstracts, processes, observations, and contradictions to address research questions.

They deliberate the theoretical mainly from the findings via the research questions and deduce tentative conclusions.

Mixed methods dissertations

Many reasons exist to include mixed methods in thesis and dissertations . Mixed methods dissertations use both qualitative and quantitative approaches in research. Although they are increasingly used with a more profound legitimacy, their components have not been adequately addressed. One can better tackle a research question by gathering qualitative and quantitative data, analyzing or interpreting them individually or in combination, and conducting multiple research phases. Thus, it is critical to perform qualitative research to investigate an issue and unearth primary themes before employing quantitative analysis to assess the relationships between them.

Mixed methods often confront challenges because qualitative and quantitative research substantially vary structure-wise. They may even be said to oppose. Hence, when having a mixed methods dissertation, you should be careful about the goals of your research and must decide whether the qualitative or quantitative components are more crucial in philosophical, theoretical, and practical terms and whether they can be combined or kept separate.

Why is editing and proofreading your dissertation or thesis critical?

Editing and proofreading your  dissertation is exceedingly crucial . A  professional editing and proofreading service  has trained, experienced experts with PhD in their fields and will edit your  work  without prejudice. Their suggestions will make the dissertation or thesis more legible and practical. Another set of eyes can check your dissertation much better than you as they can readily find mistakes or areas that need fine-tuning. In academic writing, editing and proofreading ensure the credibility of the content. Many mistakes concerning grammar, punctuation, syntax, sentence construction and other minor errors are amended. An expert who will amend such mistakes will save time and ensure consistency and error-free writing for your thesis or dissertation. 

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This brief guide elaborates on quantitative dissertations, qualitative dissertations, and mixed methods dissertations by addressing their similarities and differences.  To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.

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What are acceptable dissertation research methods?

August 16, 2023

Reading time:  3–4 minutes

Doctoral research is the cornerstone of a PhD program .

In order to write a dissertation, you must complete extensive, detailed research. Depending on your area of study, different types of research methods will be appropriate to complete your work.

“The choice of research method depends on the questions you hope to answer with your research,” says Curtis Brant, PhD, Capella University dean of research and scholarship.

Once you’ve identified your research problem, you’ll employ the methodology best suited for solving the problem.

There are two primary dissertation research methods: qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative

Qualitative research focuses on examining the topic via cultural phenomena, human behavior or belief systems. This type of research uses interviews, open-ended questions or focus groups to gain insight into people’s thoughts and beliefs around certain behaviors and systems.

Dr. Brant says there are several approaches to qualitative inquiry. The three most routinely used include:

Generic qualitative inquiry. The researcher focuses on people’s experiences or perceptions in the real world. This often includes, but is not limited to, subjective opinions, attitudes and beliefs .

Case study. The researcher performs an in-depth exploration of a program, event, activity or process with an emphasis on the experience of one or more individuals. The focus of this kind of inquiry must be defined and often includes more than one set of data, such as interviews and field notes, observations or other qualitative data.

Phenomenological. The researcher identifies lived experiences associated with how an individual encounters and engages with the real world .

Qualitative research questions seek to discover:

  • A participant’s verbal descriptions of a phenomenon being investigated
  •  A researcher’s observations of the phenomenon being investigated
  • An integrated interpretation of participant’s descriptions and researchers observations

Quantitative

Quantitative research involves the empirical investigation of observable and measurable variables. It is used for theory testing, predicting outcomes or determining relationships between and among variables using statistical analysis.

According to Dr. Brant, there are two primary data sources for quantitative research.

Surveys: Surveys involve asking people a set of questions, usually testing for linear relationships, statistical differences or statistical independence. This approach is common in correlation research designs.

Archival research (secondary data analysis). Archival research involves using preexisting data to answer research questions instead of collecting data from active human participants.

Quantitative research questions seek to address:

  • Descriptions of variables being investigated
  • Measurements of relationships between (at least two) variables
  • Differences between two or more groups’ scores on a variable or variables

Which method should you choose?

Choosing a qualitative or quantitative methodology for your research will be based on the nature of the questions you ask, the preferred method in your field, the feasibility of the approach and other factors. Many programs offer doctoral mentors and support teams that can help guide you throughout the process.

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Choosing a theoretical framework: popular theories for dissertation research.

One of the most important steps in topic development  for your dissertation is picking out a theory or theories that will help to create the theoretical framework for your study. Because this is such a crucial and yet tricky task, our quantitative and qualitative research methods experts often help with this step when collaborating with our dissertation consulting clients on developing their research topics. Maybe you’re reading this and thinking, “What exactly IS a theoretical framework, anyway?” If so, you might check out this previous blog post on this topic, as it addresses this foundational question in more depth.

differents types dissertation

Whether you are using your framework to develop a qualitative research interview protocol  or to frame a study using statistical analysis of pertinent variables, the theoretical lens for your dissertation needs to be chosen carefully. This is because it has to provide a suitable explanatory structure, connecting the problem , purpose, research questions, and data collection instruments. Making a poor choice of theory for this purpose can result in having to do major rewrites to your proposal down the road (shudder!), so it’s best to choose mindfully. Keep in mind that we can definitely help with this crucial early decision in your dissertation or thesis writing process.

To help you start thinking over this decision for your dissertation, this article will provide a handful of possibilities for your theoretical framework. We compiled this list of popular theories based on our dissertation assistance clients’ choices, although this is by no means an exhaustive list. But, this should at least get you started thinking about some possibilities.

Self-Determination Theory

Deci and Ryan’s (2000) self-determination theory is a very common choice for the theoretical framework among our dissertation assistance  clients. Central to self-determination theory is the proposition that our motivation stems from satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2008). Competence refers to our sense that we are capable of accomplishing specific tasks, and autonomy is the feeling that we have control and choice. Our sense of relatedness refers to the perception that we have meaningful social relationships.

Many of our dissertation consulting clients are interested in examining intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, which develop in relation to different experiences of need satisfaction. When we feel intrinsic motivation, we have a sense of pleasure, interest in, and enjoyment of the activity. The experience of greater needs satisfaction related to certain environments or activities helps to develop intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000, 2008). On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes about when we receive outside incentives to engage in certain actions.

differents types dissertation

Because self-determination theory deals with basic psychological needs, we find when working with our dissertation consulting clients that it is widely applicable across many different topics in the social sciences. Self-determination theory can help to explain different forms of motivation, which makes it useful in dissertations that focus centrally on how motivation is shaped in arenas such as school or the workplace. Furthermore, the experience of self-determination has been associated with a variety of physical and psychological health outcomes, which makes it a great choice for examinations of conditions that influence health. Our dissertation assistance clients have used self-determination theory to frame studies on diverse topics ranging from a statistical analysis  of predictors of motivation among call center workers to a qualitative research exploration of conditions perceived to influence psychological well being in congregate care facilities.

Social Cognitive Theory

Another very popular theory among our dissertation assistance clients is Bandura’s (1977) social cognitive theory. The theory can help with explaining how behaviors develop, and one of the key tenets of social cognitive theory is that we learn behaviors through our observations of other people. This is not to say that we imitate every single behavior we observe indiscriminately, though. We are more or less likely to replicate behavior we observe based on whom we see doing it—or in other words, who the “model” is. 

Our dissertation consulting clients who are interested in how powerful people exert influence often love this theory, as Bandura (1977) posited that we are much more likely to imitate behavior when we observe others who are perceived as having elevated power or status modeling the behavior. This is especially so in the case of vicarious reinforcement, which is when the model is rewarded in some way for the behavior. If we see that certain behaviors elicit negative outcomes, however, we might avoid those behaviors due to the expectation that we would also be penalized for them. Our observations of others’ experiences, along with the results of our own behavior, also influence self-efficacy, which is a person’s sense of capability to handle challenges effectively.

Social cognitive theory is a really useful framework when you’re interested in examining how people develop behavioral patterns or ways of thinking about their own competence. Our dissertation consulting clients have used social cognitive theory to frame qualitative analysis  of influences on aggressive behavior in youths, statistical analysis of the predictors of self-efficacy in novice teachers, and qualitative research exploring the influence of social relationships on health behaviors.

differents types dissertation

Ecological Systems Theory

Bronfenbrenner’s (1977) ecological systems theory is another very popular theory among our dissertation consulting clients. According to the theory, a variety of influences help to shape children’s growth and development over time. As children interact with their environments, they are exposed to a variety of influences that Bronfenbrenner conceptualized as nested spheres that radiate outward from proximal to distal. For example, the most immediate and influential social circle (i.e., family) is referred to as the microsystem. The mesosystem is a bit more removed from the child’s immediate network and may include influences such as friends and teachers. Beyond the mesosystem is the exosystem, which includes influences such as the media, government systems, and extended family. The macrosystem is even more distal and includes influences such as cultural narratives and societal ideals. 

Ecological systems theory is a favorite among our dissertation assistance clients who are studying education or human development, as it applies to so many important aspects of growth and development for children and youths. It lends itself well to qualitative research explorations of student, parent, or educator perceptions on child development as well as to statistical analysis  of the impact of variables (e.g., parent involvement, teacher efficacy) that can be located in one or another of the levels of influence in Bronfenbrenner’s model.

Tinto’s Theory of Student Persistence

Tinto’s theory of student persistence and retention is very much appreciated by our dissertation consulting clients studying higher education. In this theory, Tinto (1993) proposed that students have a collection of personal characteristics that exert influence over their commitment to their higher education institutions. Some of these factors reside at the individual level, such as gender, race, and age. Background factors like socioeconomic level and previous achievement in academics can also come into play. 

differents types dissertation

Beyond these factors, Tinto (1993) posited that the degree to which the student feels a sense of social and academic integration can affect their sense of commitment to the college or university. This means that feeling a greater sense of social and academic integration can help to support academic persistence, thus resulting in higher retention rates (Tinto, 1993). Among our dissertation assistance clients conducting research in higher education leadership, Tinto’s theory is a top choice. Validated survey instruments derived from this theory make it a useful choice for quantitative studies involving statistical analysis of factors related to persistence and retention. And, it makes a great lens through which to explore student perspectives on their experiences of integration and persistence using a qualitative research and analysis  approach.

Adult Learning Theory

Another favorite of our dissertation assistance clients in higher education is adult learning theory. In his theory, Knowles (1973) proposed that adults learn differently from children, which means that educators can help to enhance adults’ learning if they take their specific needs into account. There are six key dimensions to adult learning (Knowles, 1973): 

  • Self-concept: Adults are self-directed and independent, and so they will learn best when learning conditions allow them autonomy.
  • Experience: Adults have plenty of life experience, and tying new concepts or facts in with their own experiences enhances their learning.
  • Readiness to learn: Adults experience a greater readiness or motivation to learn new information when they see a true need for learning the information.
  • Orientation to learning: Using a task- or problem-focused approach optimizes learning of new information by adults.
  • Internal motivation: Adults are driven by intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivators when learning new information.
  • Need to know: It helps adults to learn when new information is clearly relevant to or applicable in their lives.

One of the great things about this theory is its broad application—it applies to adult learning across many contexts. This makes it a popular theory among our dissertation consulting clients conducting research in a variety of fields. For example, the theory might frame a qualitative research  exploration of adult learning in traditional university settings while also serving quite well as the guiding framework in a statistical analysis of factors associated with learning a new enterprise resource planning system in the workplace.

differents types dissertation

Transformative Learning Theory

Another theory of adult learning is Mezirow’s (2009) transformative learning theory. This theory is popular among our dissertation assistance clients who are examining processes of learning that significantly change an adult’s foundational beliefs and assumptions. Mezirow (2009) posited that certain types of learning experiences help induce important shifts to an adult’s basic beliefs systems. Transformative learning, then, describes the processes that change the ways that an adult thinks about and interacts with the world around them. Specifically, discussion with others and self-reflection are key processes that can transform an adult’s values, beliefs, and behavior in significant ways. 

Transformative learning may happen spontaneously or as the result of formal education or training (Taylor, 2007). This makes the theory applicable when investigating such learning as the result of classroom or workplace instruction, but it also can help to frame inquiry into transformation as the result of personal experiences or everyday events. For example, our dissertation assistance clients have used the theory as lens for qualitative analysis of trauma as transformative of individuals’ spiritual beliefs, and they have also used it to frame statistical analysis  in quasi-experimental investigations of educational interventions aimed at developing cultural sensitivity in adult learners.

Transformational Leadership Theory

Among our dissertation consulting clients who wish to take a statistical analysis approach to the study of leadership, one of the most widely used leadership theories for frameworks is transformational leadership theory. The roots of this theory lie in the work of Burns (1978), who conceptualized transforming leadership as an approach that inspired employee performance through appeals to their values and morality. Bass (1985) elaborated upon Burns’ theory through development of dimensions that reflect underlying psychological processes at work within the relationships between transformational leaders and employees. These four dimensions of transformational leadership are (a) intellectual stimulation, (b) charisma or idealized influence, (c) inspirational motivation, and (d) individualized consideration (Avolio et al., 1999; Bass, 1991). 

The associated Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) is a frequently used tool in the statistical analysis of workplace predictors or outcomes that are associated with transformational leadership. The MLQ is definitely a favorite among our dissertation assistance clients studying in fields such as business management and industrial/organizational psychology. However, the dimensions of transformational leadership often create intriguing lenses through which to explore workplace phenomena through a qualitative research perspective. An example is a qualitative analysis of employees’ perspectives on individualized consideration and its influence on their experiences of stress and coping on the job.

Job Demands-Resources Model

The job demands-resources model (JD-R) is a popular choice of framework for our dissertation assistance clients who are conducting quantitative or qualitative research  on the workplace. According to this model, the overall balance between job demands and job resources has an effect on employees’ stress levels (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). Job demands can be psychological or physical aspects of jobs that elevate a worker’s stress. These might include such factors as physical demands, emotional demands, work pressure, workload, role conflict, and role ambiguity.

differents types dissertation

On the other hand, job resources can function to relieve or lessen stress for workers. These resources can be physical, social, or organizational dimensions of a job that help to ease stress deriving from job demands (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007). Job resources can take many forms, such as workplace practices that support employees to perform their job tasks effectively, supportive relationships in the workplace, conditions that increase an employee’s sense of autonomy, and a strong organizational climate.

The availability of validated survey instruments for the JD-R model make it a great choice to frame statistical analysis of variables that are related to job demands and resources. For example, job demands and resources may derive from organizational features such as justice or culture, or they may be predictive of outcomes such as employee performance and well being. Exploring perceptions related to demands and resources on the job via qualitative research methods can also reveal important insights, and our dissertation consulting clients in fields like industrial/organizational psychology have used this model to frame such inquiry.

Diffusion of Innovations Theory 

Diffusion of innovations is a theory that was developed by Rogers (2003), and it continues to occupy a very useful role as a theoretical framework for our dissertation consulting clients in fields from information technology to business management and leadership. This theory can help to frame studies that focus on how different types of innovations are embraced. A core underlying assumption of the theory is that information related to new innovations diffuses throughout communication channels in a social system over the course of time. Although we often think of technologies when we think of innovations, an innovation can really be any practice or idea that is viewed as novel or new by people and that induces a sense of uncertainty. This might include technologies, but it might also include things like new practices or policies within formal or informal organizations. 

According to Rogers (2003), there are five factors that influence the rate of adoption of a new innovation: relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. According to the theory, these five factors generally influence how quickly a new innovation is accepted and adopted. Additionally, though, different people tend to respond to innovations with varying degrees of acceptance, and their communication amongst one another may also influence how quickly any given group adopts a new innovation. 

Rogers (2003) proposed distinct categories related to openness to innovations. Innovators are the most willing to adopt new innovations, followed by early adopters and then early majority. Those who are more reluctant generally to accept new innovations fall into the late majority and laggard categories. These are people who need a lot of help to accept new innovations, and they tend to do so only after the people surrounding them have successfully adopted the innovation.

differents types dissertation

Our dissertation assistance clients from a range of fields have applied this theory as their framework, as the nature of “innovation” is quite broad. For example, this theory made a great framework for a qualitative analysis of teachers’ perceptions of and reactions to the introduction of a new data-based decision making process. It applied equally well in a quantitative study that used statistical analysis to determine the factors that most strongly impacted customers’ behavioral reactions to online versus in-person car sales.

Finally, a big favorite among our dissertation assistance clients who are conducting research on technology adoption is the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). It was formulated by Venkatesh et al. (2003) using eight different models that addressed technology acceptance and adoption in different ways. The updated version of the theory, UTAUT2, still includes the dimensions from the first version of the theory (i.e., performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions), which are proposed as predictors of an individual’s behavioral intention and actual use of technology. To tailor UTAUT2 to the consumer population, the authors added dimensions of price value, hedonic motivation, and experience or habit (Venkatesh et al., 2012). 

There are seven dimensions of UTAUT2 that correspond with expectations and perceptions related to the use of a specific technology (Venkatesh et al., 2012). These are:

  • performance expectancy, which refers to perceived benefits of technology use;
  • effort expectancy, which refers to expected ease or difficulty of technology use; 
  • social influence, which refers to a person’s sense of how other people feel about their use of technology, especially valued others like friends or family; 
  • facilitating conditions, which are resources a person views as available to support them in their use of the technology; 
  • hedonic motivation, which refers to the sense of joy or pleasure a person derives from using technology;
  • experience/habit, which refers to the degree to which a person has already used technology; and
  • price value, which refers to the value a person expects to derive from use of the technology. 

According to the UTAUT2 model, each of these dimensions exerts influence on a person’s behavioral intentions to use technology, which then influences the person’s actual use of the technology (Venkatesh et al., 2012). 

differents types dissertation

Our dissertation consulting clients have made great use of the UTAUT2 survey to guide statistical analysis of technology acceptance and use variables across technologies that range from learning management systems to smart devices. Shaping qualitative research data collection  around the various dimensions of UTAUT2 can also yield rich insights into the thinking and reasoning behind technology resistance or acceptance. A great example of this is a qualitative analysis that explored perceptions of social influence with regard to ride sharing services.

Because your guiding theory ties your whole study together within an explanatory framework, it is important to choose wisely as you develop this vital piece of your research topic. If you are choosing a quantitative method for your dissertation, many theories have associated survey instruments that can help to ensure that your data collection and statistical analysis align well with your framework. For qualitative research , it is important to develop data collection instruments (e.g., interview protocols) that align with key dimensions of the theoretical framework. If you would like help with these essential steps for creating alignment, our dissertation coaches  are happy to provide guidance during your topic development process. There are so many theories to choose from—this article provided just a glimpse of your possibilities—and we’re here to help if you need us!

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology , 72 (4), 441-462. https://doi.org/10/1348/096317999166789

Bakker, A., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22 (3), 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115

Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory . Prentice Hall.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations . Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1991). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics , 18 (3), 19-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-S

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32 (7), 513-531. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership . Harper and Row.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry , 11 (4), 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology , 49 (3), 182-185. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012801

Knowles, M. (1973). The adult learner: A neglected species . Gulf Publishing Company. 

Mezirow, J. (2009). An overview of transformative learning. In K. Illeris (Ed.), Contemporary theories of learning: Learning theorists…in their own words (pp. 90-105). Routledge.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5 th ed.). Free Press.

Taylor, E. W. (2007). An update of transformative learning theory: A critical review of the empirical research (1999–2005). International Journal of Lifelong Education , 26 (2), 173-191. https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370701219475

Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2 nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly , 425-478. https://doi.org/10.2307/30036540

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: Extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Quarterly , 36 (1), 157-178. https://doi.org/10.2307/41410412

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Methodology

Research Methods | Definitions, Types, Examples

Research methods are specific procedures for collecting and analyzing data. Developing your research methods is an integral part of your research design . When planning your methods, there are two key decisions you will make.

First, decide how you will collect data . Your methods depend on what type of data you need to answer your research question :

  • Qualitative vs. quantitative : Will your data take the form of words or numbers?
  • Primary vs. secondary : Will you collect original data yourself, or will you use data that has already been collected by someone else?
  • Descriptive vs. experimental : Will you take measurements of something as it is, or will you perform an experiment?

Second, decide how you will analyze the data .

  • For quantitative data, you can use statistical analysis methods to test relationships between variables.
  • For qualitative data, you can use methods such as thematic analysis to interpret patterns and meanings in the data.

Table of contents

Methods for collecting data, examples of data collection methods, methods for analyzing data, examples of data analysis methods, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research methods.

Data is the information that you collect for the purposes of answering your research question . The type of data you need depends on the aims of your research.

Qualitative vs. quantitative data

Your choice of qualitative or quantitative data collection depends on the type of knowledge you want to develop.

For questions about ideas, experiences and meanings, or to study something that can’t be described numerically, collect qualitative data .

If you want to develop a more mechanistic understanding of a topic, or your research involves hypothesis testing , collect quantitative data .

You can also take a mixed methods approach , where you use both qualitative and quantitative research methods.

Primary vs. secondary research

Primary research is any original data that you collect yourself for the purposes of answering your research question (e.g. through surveys , observations and experiments ). Secondary research is data that has already been collected by other researchers (e.g. in a government census or previous scientific studies).

If you are exploring a novel research question, you’ll probably need to collect primary data . But if you want to synthesize existing knowledge, analyze historical trends, or identify patterns on a large scale, secondary data might be a better choice.

Descriptive vs. experimental data

In descriptive research , you collect data about your study subject without intervening. The validity of your research will depend on your sampling method .

In experimental research , you systematically intervene in a process and measure the outcome. The validity of your research will depend on your experimental design .

To conduct an experiment, you need to be able to vary your independent variable , precisely measure your dependent variable, and control for confounding variables . If it’s practically and ethically possible, this method is the best choice for answering questions about cause and effect.

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differents types dissertation

Your data analysis methods will depend on the type of data you collect and how you prepare it for analysis.

Data can often be analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. For example, survey responses could be analyzed qualitatively by studying the meanings of responses or quantitatively by studying the frequencies of responses.

Qualitative analysis methods

Qualitative analysis is used to understand words, ideas, and experiences. You can use it to interpret data that was collected:

  • From open-ended surveys and interviews , literature reviews , case studies , ethnographies , and other sources that use text rather than numbers.
  • Using non-probability sampling methods .

Qualitative analysis tends to be quite flexible and relies on the researcher’s judgement, so you have to reflect carefully on your choices and assumptions and be careful to avoid research bias .

Quantitative analysis methods

Quantitative analysis uses numbers and statistics to understand frequencies, averages and correlations (in descriptive studies) or cause-and-effect relationships (in experiments).

You can use quantitative analysis to interpret data that was collected either:

  • During an experiment .
  • Using probability sampling methods .

Because the data is collected and analyzed in a statistically valid way, the results of quantitative analysis can be easily standardized and shared among researchers.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Chi square test of independence
  • Statistical power
  • Descriptive statistics
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Pearson correlation
  • Null hypothesis
  • Double-blind study
  • Case-control study
  • Research ethics
  • Data collection
  • Hypothesis testing
  • Structured interviews

Research bias

  • Hawthorne effect
  • Unconscious bias
  • Recall bias
  • Halo effect
  • Self-serving bias
  • Information bias

Quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings.

Quantitative methods allow you to systematically measure variables and test hypotheses . Qualitative methods allow you to explore concepts and experiences in more detail.

In mixed methods research , you use both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods to answer your research question .

A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population . Sampling means selecting the group that you will actually collect data from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your university, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows you to test a hypothesis about the characteristics of a population.

The research methods you use depend on the type of data you need to answer your research question .

  • If you want to measure something or test a hypothesis , use quantitative methods . If you want to explore ideas, thoughts and meanings, use qualitative methods .
  • If you want to analyze a large amount of readily-available data, use secondary data. If you want data specific to your purposes with control over how it is generated, collect primary data.
  • If you want to establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables , use experimental methods. If you want to understand the characteristics of a research subject, use descriptive methods.

Methodology refers to the overarching strategy and rationale of your research project . It involves studying the methods used in your field and the theories or principles behind them, in order to develop an approach that matches your objectives.

Methods are the specific tools and procedures you use to collect and analyze data (for example, experiments, surveys , and statistical tests ).

In shorter scientific papers, where the aim is to report the findings of a specific study, you might simply describe what you did in a methods section .

In a longer or more complex research project, such as a thesis or dissertation , you will probably include a methodology section , where you explain your approach to answering the research questions and cite relevant sources to support your choice of methods.

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Dissertations 4: methodology: methods.

  • Introduction & Philosophy
  • Methodology

Primary & Secondary Sources, Primary & Secondary Data

When describing your research methods, you can start by stating what kind of secondary and, if applicable, primary sources you used in your research. Explain why you chose such sources, how well they served your research, and identify possible issues encountered using these sources.  

Definitions  

There is some confusion on the use of the terms primary and secondary sources, and primary and secondary data. The confusion is also due to disciplinary differences (Lombard 2010). Whilst you are advised to consult the research methods literature in your field, we can generalise as follows:  

Secondary sources 

Secondary sources normally include the literature (books and articles) with the experts' findings, analysis and discussions on a certain topic (Cottrell, 2014, p123). Secondary sources often interpret primary sources.  

Primary sources 

Primary sources are "first-hand" information such as raw data, statistics, interviews, surveys, law statutes and law cases. Even literary texts, pictures and films can be primary sources if they are the object of research (rather than, for example, documentaries reporting on something else, in which case they would be secondary sources). The distinction between primary and secondary sources sometimes lies on the use you make of them (Cottrell, 2014, p123). 

Primary data 

Primary data are data (primary sources) you directly obtained through your empirical work (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2015, p316). 

Secondary data 

Secondary data are data (primary sources) that were originally collected by someone else (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2015, p316).   

Comparison between primary and secondary data   

Use  

Virtually all research will use secondary sources, at least as background information. 

Often, especially at the postgraduate level, it will also use primary sources - secondary and/or primary data. The engagement with primary sources is generally appreciated, as less reliant on others' interpretations, and closer to 'facts'. 

The use of primary data, as opposed to secondary data, demonstrates the researcher's effort to do empirical work and find evidence to answer her specific research question and fulfill her specific research objectives. Thus, primary data contribute to the originality of the research.    

Ultimately, you should state in this section of the methodology: 

What sources and data you are using and why (how are they going to help you answer the research question and/or test the hypothesis. 

If using primary data, why you employed certain strategies to collect them. 

What the advantages and disadvantages of your strategies to collect the data (also refer to the research in you field and research methods literature). 

Quantitative, Qualitative & Mixed Methods

The methodology chapter should reference your use of quantitative research, qualitative research and/or mixed methods. The following is a description of each along with their advantages and disadvantages. 

Quantitative research 

Quantitative research uses numerical data (quantities) deriving, for example, from experiments, closed questions in surveys, questionnaires, structured interviews or published data sets (Cottrell, 2014, p93). It normally processes and analyses this data using quantitative analysis techniques like tables, graphs and statistics to explore, present and examine relationships and trends within the data (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015, p496). 

Qualitative research  

Qualitative research is generally undertaken to study human behaviour and psyche. It uses methods like in-depth case studies, open-ended survey questions, unstructured interviews, focus groups, or unstructured observations (Cottrell, 2014, p93). The nature of the data is subjective, and also the analysis of the researcher involves a degree of subjective interpretation. Subjectivity can be controlled for in the research design, or has to be acknowledged as a feature of the research. Subject-specific books on (qualitative) research methods offer guidance on such research designs.  

Mixed methods 

Mixed-method approaches combine both qualitative and quantitative methods, and therefore combine the strengths of both types of research. Mixed methods have gained popularity in recent years.  

When undertaking mixed-methods research you can collect the qualitative and quantitative data either concurrently or sequentially. If sequentially, you can for example, start with a few semi-structured interviews, providing qualitative insights, and then design a questionnaire to obtain quantitative evidence that your qualitative findings can also apply to a wider population (Specht, 2019, p138). 

Ultimately, your methodology chapter should state: 

Whether you used quantitative research, qualitative research or mixed methods. 

Why you chose such methods (and refer to research method sources). 

Why you rejected other methods. 

How well the method served your research. 

The problems or limitations you encountered. 

Doug Specht, Senior Lecturer at the Westminster School of Media and Communication, explains mixed methods research in the following video:

LinkedIn Learning Video on Academic Research Foundations: Quantitative

The video covers the characteristics of quantitative research, and explains how to approach different parts of the research process, such as creating a solid research question and developing a literature review. He goes over the elements of a study, explains how to collect and analyze data, and shows how to present your data in written and numeric form.

differents types dissertation

Link to quantitative research video

Some Types of Methods

There are several methods you can use to get primary data. To reiterate, the choice of the methods should depend on your research question/hypothesis. 

Whatever methods you will use, you will need to consider: 

why did you choose one technique over another? What were the advantages and disadvantages of the technique you chose? 

what was the size of your sample? Who made up your sample? How did you select your sample population? Why did you choose that particular sampling strategy?) 

ethical considerations (see also tab...)  

safety considerations  

validity  

feasibility  

recording  

procedure of the research (see box procedural method...).  

Check Stella Cottrell's book  Dissertations and Project Reports: A Step by Step Guide  for some succinct yet comprehensive information on most methods (the following account draws mostly on her work). Check a research methods book in your discipline for more specific guidance.  

Experiments 

Experiments are useful to investigate cause and effect, when the variables can be tightly controlled. They can test a theory or hypothesis in controlled conditions. Experiments do not prove or disprove an hypothesis, instead they support or not support an hypothesis. When using the empirical and inductive method it is not possible to achieve conclusive results. The results may only be valid until falsified by other experiments and observations. 

For more information on Scientific Method, click here . 

Observations 

Observational methods are useful for in-depth analyses of behaviours in people, animals, organisations, events or phenomena. They can test a theory or products in real life or simulated settings. They generally a qualitative research method.  

Questionnaires and surveys 

Questionnaires and surveys are useful to gain opinions, attitudes, preferences, understandings on certain matters. They can provide quantitative data that can be collated systematically; qualitative data, if they include opportunities for open-ended responses; or both qualitative and quantitative elements. 

Interviews  

Interviews are useful to gain rich, qualitative information about individuals' experiences, attitudes or perspectives. With interviews you can follow up immediately on responses for clarification or further details. There are three main types of interviews: structured (following a strict pattern of questions, which expect short answers), semi-structured (following a list of questions, with the opportunity to follow up the answers with improvised questions), and unstructured (following a short list of broad questions, where the respondent can lead more the conversation) (Specht, 2019, p142). 

This short video on qualitative interviews discusses best practices and covers qualitative interview design, preparation and data collection methods. 

Focus groups   

In this case, a group of people (normally, 4-12) is gathered for an interview where the interviewer asks questions to such group of participants. Group interactions and discussions can be highly productive, but the researcher has to beware of the group effect, whereby certain participants and views dominate the interview (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill 2015, p419). The researcher can try to minimise this by encouraging involvement of all participants and promoting a multiplicity of views. 

This video focuses on strategies for conducting research using focus groups.  

Check out the guidance on online focus groups by Aliaksandr Herasimenka, which is attached at the bottom of this text box. 

Case study 

Case studies are often a convenient way to narrow the focus of your research by studying how a theory or literature fares with regard to a specific person, group, organisation, event or other type of entity or phenomenon you identify. Case studies can be researched using other methods, including those described in this section. Case studies give in-depth insights on the particular reality that has been examined, but may not be representative of what happens in general, they may not be generalisable, and may not be relevant to other contexts. These limitations have to be acknowledged by the researcher.     

Content analysis 

Content analysis consists in the study of words or images within a text. In its broad definition, texts include books, articles, essays, historical documents, speeches, conversations, advertising, interviews, social media posts, films, theatre, paintings or other visuals. Content analysis can be quantitative (e.g. word frequency) or qualitative (e.g. analysing intention and implications of the communication). It can detect propaganda, identify intentions of writers, and can see differences in types of communication (Specht, 2019, p146). Check this page on collecting, cleaning and visualising Twitter data.

Extra links and resources:  

Research Methods  

A clear and comprehensive overview of research methods by Emerald Publishing. It includes: crowdsourcing as a research tool; mixed methods research; case study; discourse analysis; ground theory; repertory grid; ethnographic method and participant observation; interviews; focus group; action research; analysis of qualitative data; survey design; questionnaires; statistics; experiments; empirical research; literature review; secondary data and archival materials; data collection. 

Doing your dissertation during the COVID-19 pandemic  

Resources providing guidance on doing dissertation research during the pandemic: Online research methods; Secondary data sources; Webinars, conferences and podcasts; 

  • Virtual Focus Groups Guidance on managing virtual focus groups

5 Minute Methods Videos

The following are a series of useful videos that introduce research methods in five minutes. These resources have been produced by lecturers and students with the University of Westminster's School of Media and Communication. 

5 Minute Method logo

Case Study Research

Research Ethics

Quantitative Content Analysis 

Sequential Analysis 

Qualitative Content Analysis 

Thematic Analysis 

Social Media Research 

Mixed Method Research 

Procedural Method

In this part, provide an accurate, detailed account of the methods and procedures that were used in the study or the experiment (if applicable!). 

Include specifics about participants, sample, materials, design and methods. 

If the research involves human subjects, then include a detailed description of who and how many participated along with how the participants were selected.  

Describe all materials used for the study, including equipment, written materials and testing instruments. 

Identify the study's design and any variables or controls employed. 

Write out the steps in the order that they were completed. 

Indicate what participants were asked to do, how measurements were taken and any calculations made to raw data collected. 

Specify statistical techniques applied to the data to reach your conclusions. 

Provide evidence that you incorporated rigor into your research. This is the quality of being thorough and accurate and considers the logic behind your research design. 

Highlight any drawbacks that may have limited your ability to conduct your research thoroughly. 

You have to provide details to allow others to replicate the experiment and/or verify the data, to test the validity of the research. 

Bibliography

Cottrell, S. (2014). Dissertations and project reports: a step by step guide. Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lombard, E. (2010). Primary and secondary sources.  The Journal of Academic Librarianship , 36(3), 250-253

Saunders, M.N.K., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2015).  Research Methods for Business Students.  New York: Pearson Education. 

Specht, D. (2019).  The Media And Communications Study Skills Student Guide . London: University of Westminster Press.  

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  • Dissertation
  • Plan de dissertation

Plan de dissertation : méthodologie et exemples

Publié le 27 novembre 2018 par Justine Debret . Mis à jour le 14 février 2022.

Le plan d’une dissertation est la structure ou le “squelette” de votre dissertation.

Table des matières

Combien de parties pour un plan de dissertation , plan de dissertation : apparent ou pas , les types de plan pour une dissertation, exemple de plan pour une dissertation (de philosophie), le plan d’une dissertation juridique, le plan d’une dissertation de philosophie.

Nous conseillons de faire un plan en trois parties (et deux sous-parties) pour les dissertations en général.

Toutefois, ce n’est pas obligatoire et vous pouvez le faire en deux parties (et trois sous-parties).

C’est différent pour les dissertations de droit ! Pour les dissertations juridiques, le plan doit contenir deux parties (et pas trois).

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differents types dissertation

Le plan d’une dissertation peut être apparent ou non, tout dépend du type de dissertation rédigé.

Les dissertations de philosophie n’ont en général pas de plan apparent. Les titres apparaissent dans une phrase introductive.

Attention ! Pour les dissertations juridiques, les titres doivent être apparents et ils ne doivent pas comporter des verbes conjugués.

Il en existe plusieurs et chaque type de plan de dissertation a ses spécificités.

1. Le plan d’une dissertation dialectique

Le plan dialectique (ou critique) est un plan « thèse, antithèse et synthèse ». Il est utilisé lorsque l’opinion exprimée dans le sujet de dissertation est discutable et qu’il est possible d’envisager l’opinion inverse.

Le plan d’une dissertation dialectique suit le modèle suivant :

I. Exposé argumenté d’une thèse. II. Exposé argumenté de la thèse adverse. II. Synthèse (dépassement de la contradiction)

2. Le plan de dissertation analytique

Le plan analytique permet d’analyser un problème qui mérite une réflexion approfondie. Vous devez décrire la situation, analyser les causes et envisager les conséquences. Il est possible de faire un plan « explication / illustration / commentaire ».

Le plan d’une dissertation analytique suit généralement le modèle suivant :

I. Description/explication d’une situation II. Analyse des causes/illustration III. Analyse des conséquences/commentaire

3. Le plan de dissertation thématique

Le plan thématique est utilisé dans le cadre de questions générales, celles qui exigent une réflexion progressive.

I. Thème 1 II. Thème 2 III.Thème 3

4. Le plan de dissertation chronologique

Le plan chronologique est utilisé dans le cas d’une question sur un thème dont la compréhension évolue à travers l’histoire.

I. Temporalité 1 II. Temporalité 2 III. Temporalité 3

Voici un exemple de plan analytique pour une dissertation sur le thème «  l’Homme est-il un animal social ? « .

1. La nature en nous 1.1. L’être humain, un animal parmi les autres ? 1.2. Les pulsions humaines comme rappel de notre archaïsme ? 2. La personne humaine : un être de nature ou de culture ? 2.1. La société comme impératif de survie : l’Homme est un loup pour l’Homme 2.2. La perfectibilité de l’Homme l’extrait de la nature 3. Plus qu’un animal social, un animal politique 3.1. L’Homme, un être rationnel au profit du bien commun 3.2. La coexistence humaine et participation politique du citoyen

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Les dissertations juridiques sont construites en deux parties et ont un plan apparent.

Le plan a une forme binaire  : deux parties (I et II), deux sous-parties (A et B) et parfois deux sous-sous-parties (1 et 2). Votre plan de dissertation doit reposer sur quatre idées principales.

Plus d’informations sur le plan d’une dissertation juridique

Les dissertations de philosophie sont construites en trois parties (en général) et n’ont pas de plan apparent.

Chaque partie est introduite avec une phrase d’introduction.

Plus d’informations sur le plan d’une dissertation de philosophie

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Debret, J. (2022, 14 février). Plan de dissertation : méthodologie et exemples. Scribbr. Consulté le 5 avril 2024, de https://www.scribbr.fr/dissertation-fr/plan-de-dissertation/

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Confused About Different Types of Dissertation and How to Do Research on Them?

Types of Dissertation & Research Methods

Table Of Contents

Introduction to dissertation: a brief explanation, types of dissertation, introduction to research, different types of dissertation research, how to choose right dissertation research method, facing issue in structuring your dissertation ask experts.

A dissertation is an academic task that provides the student's opportunity to write a substantial piece on an interesting topic, or students can also choose from different types of dissertation . This is one of the chances that the students can produce the work of the scholarship using the other academic skills they have developed. When it comes to preparing the doctoral dissertation, then it takes extreme perseverance. Master's or Ph.D. students must submit their dissertation to get their doctoral degrees. So after the sleepless nights and the labor-intensive research, you are ready to present the culmination of your hard work.

For this reason, having a solid knowledge base can be tricky, even though sometimes deciding where to begin and what to write is daunting. University and college students are worried about completing their dissertation writing task and completing their master's or Ph.D. write-up. Also, they must be aware of the things associated with writing the dissertation. One of them is the types of dissertation  and how to conduct the research for the dissertation types. So in this blog, we will provide information about the different types of dissertation .

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Dissertation, whenever students hear this word, they say it is a long piece of the academic write-up. It is based on the original research that the students conducted during the time of the writing task. A dissertation is the final step to finishing the Ph.D. program. For the students, the dissertation is one of the most extended pieces of academic writing they have ever completed. While writing the dissertation requires research, writing, and analysis, skills, and it can be intimidating to know where to start or begin with the write-up. The dissertation has three types, so let's learn about the different types of dissertation .

When it comes to the types of the dissertation, then there are three main types of the dissertation. They are qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods in the dissertation types. Therefore this blog will elaborate on the different types of dissertation by addressing their similarities and differences.

3 types of dissertation

1. Quantitative Dissertation

Several students need clarification when they read or hear the word quantitative and types of methodology in dissertation . Here the word quantitative does not mean that the whole dissertation should be a quantitative research method or the usage of statistical analysis techniques. Instead, it addresses the research questions, hypotheses, or both. This is the type of research that helps to relate to establish the research strategy, conclude results, and make inferences.

2. Qualitative Dissertation

This is the second type of dissertation involving qualitative research methods. These methods are judged in the form of unstructured interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. Although several students use the research methods not employed in the quantitative dissertations, qualitative research is beyond the choice between the research methods. Stuck on how to write dissertation methodology , then consult experts. On the other hand, the research process is differently done by establishing the research questions, developing and utilizing the theoretical methods, and much more in a unique way.

3. Mixed Methods Dissertation

This is the last or third type of dissertation that is mixed methods. There are several reasons why students need to include mixed methods in the form of the thesis and the dissertations with various types of research dissertation . In this type of dissertation, students use both qualitative and quantitative approaches during the research. These types of dissertations are increasingly used with more profound legitimacy, and their components need to be adequately addressed.

Those mentioned above are the three types of dissertation. However, while writing the dissertation, research also plays a vital role. So know what research is and how to use different research methods for dissertation introduction writing .

Also Read:  What to Do If I Fail My Dissertation? What is the Solution?

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Selecting the correct research method for the dissertation is one of the most frustrating tasks for students. However, a student with a well-defined research methodology helps them conduct the research in the right direction. Also, it allows them to validate the results and ensures that the study that students are working on answers the hard research questions to plan your dissertation .

Several things come under the research title, and the research title, questions, hypothesis, objectives, and all the study areas are generally helpful in determining the best research methods. So what are you waiting for? Your professor assigned you the dissertation writing task then it is the right time to choose the  type of dissertations research to make your job easier for you.

Below mentioned are the different types of dissertation methodology that students can conduct while conducting it.

1. Quantitative Research Methods

Numerical data or data that may be quantified are linked to quantitative research. It is employed to research a sizable population. Statistical, mathematical, or computational methods are used to collect the data.

2. Qualitative Research Methods

It is a scientific investigation in which a researcher gathers data to find solutions to a problem. It has to do with learning about human behavior through research. It seeks to understand all the pertinent information about the issue.

3. Mixed Methods of Research

Mixed research methods result from combining quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Much academic research has been undertaken utilising mixed methods over the previous few decades due to the increased legitimacy this specific strategy has earned. It includes the idea that combining the two types of study can produce comprehensive and more reliable results.

4. Experimental Research Methods

Laboratory experiments and observational studies under controlled settings are considered experimental research. Various experiments are carried out to understand human behavior better. Investigations range from simple natural comparisons to personal observations, which helps to prepare a perfect dissertation .

5. Historical Research Methods

In historical research, a researcher gathers and examines data to comprehend, characterise, and justify previous occurrences. Researchers attempt to ascertain precisely and closely what occurred during a specific historical period. It forbids any variable manipulation or control.

6. Descriptive Research Methods

The goal of descriptive research is to gather data to address contemporary issues. It is based on Ex post facto research, which hypothesises potential causes for an already-occurring phenomenon. Instead of managing "why," it seeks to address questions like "how," "what," "when," "where," and "what."

With the help of the above-mentioned details, students can know how many types of research for dissertation are, and they can make the perfect dissertation structure . But some students need help choosing what type of research is best for them and for their write-up. So with the below-mentioned section, you will know how to select the suitable research method for your dissertation.

Also Read:  How to Write a Dissertation Conclusion to Make a Perfect Ending?

Some students need clarification after getting the information about the different dissertation types and research types. But why? They still need clarification on choosing the dissertation research type that is perfect for them. Every student needs to discern what they hope for their doctoral program. At the same time, consider the right dissertation research method. There are a couple of things that need to be considered. So they are:

  • What are your motivations, personally or professionally?
  • What are your academic goals or dreams?
  • Mention the contributions you made to the field
  • Want to collaborate with someone throughout the studies
  • Things that they want to take away from their experiences, whether they are personal, professional, or academic.

Still, have doubts? If you do not get the correct answer, then do not worry. This is the right time to consult expert writers.

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When it comes to writing the dissertation then it is a lengthy task. While writing the dissertation, several things arise in the student's life, so experts are here to help them improve writing skills . Assignmentdesk.co.uk experts have vast knowledge in the field of academic writing services. Several students face issues in drafting or structuring their dissertation, so they consult our experts. Professionals will provide fantastic work from scratch. As a result, you can able to secure high academic grades. With the help of the dissertation writing services  students are able to get their every query solved. Therefore, shed off all academic worries by getting a reliable consultation with us. On the other hand, several students need help to choose dissertation topic  for the write-up they can ask for the experts to use.

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  • Home Internet

Internet Connection Types Explained -- and Ranked Best to Worst

Not all internet is the same. Here's what separates each internet connection type, why it matters and how to tell what kind of connection you have.

differents types dissertation

The technology your ISP uses to send internet to your home makes a difference in speed, reliability, availability and more.

When comparing internet providers in your area , you're most likely checking available speeds and pricing along with the fine-print details like data caps and equipment fees. There's another factor to consider that is equally as important but easy to overlook: the connection type, or what technology your internet service provider uses to send internet to your home. We at CNET have encountered them all and can tell you first-hand the difference the connection type can make .

ISPs use wired or wireless connections (or a mix of the two). Wired connection types -- meaning a wire is connected directly to your home -- include  fiber-optic , coaxial cable and copper (DSL) internet. Satellite internet , fixed wireless and the increasingly popular 5G home internet round out your potential wireless internet options.

So what's the difference between them all? This guide will walk you through the different types of internet connections that may be available in your area, how they work and what limitations you can expect from them. Connection types are listed in order of most to least recommended.

Locating local internet providers

Fiber internet: The best, but least available

Fiber-optic internet uses long, thin strands (fibers) of glass or plastic to send data as light signals. The result is speed and reliability that are superior to other connection types.

Fiber-optic can deliver download speeds as fast as 10 gigabits (10,000 megabits per second) or higher -- fast enough to download a 2-hour movie in HD in less than a minute -- but you're likely to find max download speeds around 1,000 to 5,000Mbps from most fiber-optic providers.

Upload speeds , which are essential for working and learning from home, uploading to videos to social media and gaming online, are also significantly faster with fiber-optic service and typically mirror download speeds. No other connection type can deliver symmetrical upload and download speeds like fiber-optic internet.

Pricing for the ultraspeedy plans can easily run you $100 or more per month, but most providers also offer slower speed tiers (if speeds of 100 to 1,000Mbps can be considered  slow ) for $40 to $90 per month. Other connection types may present slightly lower introductory prices, depending on the available providers in your area, but when you take into account the speeds you get for the price you pay, you're likely to find the best value with fiber internet.

Availability is the only real disadvantage with fiber. Laying enough fiber-optic cables to connect entire cities and regions is a huge logistical challenge , and with lots of competition and red tape to cut through, it's been slow going for any of the major service providers to expand coverage to underserved areas. Consequently, fiber internet is only available to around 40% of US households and primarily those in urban areas, according to the Federal Communications Commission .

Notable fiber internet providers

  • CenturyLink
  • Frontier Fiber
  • Google Fiber
  • Verizon Fios
  • Ziply Fiber

toss-or-keep-cables-coax.jpg

Cable internet delivers a connection to your home via copper coaxial cable -- the same as traditional cable TV.

Cable internet: Your standard connection

Cable internet lacks the full speed potential and reliability of fiber-optic service, but it's much more widely accessible. Cable is one of the most common types of internet connections -- available to nearly 90% of US households -- and you'll often find it bundled with TV packages . That makes sense, because cable internet uses the same coaxial connections as cable TV. 

Though not as speedy as fiber internet, cable internet service is still one of the fastest connection types. Most cable providers offer a variety of speed options, including a gigabit plan with download speeds around 940Mbps. Upload speeds are a much different story, however, as few cable internet providers deliver upload speeds above 50Mbps. Speed reliability can also be a concern with cable internet as the connection type is susceptible to network congestion and slowed speeds, especially during peak usage times.

Cable internet pricing varies quite a bit among providers, but cable is, for the most part, one of the more affordable internet connection types. You can get a broadband connection from providers like Astound, Mediacom and Xfinity starting at around $30 per month or less. Spectrum, another big name in cable internet, has a higher starting price at around $40 per month but comes with max download speeds of 300Mbps.

Notable cable internet providers

  • Comcast Xfinity
  • Charter Spectrum
  • Cox Communications
  • WOW internet

netgear-nighthawk-5g-wi-fi-6-mobile-router

This portable Netgear Nighthawk mobile router takes an incoming 5G signal and broadcasts it out as a Wi-Fi network your nearby devices can use to get online. If you wire it to a dedicated Wi-Fi router, the connection can cover a wider area.

5G home internet: A growing wireless alternative

Mobile internet is largely designed for your phone, but as the technology improves and speeds increase, 5G mobile connections are becoming more practical for home internet use. 

With this internet connection type, a cell carrier such as T-Mobile or Verizon sends 5G signals in all directions. Many are picked up by cellphones, but for home internet, a router receives those signals and turns them into a home connection. It's a great way to get broadband without the need for running a line to your home or in some cases, dealing with the companies that have run those lines -- ISPs are notorious for low customer satisfaction ratings .

If you're living in a city or another area with strong cellular infrastructure, you might be able to connect over 5G, with providers like Verizon offering speeds up to 1Gbps . You'll also find cellular internet plans that use LTE, the previous generation of technology, or a mix of LTE and 5G.

When shopping for mobile internet for home use, it's probable that you will only have one or two plans to choose from with a flat rate for whatever speeds are available at your address. T-Mobile offers a single 5G plan ($60 per month for download speeds ranging from 72 to 245Mbps), while Verizon offers two ($50 or $70 per month for download speeds ranging from 50 to 300Mbps or 85 to 1,000Mbps, respectively).

Notable cellular internet providers

Fixed wireless internet: also wireless, but with a few strings attached.

Another wireless internet option -- but one that may come with more steps and equipment while delivering slower speeds and less data -- is fixed wireless. Similar to 5G, fixed wireless providers send internet signals over the air. But unlike 5G, you'll need a mounted receiver with a direct line of sight to the nearest tower to receive those signals. Hills, trees, buildings or other obstacles nearby can distort or outright block your connection.

Fixed wireless internet speeds often range from 5 to 50Mbps. There are many variables that can affect the quality of the incoming signal, including distance from a local tower, so your available speeds may vary. Regardless of the speeds you can get, expect flat-rate pricing or around $50 per month. Plans also typically come with a monthly data cap of 200 to 300GB, depending on the provider.

Though fixed wireless has traditionally been a rural internet option, the connection type is rapidly expanding in metro areas thanks to providers like Google Fiber and Starry Internet. Instead of beaming services to individual residences, these providers send internet signals to entire buildings, such as an apartment complex, then run service to individual units via an Ethernet cable. These providers are capable of delivering speeds much faster than traditional fixed wireless service with gigabit speeds available in select areas.

Notable fixed wireless internet providers

  • Google Fiber Webpass
  • Rise Broadband
  • Etheric Networks
  • Starry Internet
  • Unwired Broadband

DSL internet: A last resort before satellite

DSL (that's "digital subscriber line") is a fixed connection most popular in areas without access to cable or fiber internet. With DSL, your connection to the internet runs through copper phone lines. it's similar to dial-up service in that regard, but DSL is significantly faster than dial-up and won't tie up your phone line. 

DSL internet is best for those in rural communities looking for a somewhat reliable and affordable internet connection. While it does lack the speed potential of pretty much every other internet type, it is typically a cheaper and sometimes faster alternative to satellite internet. Since DSL uses existing phone lines to deliver service, availability is high and providers can keep prices relatively low.

Notable DSL internet providers

  • Frontier Communications

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With satellite internet, your connection comes from radio-equipped satellites in Earth's orbit. You'll need a dish to receive the signal.

Satellite internet: When there are no other options

Satellite internet is the most widely available type of internet because it doesn't rely on ground-laid infrastructure like cables, cellular towers or line-of-sight antenna connections. Instead, you'll use a mounted dish to connect with geostationary satellites orbiting miles overhead. If you have a clear view of the southern sky, there's a pretty good chance that there's a satellite provider willing to install a dish and offer you service, for a price.

On average, today's satellite internet providers offer speeds that typically vary from 12 to 100Mbps. In most cases, that makes it a suitable option for smaller households who want to stream video, browse the internet and update social media. 

New satellite providers -- namely Elon Musk's Starlink network , which began expanding service in select areas the last few years and  Amazon's Project Kuiper  -- are promising to bump those speeds up by using low Earth orbit satellites that are closer to the ground. That means that the signal doesn't need to travel as far, which also makes for a reduction in latency, or lag.

Increased competition in the satellite internet industry may help bring costs down for the consumer. Currently, satellite internet is the most expensive internet connection type, by far. Starting prices for satellite internet are around $60 per month, but that's often for slow speeds and low data allowances. If you want faster speeds or more data, satellite internet can quickly get up to $150 to $200 per month, and equipment fees will add another $15 or so to your monthly bill. 

Notable satellite internet providers

Finding the right internet service for you.

So which kind of internet connection is right for you? It depends on several factors. The first thing to think about is your typical usage, and how much speed you really need . If you plan to surf the web and check email only, you can get away with a slower connection, but smaller households with users who stream videos, play games online, or upload files for work or school will ideally want access to download speeds of at least 100Mbps.

Costs are another key factor, obviously. Some providers bundle their various services to offer you a discount , but be aware that the promotional pricing might not last as long as the service contract. In that case, you'll pay more for the same service during the second year, for example.

In the end, the biggest factor is likely beyond your control and that's your location. Some parts of the US have lots of options for getting online, while others hardly have any options at all. 

Whatever choices are available to you, understanding the different technologies at play will help you know what to expect before you sign up.

Internet connection types FAQs

What type of internet is wi-fi.

Wi-Fi is a way to connect to the internet, not a separate type of internet. With Wi-Fi, a router converts your internet connection into wireless signals and transmits them throughout your home. If you have a cable internet connection, your Wi-Fi is a wireless means of connecting devices to your cable internet service.

How do I know what type of internet connection I have?

Wireless connections are fairly obvious -- you have a satellite dish or antenna mounted for satellite or fixed wireless service, or your provider is Verizon 5G Home Internet or T-Mobile Home Internet.

Determining the type of wired connection you have can be a bit more of a challenge, but a good speed test should do the trick. If your speed test shows similar upload and download speeds, your connection is most likely fiber. Speed tests with download speeds over 100Mbps, especially in the 200 to 940Mbps range, but with significantly lower upload speeds, indicate cable internet service.

If your speed test shows download speeds around 100Mbps or lower, it's possible you have cable or DSL internet. In that case, take a quick peek at the back of your modem -- a coaxial cable means cable internet while a telephone line means a DSL connection.

What is considered broadband?

The FCC recently upgraded the speeds required to qualify as broadband from 25Mbps down and 3Mbps up to 100Mbps down and 20Mbps up. Consequently, many DSL services, which often fall below 100Mbps down and almost always below 20Mbps up, are no longer considered broadband internet. Satellite internet may have the ability to deliver 100Mbps download speeds, but the 20Mbps upload speed is a difficult threshold to cross, meaning satellite internet does not meet the requirements of a broadband connection in many cases.

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How to determine your foot arch type, according to podiatrists

There are three arch types — neutral, high and flat — and each one is defined by how much of your midfoot touches the ground.

Most people have no idea what arch type they have, but it’s one of the most important pieces of the puzzle to consider when you’re shopping for comfortable shoes, says Jewels Busenberg, the senior running buyer for Zappos.com ( Ed’s note: The inclusion of products sold by Zappos in this article was made independently of Busenberg ). Wearing the wrong shoes for your arch type adds stress to the feet, which may aggravate other parts of the body like the hips, knees and back. I’ve been running for over a decade, and as someone who tries new running shoes every month, I can now immediately tell whether a sneaker supports my arch or is going to cause pain a few miles in.

We talked to experts about how to determine your arch type and why doing so is important. We also rounded up the best shoes for each arch type that align with expert guidance, including some of our favorite models from Brooks , Vionic , Hoka , Birkenstock and more.

SKIP AHEAD Why is knowing your arch type important? | What are the different foot arch types? | How to identify your arch type | The best shoes for neutral arches | The best shoes for high arches | The best shoes for flat feet

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select How you may benefit from wearing compression socks

Why is knowing your arch type important.

Knowing your arch type is important because it impacts the way you stand, walk and run, plus how different parts of your body interact, says Busenberg. And if you’re not wearing the proper footwear to support your arches, you may experience ankle, leg, knee, hip and back pain, or be more prone to certain injuries. “It relates to the body’s kinetic chain, which means that the rotation that happens in the feet can translate all the way up to the hips and back,” says Dr. Alicia Canzanese, a podiatrist, certified athletic trainer and owner of Gordon Podiatry in Glenside, Pennsylvania. “Think of it as the bottom of the body affecting the top, just as the top can affect the bottom.”

What are the different foot arch types?

There are a few arches in the foot, but when we talk about arch type, we’re referring to the arch in the middle of the foot. It spans the length of your underfoot and is created by bones, tendons and ligaments, says Busenberg. You can see it the best when you look at your feet from the side.

There are three arch types: neutral, high and flat. Each is defined by how much of your midfoot touches the ground.

If you have flat arches, also called flat feet or low arches, the middle part of your foot almost completely touches the ground. This can cause your ankles to tilt inward too much, which is called overpronation. Pronation is a natural, normal movement of the feet, and everyone pronates a little bit to help the body absorb some of the shock it experiences when we’re walking or running. But too much pronation causes the joints surrounding the feet, ankles and legs to compensate for that excessive rotation, which may increase your risk of big toe joint arthritis, knee pain and lower back pain, says Canzanese. Those with flat feet also tend to be prone to plantar fasciitis, shin splints and tendonitis in some areas.

Neutral arch

“A neutral arch is considered a normal foot,” says Canzanese. “It’s not too flat and it’s not too high. It’s cruising right in the middle.” You’ll see a little bit of space between the ground and the top of your foot’s arch if you look at it from the side.

If you have high arches, you’ll see a lot of space between the ground and the top of your arches. This usually causes your ankles to tilt outward too much, which is called oversupination. Similar to  pronation, it’s normal to supinate a little bit — supination essentially stabilizes the foot and helps you push off the ground, propelling you forward while walking. But too much supination prevents your body from being able to absorb shock well. People with high arches tend to walk more on the outside of their feet, leading to an increased risk of ankle sprains, says Canzanese. 

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How to identify your foot arch type

There are a few ways to identify your foot type at home, some of which are more involved than others. We detailed the most common ways to figure it out below, but if you want more specific insights, like whether you have a moderate or severely high arch, be sure to talk to your podiatrist. They can do a gait examination in their office, during which they evaluate your feet while you’re standing and walking, says Dr. Maryann Hartzell, medical director of the Foot and Ankle Institute at Temple University’s School of Podiatric Medicine.

Wet footprint test

Dip your foot in water and step on a piece of cardboard or a piece of colored construction paper and then examine how wide the middle part of your footprint is.

  • If you have flat arches, your footprint will be very wide in the middle because more of your foot touches the ground.
  • If you have neutral arches, your footprint will be a bit narrower in the middle and wider by the toes.
  • If you have high arches, your footprint will be very narrow in the middle because less of your foot touches the ground. It will look like there’s a thin band connecting the ball of your foot to your heel, says Busenberg.

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Too many toes test

Have someone stand behind you and look at your heels. How many of your toes can they see peeking out the side? 

  • If you have flat arches, they’ll be able to see three or four of your toes.
  • If you have neutral arches, they’ll be able to see your pinky toe and maybe the toe next to it.
  • If you have high arches, they may not be able to see any of your toes.

Looking at heel and ankle position

Have someone stand behind you and look at the position of your heels and ankles. 

  • If you have flat arches, that line starts to tilt outward as it gets closer to your heels.
  • If you have neutral arches, they should be able to draw a straight line down your Achilles and heel.
  • If you have high arches, that line starts to tilt inward as it gets closer to your heels.

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The best shoes for every arch type

Once you figure out your arch type, you can buy shoes for activities like walking , running , training and hiking , as well as slippers and sandals, specifically designed to support your feet. Traditionally, shoes are broken down into three categories: neutral shoes, which are best for neutral arches, stability shoes, which are best for flat arches  and cushioning shoes, which are best for people with high arches. Looking for these labels while shopping for shoes is a great start, but many shoes have recently become blends of two or all three categories, says Canzanese. Because of this, there’s a bit more nuance to the shoe shopping process, which we detail below, along with some of the best shoes for each arch type.

Keep in mind that breaking arch type down into neutral, high and flat is the most common and straightforward way of thinking about it, but it’s somewhat of an oversimplification, says Canzanese. There are different levels of severity for each arch type — you can have a slightly high arch or a very high arch, for example — and various overall foot types. Because of this, arch type is only one piece of the puzzle you need to think about while shopping for shoes — you also need to consider foot width , toe room and cushioning, for example.

The best shoes for neutral arches

Consider yourself lucky if you have neutral arches — it makes shopping for shoes very easy because it’s all about what you find comfortable. Look for a neutral shoe, which has level cushioning, a cushioned sole and a stable base, says Canzanese. Unlike stability shoes, which are designed to prevent overpronation, neutral shoes don’t impact how your feet move. They’re purely designed to keep your feet comfortable and supported.

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Allbirds Tree Runners

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Saucony Ride 17

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FitFlop Women’s Iqushion Pearlized Ergonomic Flip-Flops

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Keen Women’s Elle Backstrap Sandal

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Reef Men’s Oasis Double Up Slide Sandal

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Teva Men’s Mush II Flip-Flop

The best shoes for high arches.

Cushioning is crucial for people with high arches, says Canzanese. Their feet are rigid and prone to oversupination, so they need as much help absorbing shock as possible, which good shoe cushioning takes care of.  While shopping, those with high arches should prioritize brands’ maximum cushioning models and flexible options that provide a soft landing, says Busenberg. Stay away from firm shoes, and those that have hard, thin soles, says Hartzell.

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Brooks Ghost Max

Brooks Running

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Hoka Bondi 8

Bloomingdales

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Oofos OOahh Slide

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Chaco Women’s Z1 Classic Sandal

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Aetrex Women’s Danika Arch Support Sneaker

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OluKai Nalu Men’s Slide Sandals

The best shoes for flat arches.

If you have flat arches, you’ll want to invest in a pair of stability shoes, says Canzanese. They’re designed with features that help offset overpronation and prevent the ankles from tilting inward too much. Stability shoes are also firm and don’t have plush cushioning, says Busenberg. Brands add stability to shoes by:

  • Adding an extra piece of stiff material to the shoe’s midsole or sole
  • Adding a J-shaped strip of stiff material that wraps around your heel and toward your arch. Brooks calls this strip a GuideRail, for example.
  • Making the middle of the last of the shoe wider and stiffer (you can think of the last as a 3D model that a shoe is constructed around, says Canzanese).

Those with flat feet should stay away from high heels, opting for models with low heels or no added height, says Hartzell. High heels place the foot in an unnatural position that can be particularly painful for people with low arches. Also while shopping, keep in mind that there’s different levels of stability shoes — some offer a lower level of stability, which are best for people with moderately low arches, while others offer a high level of stability, which are best for people with severely flat feet. If you don’t know what level stability shoe you need, be sure to consult your podiatrist. 

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Saucony Integrity Walker 3

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Brooks Adrenaline GTS 23

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Asics Gel-Kayano 30 Running Shoes

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Vionic Tide Flip Flops

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Birkenstock Arizona

Birkenstock

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select No, you shouldn’t be trail running in road running shoes.

Frequently asked questions.

Yes, arch type and overall foot type is somewhat genetic, says Busenberg. But other factors can also contribute to your arch type, like injuries, aging, weight, activity level and general wear-and-tear. For example, people's arches can collapse if they break a bone, have an Achilles tendon injury or during pregnancy , experts told us.

If you have a moderately high or flat arch, the right shoe is likely all you need to keep your feet comfortable. But if you have a more severe high or flat arch that’s causing pain, shoes can only do so much, says Canzanese. You may have to get a pair of orthotics, which are specially designed shoe inserts that support the feet and can correct the angle at which your feet strike the ground.

Orthotics are sold over-the-counter, but many options are flimsy and don’t actually support your feet that much, experts told us. Canzanese recommends Power Step and SuperFeet if you’re looking for quality over-the-counter insoles. But keep in mind that most insoles sold at drugstores or big retailers are made for people with flat feet, so they’re designed to support your arch by propping it up. That’s exactly what you want to stay away from if you have high arches, so shop with caution, says Canzanese.

If you have severely high arches, your best bet is often to get fit for custom orthotics through a podiatrist. They’ll take a mold of your feet and make an insole that perfectly matches your arch type and needs.

Meet our experts

At NBC Select, we work with experts who have specialized knowledge and authority based on relevant training and/or experience. We also take steps to ensure that all expert advice and recommendations are made independently and with no undisclosed financial conflicts of interest.  

  • Jewels Busenberg is the senior running buyer for Zappos.com ( Ed’s note: The inclusion of products sold by Zappos in this article was made independently of Busenberg ).
  • Dr. Alicia Canzanese is a podiatrist, certified athletic trainer and owner of Gordon Podiatry in Glenside, Pennsylvania. She is the president of the American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine , adjunct professor in sports medicine and general orthopedics at the Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine in Philadelphia and an executive board member of the Pennsylvania Podiatric Medical Association .  
  • Dr. Maryann Hartzell is the medical director of the Foot and Ankle Institute at Temple University’s School of Podiatric Medicine

Why trust NBC Select?

Zoe Malin is an associate updates editor at NBC Select who covers footwear, including stories on slippers, women’s walking shoes, running shoes and training shoes. She also frequently reviews sneakers, like the Brooks Ghost Max and Lululemon Chargefeel . For this article, she interviewed three experts about how to find your arch type and rounded shoes that fit expert guidance.

Catch up on NBC Select’s in-depth coverage of personal finance , tech and tools , wellness and more, and follow us on Facebook , Instagram , Twitter and TikTok to stay up to date.

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Zoe Malin is an associate updates editor for Select on NBC News.

Eclipse viewing in Oklahoma will 'not be ideal,' meteorologists predicting low clouds

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With millions hoping to catch a glimpse of the solar eclipse on Monday, weather forecasts are predicting some difficulty in viewing the celestial phenomenon.

According to the National Weather Service in Tulsa's forecast discussion on Friday afternoon, eclipse viewing conditions could be less than optimal thanks to the likely cloudy weather.

"Although there obviously remains some uncertainty regarding cloud cover for the eclipse, it appears that viewing conditions will not be ideal given the potential for low clouds spreading north Monday morning in far southeast Oklahoma," the weather service said. "High clouds will definitely be on the increase but would be less of a concern."

Oklahoma eclipse viewing conditions outlook

The National Weather Service in Tulsa, which handles weather forecasts for southeast Oklahoma, is giving  twice-daily updates  on what conditions could look like in the sky April 8. These are still just predictions, as the weather service said it's still too far out to say anything for certain.

As of Friday afternoon, the best-case scenario showed favorable viewing conditions for Oklahoma, with sun shining over much of the state and little cloud cover in the path of totality.

However, the worst-case scenario still had cloud cover over much of the state, especially within the path of totality.

How different cloud types will affect the eclipse view

Eclipse chaser David Makepeace told USA TODAY that during a cloudy eclipse, the clouds will darken: "For those few moments, it will feel dark and stormy."

"But it's still a phenomenon," he said.

Wispy, high clouds (cirrus) are the best for eclipse viewing, thanks to "their semi-opaque nature" noted meteorologist Jay Anderson on  Eclipseophile.com .

If stratus clouds are present, the thick, low cloud cover will keep watchers from seeing much more than a dark sky during totality.

Cumulus clouds, on the other hand, are unpredictable and it's hard to know what they'll allow viewers to see on eclipse day.

Contributing: Doyle Rice, USA TODAY

Sources of U.S. Tax Revenue by Tax Type, 2024 Update

Policy and economic differences among OECD countries have created variances in how they raise tax A tax is a mandatory payment or charge collected by local, state, and national governments from individuals or businesses to cover the costs of general government services, goods, and activities. revenue, with the United States deviating substantially from the OECD average on some sources of revenue.

Different taxes have different economic effects , so policymakers should always consider how tax revenue is raised and not just how much is raised. This is especially important as the economic recovery from the pandemic continues.

In the United States , individual income taxes (federal, state, and local) were the primary source of tax revenue in 2022, at 45.3 percent of total tax revenue. Social insurance taxes (including payroll taxes for Social Security and Medicare) made up the second-largest share at 21.9 percent, followed by consumption taxes at 15.7 percent, and property taxes at 10.6 percent. Corporate income taxes accounted for 6.5 percent of total U.S. tax revenue in 2022.

Sources of US tax revenue by tax type 2024 update

Compared to the OECD average, the United States relies significantly more on individual income taxes and property taxes. While OECD countries on average raised 23.6 percent of total tax revenue from individual income taxes, the share in the United States was 45.3 percent, a difference of 21.7 percentage points.

This is partially because more than half of business income in the United States is reported on individual tax returns. Relative to other OECD countries, the U.S. approach to taxing business income boosts the share of tax revenue from individual income taxes in the U.S. and reduces the share of corporate tax revenue.

The OECD on average raised 5.4 percent of total tax revenue from property taxes, compared to 10.4 percent in the United States.

The United States relies much less on consumption taxes than other OECD countries. Taxes on goods and services accounted for only 15.7 percent of total U.S. tax revenue, compared to 31.6 percent in the OECD.

This is because all OECD countries, except the United States, levy value-added taxes (VAT), usually at relatively high rates. State and local sales tax A sales tax is levied on retail sales of goods and services and, ideally, should apply to all final consumption with few exemptions . Many governments exempt goods like groceries; base broadening , such as including groceries, could keep rates lower. A sales tax should exempt business-to-business transactions which, when taxed, cause tax pyramiding . rates in the United States are relatively low by comparison, but they are on a different tax base .

US tax revenue by tax type compared to other developed countries

Countries also have different levels of government at which taxes are collected. The U.S. and nine other OECD countries have a decentralized political structure where state or regional governments play an important role in tax collection.

Nearly half of U.S. tax revenue is raised at the state and local levels.

Every country’s mix of taxes is different, depending on factors such as its economic situation and policy goals. However, each type of tax impacts the economy differently, with some taxes being more harmful than others.

Sources of government revenue among OECD countries tax revenue by country 2024 FV

  • Sources of Government Revenue in the OECD See more
  • Sources of State and Local Tax Revenue See more

Stay informed on the tax policies impacting you.

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  1. What are the different types of dissertations in UK universities

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  2. Types de plan pour réussir sa dissertation

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  3. what are the different parts of a dissertation

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  4. Dissertation vs Thesis: What You Need to Know

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  5. A Complete Guide to Various Types of Dissertation & Research Methods

    differents types dissertation

  6. Dissertation vs. Thesis: What’s the Difference?

    differents types dissertation

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  1. Sujet de type 3 : Les différents TYPES de plan d’une DISSERTATION

  2. Analyser un sujet et déterminer le problème en dissertation de Français

  3. Differences Between Thesis and Dissertation

  4. Les Différentes Types D’élèves dans les Classes😂

  5. Research Design

  6. Les types de Commentaires de Texte (composé ,suivi ,dirigé)

COMMENTS

  1. Different Types of Dissertation

    Narrative dissertations. You're more than likely to choose doing an empirical or a non-empirical dissertation. However, in other disciplines you may come across different methods of producing a dissertation. Dissertations in many science subjects include or even focus around a laboratory report describing all the aspects of setting up ...

  2. The Top 3 Types of Dissertation Research Explained

    Some choose to include case studies, personal findings, narratives, observations and abstracts. Their presentation focuses on theoretical insights based on relevant data points. 2. Quantitative. Quantitative dissertation research, on the other hand, focuses on the numbers.

  3. What Is a Dissertation?

    A dissertation is a long-form piece of academic writing based on original research conducted by you. It is usually submitted as the final step in order to finish a PhD program. Your dissertation is probably the longest piece of writing you've ever completed. It requires solid research, writing, and analysis skills, and it can be intimidating ...

  4. Different Types of Dissertations

    Beyond the differences between the PhD and EdD dissertation, within the EdD, itself, several approaches to the problem solving dissertation are emerging: (a) the traditional inquiry approach; (b) the evaluation approach; and (c) the problem-solving approach. The traditional inquiry approach includes the case study and best practice types of ...

  5. Dissertation Structure & Layout 101 (+ Examples)

    Time to recap…. And there you have it - the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows: Title page. Acknowledgments page. Abstract (or executive summary) Table of contents, list of figures and tables.

  6. What Is a Dissertation?

    Revised on 5 May 2022. A dissertation is a large research project undertaken at the end of a degree. It involves in-depth consideration of a problem or question chosen by the student. It is usually the largest (and final) piece of written work produced during a degree. The length and structure of a dissertation vary widely depending on the ...

  7. Key Types Of Dissertation Research

    Another key thing to note is that there are different aspects of the qualitative dissertation, and this includes the following: Grounded theory. Narrative research. Autoethnographic. Case study research. As mentioned earlier, a qualitative dissertation does not involve numerical data, so the method of collecting data is usually based on ...

  8. What Is a Thesis?

    A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master's program or a capstone to a bachelor's degree. Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation, it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete.

  9. How to Write a Dissertation

    The structure of a dissertation depends on your field, but it is usually divided into at least four or five chapters (including an introduction and conclusion chapter). The most common dissertation structure in the sciences and social sciences includes: An introduction to your topic. A literature review that surveys relevant sources.

  10. Research Methods for Dissertation

    You may adopt conventional methods, including phenomenological research, narrative-based research, grounded theory research, ethnographies , case studies, and auto-ethnographies. Again, regardless of the chosen approach to qualitative research, your dissertation will have unique key features as listed below.

  11. What is a Dissertation? Definition, Types & Tips

    The type of dissertation you might write depends on your field of study and the question you're trying to answer. ... A non-empirical dissertation may also leave out the methodology and results sections since it examines data in a different way. In this case, it will replace those sections with chapters looking at various aspects of the topic

  12. Choosing between the different types of dissertation

    However, you'll learn about these justifications in detail in the Quantitative Dissertations part of Lærd Dissertation, where you can choose between one of three routes (i.e., Route #1: Replication-based dissertations, Route #2: Data-driven dissertations, and Route #3: Theory-driven dissertations ).

  13. Introduction for Types of Dissertations

    Introduction Topic 1: Types of Dissertations. Just as problems at work take different forms, the problem solving process, codified through a dissertation, can take several forms. USC Rossier uses 3 primary forms of a dissertation, although your chair may have you use some other form. These forms - the case study, the evaluation, and the ...

  14. Exploring Various Types of Dissertation

    Experimental Dissertation. The experimental dissertation focuses on empirical research, conducting experiments to gather data and draw conclusions. It involves designing, implementing, and analysing experiments to test hypotheses and explore relationships between variables. This type of thesis research is prevalent in scientific and social ...

  15. 3 Main Types of Dissertations: Differences and Similarities

    3 Main Types of Dissertations: Differences and Similarities. Dissertation types. We may have qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods in dissertations. Therefore, this blog will elaborate on quantitative dissertations, qualitative dissertations, and mixed methods dissertations by addressing their similarities and differences. Quantitative ...

  16. What are the different types of a dissertation?

    Discover the different types of dissertations and their unique characteristics with Dissertation Masterclass. Gain insights into which type of dissertation is best for your research goals. Skip to content. 1340 Environ Way, Chapel Hill, NC 27517, United States ...

  17. What are acceptable dissertation research methods?

    Reading time: 3-4 minutes Doctoral research is the cornerstone of a PhD program.. In order to write a dissertation, you must complete extensive, detailed research. Depending on your area of study, different types of research methods will be appropriate to complete your work.

  18. Choosing a Theoretical Framework: Popular Theories for Dissertation

    Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory is a very common choice for the theoretical framework among our dissertation assistance clients. Central to self-determination theory is the proposition that our motivation stems from satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2008).

  19. Research Methods

    Research methods are specific procedures for collecting and analyzing data. Developing your research methods is an integral part of your research design. When planning your methods, there are two key decisions you will make. First, decide how you will collect data. Your methods depend on what type of data you need to answer your research question:

  20. Dissertations 4: Methodology: Methods

    Mixed-method approaches combine both qualitative and quantitative methods, and therefore combine the strengths of both types of research. Mixed methods have gained popularity in recent years. When undertaking mixed-methods research you can collect the qualitative and quantitative data either concurrently or sequentially.

  21. Plan de dissertation : méthodologie et exemples

    Les types de plan pour une dissertation. Il en existe plusieurs et chaque type de plan de dissertation a ses spécificités. 1. Le plan d'une dissertation dialectique. Le plan dialectique (ou critique) est un plan « thèse, antithèse et synthèse ». Il est utilisé lorsque l'opinion exprimée dans le sujet de dissertation est discutable ...

  22. Confused About Different Types of Dissertation and How to Do Research

    When it comes to the types of the dissertation, then there are three main types of the dissertation. They are qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods in the dissertation types. Therefore this blog will elaborate on the different types of dissertation by addressing their similarities and differences. 1.

  23. Internet Connection Types Explained

    ISPs use wired or wireless connections (or a mix of the two). Wired connection types -- meaning a wire is connected directly to your home -- include fiber-optic, coaxial cable and copper (DSL ...

  24. How to identify your foot arch type, according to podiatrists

    Neutral arch. "A neutral arch is considered a normal foot," says Canzanese. "It's not too flat and it's not too high. It's cruising right in the middle.". You'll see a little bit ...

  25. Eclipse viewing in Oklahoma will 'not be ideal,' meteorologists

    Eclipse viewing in Oklahoma will 'not be ideal,' meteorologists predicting low clouds. With millions hoping to catch a glimpse of the solar eclipse on Monday, weather forecasts are predicting some difficulty in viewing the celestial phenomenon. According to the National Weather Service in Tulsa's forecast discussion on Friday afternoon, eclipse ...

  26. Everything you need to know about eclipses in two minutes

    As a highly-anticipated solar eclipse approaches, CNN explains the different types of eclipses and how variations in celestial alignment affects what you might see. CNN values your feedback 1.

  27. Tracking the 2024 Total Solar Eclipse: A Q&A with Jeff Freedman

    What makes this one different? Because for this year's eclipse the moon is a bit closer to Earth, the time of totality will be longer (3.5 to 4 minutes for 2024 versus 2.5 minutes for 2017), as well the width of the total eclipse shadow (about 110 miles versus an average of 65 miles for the 2017 event).

  28. US Tax Revenue by Tax Type, 2024 Update

    The OECD on average raised 5.4 percent of total tax revenue from property taxes, compared to 10.4 percent in the United States. The United States relies much less on consumption taxes than other OECD countries. Taxes on goods and services accounted for only 15.7 percent of total U.S. tax revenue, compared to 31.6 percent in the OECD.