- Comprehensive Learning Paths
- 150+ Hours of Videos
- Complete Access to Jupyter notebooks, Datasets, References.

## Hypothesis Testing – A Deep Dive into Hypothesis Testing, The Backbone of Statistical Inference

- September 21, 2023

Explore the intricacies of hypothesis testing, a cornerstone of statistical analysis. Dive into methods, interpretations, and applications for making data-driven decisions.

In this Blog post we will learn:

- What is Hypothesis Testing?
- Steps in Hypothesis Testing 2.1. Set up Hypotheses: Null and Alternative 2.2. Choose a Significance Level (α) 2.3. Calculate a test statistic and P-Value 2.4. Make a Decision
- Example : Testing a new drug.
- Example in python

## 1. What is Hypothesis Testing?

In simple terms, hypothesis testing is a method used to make decisions or inferences about population parameters based on sample data. Imagine being handed a dice and asked if it’s biased. By rolling it a few times and analyzing the outcomes, you’d be engaging in the essence of hypothesis testing.

Think of hypothesis testing as the scientific method of the statistics world. Suppose you hear claims like “This new drug works wonders!” or “Our new website design boosts sales.” How do you know if these statements hold water? Enter hypothesis testing.

## 2. Steps in Hypothesis Testing

- Set up Hypotheses : Begin with a null hypothesis (H0) and an alternative hypothesis (Ha).
- Choose a Significance Level (α) : Typically 0.05, this is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it’s actually true. Think of it as the chance of accusing an innocent person.
- Calculate Test statistic and P-Value : Gather evidence (data) and calculate a test statistic.
- p-value : This is the probability of observing the data, given that the null hypothesis is true. A small p-value (typically ≤ 0.05) suggests the data is inconsistent with the null hypothesis.
- Decision Rule : If the p-value is less than or equal to α, you reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative.

## 2.1. Set up Hypotheses: Null and Alternative

Before diving into testing, we must formulate hypotheses. The null hypothesis (H0) represents the default assumption, while the alternative hypothesis (H1) challenges it.

For instance, in drug testing, H0 : “The new drug is no better than the existing one,” H1 : “The new drug is superior .”

## 2.2. Choose a Significance Level (α)

When You collect and analyze data to test H0 and H1 hypotheses. Based on your analysis, you decide whether to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative, or fail to reject / Accept the null hypothesis.

The significance level, often denoted by $α$, represents the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true.

In other words, it’s the risk you’re willing to take of making a Type I error (false positive).

Type I Error (False Positive) :

- Symbolized by the Greek letter alpha (α).
- Occurs when you incorrectly reject a true null hypothesis . In other words, you conclude that there is an effect or difference when, in reality, there isn’t.
- The probability of making a Type I error is denoted by the significance level of a test. Commonly, tests are conducted at the 0.05 significance level , which means there’s a 5% chance of making a Type I error .
- Commonly used significance levels are 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10, but the choice depends on the context of the study and the level of risk one is willing to accept.

Example : If a drug is not effective (truth), but a clinical trial incorrectly concludes that it is effective (based on the sample data), then a Type I error has occurred.

Type II Error (False Negative) :

- Symbolized by the Greek letter beta (β).
- Occurs when you accept a false null hypothesis . This means you conclude there is no effect or difference when, in reality, there is.
- The probability of making a Type II error is denoted by β. The power of a test (1 – β) represents the probability of correctly rejecting a false null hypothesis.

Example : If a drug is effective (truth), but a clinical trial incorrectly concludes that it is not effective (based on the sample data), then a Type II error has occurred.

Balancing the Errors :

In practice, there’s a trade-off between Type I and Type II errors. Reducing the risk of one typically increases the risk of the other. For example, if you want to decrease the probability of a Type I error (by setting a lower significance level), you might increase the probability of a Type II error unless you compensate by collecting more data or making other adjustments.

It’s essential to understand the consequences of both types of errors in any given context. In some situations, a Type I error might be more severe, while in others, a Type II error might be of greater concern. This understanding guides researchers in designing their experiments and choosing appropriate significance levels.

## 2.3. Calculate a test statistic and P-Value

Test statistic : A test statistic is a single number that helps us understand how far our sample data is from what we’d expect under a null hypothesis (a basic assumption we’re trying to test against). Generally, the larger the test statistic, the more evidence we have against our null hypothesis. It helps us decide whether the differences we observe in our data are due to random chance or if there’s an actual effect.

P-value : The P-value tells us how likely we would get our observed results (or something more extreme) if the null hypothesis were true. It’s a value between 0 and 1. – A smaller P-value (typically below 0.05) means that the observation is rare under the null hypothesis, so we might reject the null hypothesis. – A larger P-value suggests that what we observed could easily happen by random chance, so we might not reject the null hypothesis.

## 2.4. Make a Decision

Relationship between $α$ and P-Value

When conducting a hypothesis test:

We then calculate the p-value from our sample data and the test statistic.

Finally, we compare the p-value to our chosen $α$:

- If $p−value≤α$: We reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis. The result is said to be statistically significant.
- If $p−value>α$: We fail to reject the null hypothesis. There isn’t enough statistical evidence to support the alternative hypothesis.

## 3. Example : Testing a new drug.

Imagine we are investigating whether a new drug is effective at treating headaches faster than drug B.

Setting Up the Experiment : You gather 100 people who suffer from headaches. Half of them (50 people) are given the new drug (let’s call this the ‘Drug Group’), and the other half are given a sugar pill, which doesn’t contain any medication.

- Set up Hypotheses : Before starting, you make a prediction:
- Null Hypothesis (H0): The new drug has no effect. Any difference in healing time between the two groups is just due to random chance.
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The new drug does have an effect. The difference in healing time between the two groups is significant and not just by chance.

Calculate Test statistic and P-Value : After the experiment, you analyze the data. The “test statistic” is a number that helps you understand the difference between the two groups in terms of standard units.

For instance, let’s say:

- The average healing time in the Drug Group is 2 hours.
- The average healing time in the Placebo Group is 3 hours.

The test statistic helps you understand how significant this 1-hour difference is. If the groups are large and the spread of healing times in each group is small, then this difference might be significant. But if there’s a huge variation in healing times, the 1-hour difference might not be so special.

Imagine the P-value as answering this question: “If the new drug had NO real effect, what’s the probability that I’d see a difference as extreme (or more extreme) as the one I found, just by random chance?”

For instance:

- P-value of 0.01 means there’s a 1% chance that the observed difference (or a more extreme difference) would occur if the drug had no effect. That’s pretty rare, so we might consider the drug effective.
- P-value of 0.5 means there’s a 50% chance you’d see this difference just by chance. That’s pretty high, so we might not be convinced the drug is doing much.
- If the P-value is less than ($α$) 0.05: the results are “statistically significant,” and they might reject the null hypothesis , believing the new drug has an effect.
- If the P-value is greater than ($α$) 0.05: the results are not statistically significant, and they don’t reject the null hypothesis , remaining unsure if the drug has a genuine effect.

## 4. Example in python

For simplicity, let’s say we’re using a t-test (common for comparing means). Let’s dive into Python:

Making a Decision : “The results are statistically significant! p-value < 0.05 , The drug seems to have an effect!” If not, we’d say, “Looks like the drug isn’t as miraculous as we thought.”

## 5. Conclusion

Hypothesis testing is an indispensable tool in data science, allowing us to make data-driven decisions with confidence. By understanding its principles, conducting tests properly, and considering real-world applications, you can harness the power of hypothesis testing to unlock valuable insights from your data.

## More Articles

Correlation – connecting the dots, the role of correlation in data analysis, sampling and sampling distributions – a comprehensive guide on sampling and sampling distributions, law of large numbers – a deep dive into the world of statistics, central limit theorem – a deep dive into central limit theorem and its significance in statistics, skewness and kurtosis – peaks and tails, understanding data through skewness and kurtosis”, similar articles, complete introduction to linear regression in r, how to implement common statistical significance tests and find the p value, logistic regression – a complete tutorial with examples in r.

Subscribe to Machine Learning Plus for high value data science content

© Machinelearningplus. All rights reserved.

## Machine Learning A-Z™: Hands-On Python & R In Data Science

Free sample videos:.

- school Campus Bookshelves
- menu_book Bookshelves
- perm_media Learning Objects
- login Login
- how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
- hub Instructor Commons
- Download Page (PDF)
- Download Full Book (PDF)
- Periodic Table
- Physics Constants
- Scientific Calculator
- Reference & Cite
- Tools expand_more
- Readability

selected template will load here

This action is not available.

## 4.4: Hypothesis Testing

- Last updated
- Save as PDF
- Page ID 283

- David Diez, Christopher Barr, & Mine Çetinkaya-Rundel
- OpenIntro Statistics

Is the typical US runner getting faster or slower over time? We consider this question in the context of the Cherry Blossom Run, comparing runners in 2006 and 2012. Technological advances in shoes, training, and diet might suggest runners would be faster in 2012. An opposing viewpoint might say that with the average body mass index on the rise, people tend to run slower. In fact, all of these components might be influencing run time.

In addition to considering run times in this section, we consider a topic near and dear to most students: sleep. A recent study found that college students average about 7 hours of sleep per night.15 However, researchers at a rural college are interested in showing that their students sleep longer than seven hours on average. We investigate this topic in Section 4.3.4.

## Hypothesis Testing Framework

The average time for all runners who finished the Cherry Blossom Run in 2006 was 93.29 minutes (93 minutes and about 17 seconds). We want to determine if the run10Samp data set provides strong evidence that the participants in 2012 were faster or slower than those runners in 2006, versus the other possibility that there has been no change. 16 We simplify these three options into two competing hypotheses :

- H 0 : The average 10 mile run time was the same for 2006 and 2012.
- H A : The average 10 mile run time for 2012 was different than that of 2006.

We call H 0 the null hypothesis and H A the alternative hypothesis.

Null and alternative hypotheses

- The null hypothesis (H 0 ) often represents either a skeptical perspective or a claim to be tested.
- The alternative hypothesis (H A ) represents an alternative claim under consideration and is often represented by a range of possible parameter values.

15 theloquitur.com/?p=1161

16 While we could answer this question by examining the entire population data (run10), we only consider the sample data (run10Samp), which is more realistic since we rarely have access to population data.

The null hypothesis often represents a skeptical position or a perspective of no difference. The alternative hypothesis often represents a new perspective, such as the possibility that there has been a change.

Hypothesis testing framework

The skeptic will not reject the null hypothesis (H 0 ), unless the evidence in favor of the alternative hypothesis (H A ) is so strong that she rejects H 0 in favor of H A .

The hypothesis testing framework is a very general tool, and we often use it without a second thought. If a person makes a somewhat unbelievable claim, we are initially skeptical. However, if there is sufficient evidence that supports the claim, we set aside our skepticism and reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative. The hallmarks of hypothesis testing are also found in the US court system.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

A US court considers two possible claims about a defendant: she is either innocent or guilty. If we set these claims up in a hypothesis framework, which would be the null hypothesis and which the alternative? 17

Jurors examine the evidence to see whether it convincingly shows a defendant is guilty. Even if the jurors leave unconvinced of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt, this does not mean they believe the defendant is innocent. This is also the case with hypothesis testing: even if we fail to reject the null hypothesis, we typically do not accept the null hypothesis as true. Failing to find strong evidence for the alternative hypothesis is not equivalent to accepting the null hypothesis.

17 H 0 : The average cost is $650 per month, \(\mu\) = $650.

In the example with the Cherry Blossom Run, the null hypothesis represents no difference in the average time from 2006 to 2012. The alternative hypothesis represents something new or more interesting: there was a difference, either an increase or a decrease. These hypotheses can be described in mathematical notation using \(\mu_{12}\) as the average run time for 2012:

- H 0 : \(\mu_{12} = 93.29\)
- H A : \(\mu_{12} \ne 93.29\)

where 93.29 minutes (93 minutes and about 17 seconds) is the average 10 mile time for all runners in the 2006 Cherry Blossom Run. Using this mathematical notation, the hypotheses can now be evaluated using statistical tools. We call 93.29 the null value since it represents the value of the parameter if the null hypothesis is true. We will use the run10Samp data set to evaluate the hypothesis test.

## Testing Hypotheses using Confidence Intervals

We can start the evaluation of the hypothesis setup by comparing 2006 and 2012 run times using a point estimate from the 2012 sample: \(\bar {x}_{12} = 95.61\) minutes. This estimate suggests the average time is actually longer than the 2006 time, 93.29 minutes. However, to evaluate whether this provides strong evidence that there has been a change, we must consider the uncertainty associated with \(\bar {x}_{12}\).

1 6 The jury considers whether the evidence is so convincing (strong) that there is no reasonable doubt regarding the person's guilt; in such a case, the jury rejects innocence (the null hypothesis) and concludes the defendant is guilty (alternative hypothesis).

We learned in Section 4.1 that there is fluctuation from one sample to another, and it is very unlikely that the sample mean will be exactly equal to our parameter; we should not expect \(\bar {x}_{12}\) to exactly equal \(\mu_{12}\). Given that \(\bar {x}_{12} = 95.61\), it might still be possible that the population average in 2012 has remained unchanged from 2006. The difference between \(\bar {x}_{12}\) and 93.29 could be due to sampling variation, i.e. the variability associated with the point estimate when we take a random sample.

In Section 4.2, confidence intervals were introduced as a way to find a range of plausible values for the population mean. Based on run10Samp, a 95% confidence interval for the 2012 population mean, \(\mu_{12}\), was calculated as

\[(92.45, 98.77)\]

Because the 2006 mean, 93.29, falls in the range of plausible values, we cannot say the null hypothesis is implausible. That is, we failed to reject the null hypothesis, H 0 .

Double negatives can sometimes be used in statistics

In many statistical explanations, we use double negatives. For instance, we might say that the null hypothesis is not implausible or we failed to reject the null hypothesis. Double negatives are used to communicate that while we are not rejecting a position, we are also not saying it is correct.

Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

Next consider whether there is strong evidence that the average age of runners has changed from 2006 to 2012 in the Cherry Blossom Run. In 2006, the average age was 36.13 years, and in the 2012 run10Samp data set, the average was 35.05 years with a standard deviation of 8.97 years for 100 runners.

First, set up the hypotheses:

- H 0 : The average age of runners has not changed from 2006 to 2012, \(\mu_{age} = 36.13.\)
- H A : The average age of runners has changed from 2006 to 2012, \(\mu _{age} 6 \ne 36.13.\)

We have previously veri ed conditions for this data set. The normal model may be applied to \(\bar {y}\) and the estimate of SE should be very accurate. Using the sample mean and standard error, we can construct a 95% con dence interval for \(\mu _{age}\) to determine if there is sufficient evidence to reject H 0 :

\[\bar{y} \pm 1.96 \times \dfrac {s}{\sqrt {100}} \rightarrow 35.05 \pm 1.96 \times 0.90 \rightarrow (33.29, 36.81)\]

This confidence interval contains the null value, 36.13. Because 36.13 is not implausible, we cannot reject the null hypothesis. We have not found strong evidence that the average age is different than 36.13 years.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{2}\)

Colleges frequently provide estimates of student expenses such as housing. A consultant hired by a community college claimed that the average student housing expense was $650 per month. What are the null and alternative hypotheses to test whether this claim is accurate? 18

H A : The average cost is different than $650 per month, \(\mu \ne\) $650.

18 Applying the normal model requires that certain conditions are met. Because the data are a simple random sample and the sample (presumably) represents no more than 10% of all students at the college, the observations are independent. The sample size is also sufficiently large (n = 75) and the data exhibit only moderate skew. Thus, the normal model may be applied to the sample mean.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{3}\)

The community college decides to collect data to evaluate the $650 per month claim. They take a random sample of 75 students at their school and obtain the data represented in Figure 4.11. Can we apply the normal model to the sample mean?

If the court makes a Type 1 Error, this means the defendant is innocent (H 0 true) but wrongly convicted. A Type 2 Error means the court failed to reject H 0 (i.e. failed to convict the person) when she was in fact guilty (H A true).

Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)

The sample mean for student housing is $611.63 and the sample standard deviation is $132.85. Construct a 95% confidence interval for the population mean and evaluate the hypotheses of Exercise 4.22.

The standard error associated with the mean may be estimated using the sample standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. Recall that n = 75 students were sampled.

\[ SE = \dfrac {s}{\sqrt {n}} = \dfrac {132.85}{\sqrt {75}} = 15.34\]

You showed in Exercise 4.23 that the normal model may be applied to the sample mean. This ensures a 95% confidence interval may be accurately constructed:

\[\bar {x} \pm z*SE \rightarrow 611.63 \pm 1.96 \times 15.34 \times (581.56, 641.70)\]

Because the null value $650 is not in the confidence interval, a true mean of $650 is implausible and we reject the null hypothesis. The data provide statistically significant evidence that the actual average housing expense is less than $650 per month.

## Decision Errors

Hypothesis tests are not flawless. Just think of the court system: innocent people are sometimes wrongly convicted and the guilty sometimes walk free. Similarly, we can make a wrong decision in statistical hypothesis tests. However, the difference is that we have the tools necessary to quantify how often we make such errors.

There are two competing hypotheses: the null and the alternative. In a hypothesis test, we make a statement about which one might be true, but we might choose incorrectly. There are four possible scenarios in a hypothesis test, which are summarized in Table 4.12.

A Type 1 Error is rejecting the null hypothesis when H0 is actually true. A Type 2 Error is failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative is actually true.

Exercise 4.25

In a US court, the defendant is either innocent (H 0 ) or guilty (H A ). What does a Type 1 Error represent in this context? What does a Type 2 Error represent? Table 4.12 may be useful.

To lower the Type 1 Error rate, we might raise our standard for conviction from "beyond a reasonable doubt" to "beyond a conceivable doubt" so fewer people would be wrongly convicted. However, this would also make it more difficult to convict the people who are actually guilty, so we would make more Type 2 Errors.

Exercise 4.26

How could we reduce the Type 1 Error rate in US courts? What influence would this have on the Type 2 Error rate?

To lower the Type 2 Error rate, we want to convict more guilty people. We could lower the standards for conviction from "beyond a reasonable doubt" to "beyond a little doubt". Lowering the bar for guilt will also result in more wrongful convictions, raising the Type 1 Error rate.

Exercise 4.27

How could we reduce the Type 2 Error rate in US courts? What influence would this have on the Type 1 Error rate?

A skeptic would have no reason to believe that sleep patterns at this school are different than the sleep patterns at another school.

Exercises 4.25-4.27 provide an important lesson:

If we reduce how often we make one type of error, we generally make more of the other type.

Hypothesis testing is built around rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. That is, we do not reject H 0 unless we have strong evidence. But what precisely does strong evidence mean? As a general rule of thumb, for those cases where the null hypothesis is actually true, we do not want to incorrectly reject H 0 more than 5% of the time. This corresponds to a significance level of 0.05. We often write the significance level using \(\alpha\) (the Greek letter alpha): \(\alpha = 0.05.\) We discuss the appropriateness of different significance levels in Section 4.3.6.

If we use a 95% confidence interval to test a hypothesis where the null hypothesis is true, we will make an error whenever the point estimate is at least 1.96 standard errors away from the population parameter. This happens about 5% of the time (2.5% in each tail). Similarly, using a 99% con dence interval to evaluate a hypothesis is equivalent to a significance level of \(\alpha = 0.01\).

A confidence interval is, in one sense, simplistic in the world of hypothesis tests. Consider the following two scenarios:

- The null value (the parameter value under the null hypothesis) is in the 95% confidence interval but just barely, so we would not reject H 0 . However, we might like to somehow say, quantitatively, that it was a close decision.
- The null value is very far outside of the interval, so we reject H 0 . However, we want to communicate that, not only did we reject the null hypothesis, but it wasn't even close. Such a case is depicted in Figure 4.13.

In Section 4.3.4, we introduce a tool called the p-value that will be helpful in these cases. The p-value method also extends to hypothesis tests where con dence intervals cannot be easily constructed or applied.

## Formal Testing using p-Values

The p-value is a way of quantifying the strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis and in favor of the alternative. Formally the p-value is a conditional probability.

definition: p-value

The p-value is the probability of observing data at least as favorable to the alternative hypothesis as our current data set, if the null hypothesis is true. We typically use a summary statistic of the data, in this chapter the sample mean, to help compute the p-value and evaluate the hypotheses.

A poll by the National Sleep Foundation found that college students average about 7 hours of sleep per night. Researchers at a rural school are interested in showing that students at their school sleep longer than seven hours on average, and they would like to demonstrate this using a sample of students. What would be an appropriate skeptical position for this research?

This is entirely based on the interests of the researchers. Had they been only interested in the opposite case - showing that their students were actually averaging fewer than seven hours of sleep but not interested in showing more than 7 hours - then our setup would have set the alternative as \(\mu < 7\).

We can set up the null hypothesis for this test as a skeptical perspective: the students at this school average 7 hours of sleep per night. The alternative hypothesis takes a new form reflecting the interests of the research: the students average more than 7 hours of sleep. We can write these hypotheses as

- H 0 : \(\mu\) = 7.
- H A : \(\mu\) > 7.

Using \(\mu\) > 7 as the alternative is an example of a one-sided hypothesis test. In this investigation, there is no apparent interest in learning whether the mean is less than 7 hours. (The standard error can be estimated from the sample standard deviation and the sample size: \(SE_{\bar {x}} = \dfrac {s_x}{\sqrt {n}} = \dfrac {1.75}{\sqrt {110}} = 0.17\)). Earlier we encountered a two-sided hypothesis where we looked for any clear difference, greater than or less than the null value.

Always use a two-sided test unless it was made clear prior to data collection that the test should be one-sided. Switching a two-sided test to a one-sided test after observing the data is dangerous because it can inflate the Type 1 Error rate.

TIP: One-sided and two-sided tests

If the researchers are only interested in showing an increase or a decrease, but not both, use a one-sided test. If the researchers would be interested in any difference from the null value - an increase or decrease - then the test should be two-sided.

TIP: Always write the null hypothesis as an equality

We will find it most useful if we always list the null hypothesis as an equality (e.g. \(\mu\) = 7) while the alternative always uses an inequality (e.g. \(\mu \ne 7, \mu > 7, or \mu < 7)\).

The researchers at the rural school conducted a simple random sample of n = 110 students on campus. They found that these students averaged 7.42 hours of sleep and the standard deviation of the amount of sleep for the students was 1.75 hours. A histogram of the sample is shown in Figure 4.14.

Before we can use a normal model for the sample mean or compute the standard error of the sample mean, we must verify conditions. (1) Because this is a simple random sample from less than 10% of the student body, the observations are independent. (2) The sample size in the sleep study is sufficiently large since it is greater than 30. (3) The data show moderate skew in Figure 4.14 and the presence of a couple of outliers. This skew and the outliers (which are not too extreme) are acceptable for a sample size of n = 110. With these conditions veri ed, the normal model can be safely applied to \(\bar {x}\) and the estimated standard error will be very accurate.

What is the standard deviation associated with \(\bar {x}\)? That is, estimate the standard error of \(\bar {x}\). 25

The hypothesis test will be evaluated using a significance level of \(\alpha = 0.05\). We want to consider the data under the scenario that the null hypothesis is true. In this case, the sample mean is from a distribution that is nearly normal and has mean 7 and standard deviation of about 0.17. Such a distribution is shown in Figure 4.15.

The shaded tail in Figure 4.15 represents the chance of observing such a large mean, conditional on the null hypothesis being true. That is, the shaded tail represents the p-value. We shade all means larger than our sample mean, \(\bar {x} = 7.42\), because they are more favorable to the alternative hypothesis than the observed mean.

We compute the p-value by finding the tail area of this normal distribution, which we learned to do in Section 3.1. First compute the Z score of the sample mean, \(\bar {x} = 7.42\):

\[Z = \dfrac {\bar {x} - \text {null value}}{SE_{\bar {x}}} = \dfrac {7.42 - 7}{0.17} = 2.47\]

Using the normal probability table, the lower unshaded area is found to be 0.993. Thus the shaded area is 1 - 0.993 = 0.007. If the null hypothesis is true, the probability of observing such a large sample mean for a sample of 110 students is only 0.007. That is, if the null hypothesis is true, we would not often see such a large mean.

We evaluate the hypotheses by comparing the p-value to the significance level. Because the p-value is less than the significance level \((p-value = 0.007 < 0.05 = \alpha)\), we reject the null hypothesis. What we observed is so unusual with respect to the null hypothesis that it casts serious doubt on H 0 and provides strong evidence favoring H A .

p-value as a tool in hypothesis testing

The p-value quantifies how strongly the data favor H A over H 0 . A small p-value (usually < 0.05) corresponds to sufficient evidence to reject H 0 in favor of H A .

TIP: It is useful to First draw a picture to find the p-value

It is useful to draw a picture of the distribution of \(\bar {x}\) as though H 0 was true (i.e. \(\mu\) equals the null value), and shade the region (or regions) of sample means that are at least as favorable to the alternative hypothesis. These shaded regions represent the p-value.

The ideas below review the process of evaluating hypothesis tests with p-values:

- The null hypothesis represents a skeptic's position or a position of no difference. We reject this position only if the evidence strongly favors H A .
- A small p-value means that if the null hypothesis is true, there is a low probability of seeing a point estimate at least as extreme as the one we saw. We interpret this as strong evidence in favor of the alternative.
- We reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is smaller than the significance level, \(\alpha\), which is usually 0.05. Otherwise, we fail to reject H 0 .
- We should always state the conclusion of the hypothesis test in plain language so non-statisticians can also understand the results.

The p-value is constructed in such a way that we can directly compare it to the significance level ( \(\alpha\)) to determine whether or not to reject H 0 . This method ensures that the Type 1 Error rate does not exceed the significance level standard.

If the null hypothesis is true, how often should the p-value be less than 0.05?

About 5% of the time. If the null hypothesis is true, then the data only has a 5% chance of being in the 5% of data most favorable to H A .

Exercise 4.31

Suppose we had used a significance level of 0.01 in the sleep study. Would the evidence have been strong enough to reject the null hypothesis? (The p-value was 0.007.) What if the significance level was \(\alpha = 0.001\)? 27

27 We reject the null hypothesis whenever p-value < \(\alpha\). Thus, we would still reject the null hypothesis if \(\alpha = 0.01\) but not if the significance level had been \(\alpha = 0.001\).

Exercise 4.32

Ebay might be interested in showing that buyers on its site tend to pay less than they would for the corresponding new item on Amazon. We'll research this topic for one particular product: a video game called Mario Kart for the Nintendo Wii. During early October 2009, Amazon sold this game for $46.99. Set up an appropriate (one-sided!) hypothesis test to check the claim that Ebay buyers pay less during auctions at this same time. 28

28 The skeptic would say the average is the same on Ebay, and we are interested in showing the average price is lower.

Exercise 4.33

During early October, 2009, 52 Ebay auctions were recorded for Mario Kart.29 The total prices for the auctions are presented using a histogram in Figure 4.17, and we may like to apply the normal model to the sample mean. Check the three conditions required for applying the normal model: (1) independence, (2) at least 30 observations, and (3) the data are not strongly skewed. 30

30 (1) The independence condition is unclear. We will make the assumption that the observations are independent, which we should report with any nal results. (2) The sample size is sufficiently large: \(n = 52 \ge 30\). (3) The data distribution is not strongly skewed; it is approximately symmetric.

H 0 : The average auction price on Ebay is equal to (or more than) the price on Amazon. We write only the equality in the statistical notation: \(\mu_{ebay} = 46.99\).

H A : The average price on Ebay is less than the price on Amazon, \(\mu _{ebay} < 46.99\).

29 These data were collected by OpenIntro staff.

Example 4.34

The average sale price of the 52 Ebay auctions for Wii Mario Kart was $44.17 with a standard deviation of $4.15. Does this provide sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis in Exercise 4.32? Use a significance level of \(\alpha = 0.01\).

The hypotheses were set up and the conditions were checked in Exercises 4.32 and 4.33. The next step is to find the standard error of the sample mean and produce a sketch to help find the p-value.

Because the alternative hypothesis says we are looking for a smaller mean, we shade the lower tail. We find this shaded area by using the Z score and normal probability table: \(Z = \dfrac {44.17 \times 46.99}{0.5755} = -4.90\), which has area less than 0.0002. The area is so small we cannot really see it on the picture. This lower tail area corresponds to the p-value.

Because the p-value is so small - specifically, smaller than = 0.01 - this provides sufficiently strong evidence to reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative. The data provide statistically signi cant evidence that the average price on Ebay is lower than Amazon's asking price.

## Two-sided hypothesis testing with p-values

We now consider how to compute a p-value for a two-sided test. In one-sided tests, we shade the single tail in the direction of the alternative hypothesis. For example, when the alternative had the form \(\mu\) > 7, then the p-value was represented by the upper tail (Figure 4.16). When the alternative was \(\mu\) < 46.99, the p-value was the lower tail (Exercise 4.32). In a two-sided test, we shade two tails since evidence in either direction is favorable to H A .

Exercise 4.35 Earlier we talked about a research group investigating whether the students at their school slept longer than 7 hours each night. Let's consider a second group of researchers who want to evaluate whether the students at their college differ from the norm of 7 hours. Write the null and alternative hypotheses for this investigation. 31

Example 4.36 The second college randomly samples 72 students and nds a mean of \(\bar {x} = 6.83\) hours and a standard deviation of s = 1.8 hours. Does this provide strong evidence against H 0 in Exercise 4.35? Use a significance level of \(\alpha = 0.05\).

First, we must verify assumptions. (1) A simple random sample of less than 10% of the student body means the observations are independent. (2) The sample size is 72, which is greater than 30. (3) Based on the earlier distribution and what we already know about college student sleep habits, the distribution is probably not strongly skewed.

Next we can compute the standard error \((SE_{\bar {x}} = \dfrac {s}{\sqrt {n}} = 0.21)\) of the estimate and create a picture to represent the p-value, shown in Figure 4.18. Both tails are shaded.

31 Because the researchers are interested in any difference, they should use a two-sided setup: H 0 : \(\mu\) = 7, H A : \(\mu \ne 7.\)

An estimate of 7.17 or more provides at least as strong of evidence against the null hypothesis and in favor of the alternative as the observed estimate, \(\bar {x} = 6.83\).

We can calculate the tail areas by rst nding the lower tail corresponding to \(\bar {x}\):

\[Z = \dfrac {6.83 - 7.00}{0.21} = -0.81 \xrightarrow {table} \text {left tail} = 0.2090\]

Because the normal model is symmetric, the right tail will have the same area as the left tail. The p-value is found as the sum of the two shaded tails:

\[ \text {p-value} = \text {left tail} + \text {right tail} = 2 \times \text {(left tail)} = 0.4180\]

This p-value is relatively large (larger than \(\mu\)= 0.05), so we should not reject H 0 . That is, if H 0 is true, it would not be very unusual to see a sample mean this far from 7 hours simply due to sampling variation. Thus, we do not have sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean is different than 7 hours.

Example 4.37 It is never okay to change two-sided tests to one-sided tests after observing the data. In this example we explore the consequences of ignoring this advice. Using \(\alpha = 0.05\), we show that freely switching from two-sided tests to onesided tests will cause us to make twice as many Type 1 Errors as intended.

Suppose the sample mean was larger than the null value, \(\mu_0\) (e.g. \(\mu_0\) would represent 7 if H 0 : \(\mu\) = 7). Then if we can ip to a one-sided test, we would use H A : \(\mu > \mu_0\). Now if we obtain any observation with a Z score greater than 1.65, we would reject H 0 . If the null hypothesis is true, we incorrectly reject the null hypothesis about 5% of the time when the sample mean is above the null value, as shown in Figure 4.19.

Suppose the sample mean was smaller than the null value. Then if we change to a one-sided test, we would use H A : \(\mu < \mu_0\). If \(\bar {x}\) had a Z score smaller than -1.65, we would reject H 0 . If the null hypothesis is true, then we would observe such a case about 5% of the time.

By examining these two scenarios, we can determine that we will make a Type 1 Error 5% + 5% = 10% of the time if we are allowed to swap to the "best" one-sided test for the data. This is twice the error rate we prescribed with our significance level: \(\alpha = 0.05\) (!).

Caution: One-sided hypotheses are allowed only before seeing data

After observing data, it is tempting to turn a two-sided test into a one-sided test. Avoid this temptation. Hypotheses must be set up before observing the data. If they are not, the test must be two-sided.

## Choosing a Significance Level

Choosing a significance level for a test is important in many contexts, and the traditional level is 0.05. However, it is often helpful to adjust the significance level based on the application. We may select a level that is smaller or larger than 0.05 depending on the consequences of any conclusions reached from the test.

- If making a Type 1 Error is dangerous or especially costly, we should choose a small significance level (e.g. 0.01). Under this scenario we want to be very cautious about rejecting the null hypothesis, so we demand very strong evidence favoring H A before we would reject H 0 .
- If a Type 2 Error is relatively more dangerous or much more costly than a Type 1 Error, then we should choose a higher significance level (e.g. 0.10). Here we want to be cautious about failing to reject H 0 when the null is actually false. We will discuss this particular case in greater detail in Section 4.6.

Significance levels should reflect consequences of errors

The significance level selected for a test should reflect the consequences associated with Type 1 and Type 2 Errors.

Example 4.38

A car manufacturer is considering a higher quality but more expensive supplier for window parts in its vehicles. They sample a number of parts from their current supplier and also parts from the new supplier. They decide that if the high quality parts will last more than 12% longer, it makes nancial sense to switch to this more expensive supplier. Is there good reason to modify the significance level in such a hypothesis test?

The null hypothesis is that the more expensive parts last no more than 12% longer while the alternative is that they do last more than 12% longer. This decision is just one of the many regular factors that have a marginal impact on the car and company. A significancelevel of 0.05 seems reasonable since neither a Type 1 or Type 2 error should be dangerous or (relatively) much more expensive.

Example 4.39

The same car manufacturer is considering a slightly more expensive supplier for parts related to safety, not windows. If the durability of these safety components is shown to be better than the current supplier, they will switch manufacturers. Is there good reason to modify the significance level in such an evaluation?

The null hypothesis would be that the suppliers' parts are equally reliable. Because safety is involved, the car company should be eager to switch to the slightly more expensive manufacturer (reject H 0 ) even if the evidence of increased safety is only moderately strong. A slightly larger significance level, such as \(\mu = 0.10\), might be appropriate.

Exercise 4.40

A part inside of a machine is very expensive to replace. However, the machine usually functions properly even if this part is broken, so the part is replaced only if we are extremely certain it is broken based on a series of measurements. Identify appropriate hypotheses for this test (in plain language) and suggest an appropriate significance level. 32

- Onsite training

3,000,000+ delegates

15,000+ clients

1,000+ locations

- KnowledgePass
- Log a ticket

01344203999 Available 24/7

## Hypothesis Testing in Data Science: It's Usage and Types

Hypothesis Testing in Data Science is a crucial method for making informed decisions from data. This blog explores its essential usage in analysing trends and patterns, and the different types such as null, alternative, one-tailed, and two-tailed tests, providing a comprehensive understanding for both beginners and advanced practitioners.

Exclusive 40% OFF

## Training Outcomes Within Your Budget!

We ensure quality, budget-alignment, and timely delivery by our expert instructors.

## Share this Resource

- Advanced Data Science Certification
- Data Science and Blockchain Training
- Big Data Analysis
- Python Data Science Course
- Advanced Data Analytics Course {location}

Table of Contents

1) What is Hypothesis Testing in Data Science?

2) Importance of Hypothesis Testing in Data Science

3) Types of Hypothesis Testing

4) Basic steps in Hypothesis Testing

5) Real-world use cases of Hypothesis Testing

6) Conclusion

## What is Hypothesis Testing in Data Science?

Hypothesis Testing in Data Science is a statistical method used to assess the validity of assumptions or claims about a population based on sample data. It involves formulating two Hypotheses, the null Hypothesis (H0) and the alternative Hypothesis (Ha or H1), and then using statistical tests to find out if there is enough evidence to support the alternative Hypothesis.

Hypothetical Testing is a critical tool for making data-driven decisions, evaluating the significance of observed effects or differences, and drawing meaningful conclusions from data, allowing Data Scientists to uncover patterns, relationships, and insights that inform various domains, from medicine to business and beyond.

Unlock the power of data with our comprehensive Data Science & Analytics Training . Sign up now!

## Importance of Hypothesis Testing in Data Science

The significance of Hypothesis Testing in Data Science cannot be overstated. It serves as the cornerstone of data-driven decision-making. By systematically testing Hypotheses, Data Scientists can:

## Objective decision-making

Hypothesis Testing provides a structured and impartial method for making decisions based on data. In a world where biases can skew perceptions, Data Scientists rely on this method to ensure that their conclusions are grounded in empirical evidence, making their decisions more objective and trustworthy.

## Statistical rigour

Data Scientists deal with large amounts of data, and Hypothesis Testing helps them make sense of it. It quantifies the significance of observed patterns, differences, or relationships. This statistical rigour is essential in distinguishing between mere coincidences and meaningful findings, reducing the likelihood of making decisions based on random chance.

## Resource allocation

Resources, whether they are financial, human, or time-related, are often limited. Hypothesis Testing enables efficient resource allocation by guiding Data Scientists towards strategies or interventions that are statistically significant. This ensures that efforts are directed where they are most likely to yield valuable results.

## Risk management

In domains like healthcare and finance, where lives and livelihoods are at stake, Hypothesis Testing is a critical tool for risk assessment. For instance, in drug development, Hypothesis Testing is used to determine the safety and efficiency of new treatments, helping mitigate potential risks to patients.

## Innovation and progress

Hypothesis Testing fosters innovation by providing a systematic framework to evaluate new ideas, products, or strategies. It encourages a cycle of experimentation, feedback, and improvement, driving continuous progress and innovation.

## Strategic decision-making

Organisations base their strategies on data-driven insights. Hypothesis Testing enables them to make informed decisions about market trends, customer behaviour, and product development. These decisions are grounded in empirical evidence, increasing the likelihood of success.

## Scientific integrity

In scientific research, Hypothesis Testing is integral to maintaining the integrity of research findings. It ensures that conclusions are drawn from rigorous statistical analysis rather than conjecture. This is essential for advancing knowledge and building upon existing research.

## Regulatory compliance

Many industries, such as pharmaceuticals and aviation, operate under strict regulatory frameworks. Hypothesis Testing is essential for demonstrating compliance with safety and quality standards. It provides the statistical evidence required to meet regulatory requirements.

Supercharge your data skills with our Big Data and Analytics Training – register now!

## Types of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing can be seen in several different types. In total, we have five types of Hypothesis Testing. They are described below as follows:

## Alternative Hypothesis

The Alternative Hypothesis, denoted as Ha or H1, is the assertion or claim that researchers aim to support with their data analysis. It represents the opposite of the null Hypothesis (H0) and suggests that there is a significant effect, relationship, or difference in the population. In simpler terms, it's the statement that researchers hope to find evidence for during their analysis. For example, if you are testing a new drug's efficacy, the alternative Hypothesis might state that the drug has a measurable positive effect on patients' health.

## Null Hypothesis

The Null Hypothesis, denoted as H0, is the default assumption in Hypothesis Testing. It posits that there is no significant effect, relationship, or difference in the population being studied. In other words, it represents the status quo or the absence of an effect. Researchers typically set out to challenge or disprove the Null Hypothesis by collecting and analysing data. Using the drug efficacy example again, the Null Hypothesis might state that the new drug has no effect on patients' health.

## Non-directional Hypothesis

A Non-directional Hypothesis, also known as a two-tailed Hypothesis, is used when researchers are interested in whether there is any significant difference, effect, or relationship in either direction (positive or negative). This type of Hypothesis allows for the possibility of finding effects in both directions. For instance, in a study comparing the performance of two groups, a Non-directional Hypothesis would suggest that there is a significant difference between the groups, without specifying which group performs better.

## Directional Hypothesis

A Directional Hypothesis, also called a one-tailed Hypothesis, is employed when researchers have a specific expectation about the direction of the effect, relationship, or difference they are investigating. In this case, the Hypothesis predicts an outcome in a particular direction—either positive or negative. For example, if you expect that a new teaching method will improve student test scores, a directional Hypothesis would state that the new method leads to higher test scores.

## Statistical Hypothesis

A Statistical Hypothesis is a Hypothesis formulated in a way that it can be tested using statistical methods. It involves specific numerical values or parameters that can be measured or compared. Statistical Hypotheses are crucial for quantitative research and often involve means, proportions, variances, correlations, or other measurable quantities. These Hypotheses provide a precise framework for conducting statistical tests and drawing conclusions based on data analysis.

Want to unlock the power of Big Data Analysis? Join our Big Data Analysis Course today!

## Basic steps in Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis Testing is a systematic approach used in statistics to make informed decisions based on data. It is a critical tool in Data Science, research, and many other fields where data analysis is employed. The following are the basic steps involved in Hypothesis Testing:

## 1) Formulate Hypotheses

The first step in Hypothesis Testing is to clearly define your research question and translate it into two mutually exclusive Hypotheses:

a) Null Hypothesis (H0): This is the default assumption, often representing the status quo or the absence of an effect. It states that there is no significant difference, relationship, or effect in the population.

b) Alternative Hypothesis (Ha or H1): This is the statement that contradicts the null Hypothesis. It suggests that there is a significant difference, relationship, or effect in the population.

The formulation of these Hypotheses is crucial, as they serve as the foundation for your entire Hypothesis Testing process.

## 2) Collect data

With your Hypotheses in place, the next step is to gather relevant data through surveys, experiments, observations, or any other suitable method. The data collected should be representative of the population you are studying. The quality and quantity of data are essential factors in the success of your Hypothesis Testing.

## 3) Choose a significance level (α)

Before conducting the statistical test, you need to decide on the level of significance, denoted as α. The significance level represents the threshold for statistical significance and determines how confident you want to be in your results. A common choice is α = 0.05, which implies a 5% chance of making a Type I error (rejecting the null Hypothesis when it's true). You can choose a different α value based on the specific requirements of your analysis.

## 4) Perform the test

Based on the nature of your data and the Hypotheses you've formulated, select the appropriate statistical test. There are various tests available, including t-tests, chi-squared tests, ANOVA, regression analysis, and more. The chosen test should align with the type of data (e.g., continuous or categorical) and the research question (e.g., comparing means or testing for independence).

Execute the selected statistical test on your data to obtain test statistics and p-values. The test statistics quantify the difference or effect you are investigating, while the p-value represents the probability of obtaining the observed results if the null Hypothesis were true.

## 5) Analyse the results

Once you have the test statistics and p-value, it's time to interpret the results. The primary focus is on the p-value:

a) If the p-value is less than or equal to your chosen significance level (α), typically 0.05, you have evidence to reject the null Hypothesis. This shows that there is a significant difference, relationship, or effect in the population.

b) If the p-value is more than α, you fail to reject the null Hypothesis, showing that there is insufficient evidence to support the alternative Hypothesis.

## 6) Draw conclusions

Based on the analysis of the p-value and the comparison to the significance level, you can draw conclusions about your research question:

a) In case you reject the null Hypothesis, you can accept the alternative Hypothesis and make inferences based on the evidence provided by your data.

b) In case you fail to reject the null Hypothesis, you do not accept the alternative Hypothesis, and you acknowledge that there is no significant evidence to support your claim.

It's important to communicate your findings clearly, including the implications and limitations of your analysis.

## Real-world use cases of Hypothesis Testing

The following are some of the real-world use cases of Hypothesis Testing.

a) Medical research: Hypothesis Testing is crucial in determining the efficacy of new medications or treatments. For instance, in a clinical trial, researchers use Hypothesis Testing to assess whether a new drug is significantly more effective than a placebo in treating a particular condition.

b) Marketing and advertising: Businesses employ Hypothesis Testing to evaluate the impact of marketing campaigns. A company may test whether a new advertising strategy leads to a significant increase in sales compared to the previous approach.

c) Manufacturing and quality control: Manufacturing industries use Hypothesis Testing to ensure product quality. For example, in the automotive industry, Hypothesis Testing can be applied to test whether a new manufacturing process results in a significant reduction in defects.

d) Education: In the field of education, Hypothesis Testing can be used to assess the effectiveness of teaching methods. Researchers may test whether a new teaching approach leads to statistically significant improvements in student performance.

e) Finance and investment: Investment strategies are often evaluated using Hypothesis Testing. Investors may test whether a new investment strategy outperforms a benchmark index over a specified period.

## Conclusion

To sum it up, Hypothesis Testing in Data Science is a powerful tool that enables Data Scientists to make evidence-based decisions and draw meaningful conclusions from data. Understanding the types, methods, and steps involved in Hypothesis Testing is essential for any Data Scientist. By rigorously applying Hypothesis Testing techniques, you can gain valuable insights and drive informed decision-making in various domains.

Want to take your Data Science skills to the next level? Join our Big Data Analytics & Data Science Integration Course now!

## Frequently Asked Questions

Upcoming data, analytics & ai resources batches & dates.

Fri 12th Apr 2024

Fri 5th Jul 2024

Fri 1st Nov 2024

## Get A Quote

WHO WILL BE FUNDING THE COURSE?

My employer

By submitting your details you agree to be contacted in order to respond to your enquiry

- Business Analysis
- Lean Six Sigma Certification

## Share this course

Our biggest spring sale.

We cannot process your enquiry without contacting you, please tick to confirm your consent to us for contacting you about your enquiry.

By submitting your details you agree to be contacted in order to respond to your enquiry.

We may not have the course you’re looking for. If you enquire or give us a call on 01344203999 and speak to our training experts, we may still be able to help with your training requirements.

Or select from our popular topics

- ITIL® Certification
- Scrum Certification
- Change Management Certification
- Business Analysis Courses
- Microsoft Azure Certification
- Microsoft Excel & Certification Course
- Microsoft Project
- Explore more courses

Press esc to close

Fill out your contact details below and our training experts will be in touch.

Fill out your contact details below

Thank you for your enquiry!

One of our training experts will be in touch shortly to go over your training requirements.

Back to Course Information

Fill out your contact details below so we can get in touch with you regarding your training requirements.

* WHO WILL BE FUNDING THE COURSE?

Preferred Contact Method

No preference

Back to course information

Fill out your training details below

Fill out your training details below so we have a better idea of what your training requirements are.

HOW MANY DELEGATES NEED TRAINING?

HOW DO YOU WANT THE COURSE DELIVERED?

Online Instructor-led

Online Self-paced

WHEN WOULD YOU LIKE TO TAKE THIS COURSE?

Next 2 - 4 months

WHAT IS YOUR REASON FOR ENQUIRING?

Looking for some information

Looking for a discount

I want to book but have questions

One of our training experts will be in touch shortly to go overy your training requirements.

## Your privacy & cookies!

Like many websites we use cookies. We care about your data and experience, so to give you the best possible experience using our site, we store a very limited amount of your data. Continuing to use this site or clicking “Accept & close” means that you agree to our use of cookies. Learn more about our privacy policy and cookie policy cookie policy .

We use cookies that are essential for our site to work. Please visit our cookie policy for more information. To accept all cookies click 'Accept & close'.

## Hypothesis Testing: Understanding the Basics, Types, and Importance

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine whether a hypothesis about a population parameter is true or not. This technique helps researchers and decision-makers make informed decisions based on evidence rather than guesses. Hypothesis testing is an essential tool in scientific research, social sciences, and business analysis. In this article, we will delve deeper into the basics of hypothesis testing, types of hypotheses, significance level, p-values, and the importance of hypothesis testing.

- Introduction

## What is a hypothesis?

What is hypothesis testing, types of hypotheses, null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, one-tailed and two-tailed tests, significance level and p-values, avoiding type i and type ii errors, making informed decisions, testing business strategies, a/b testing, formulating the null and alternative hypotheses, selecting the appropriate test, setting the level of significance, calculating the p-value, making a decision, common misconceptions about hypothesis testing, understanding hypothesis testing.

A hypothesis is an assumption or a proposition made about a population parameter. It is a statement that can be tested and either supported or refuted. For example, a hypothesis could be that a new medication reduces the severity of symptoms in patients with a particular disease.

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method that helps to determine whether a hypothesis is true or not. It is a procedure that involves collecting and analyzing data to evaluate the probability of the null hypothesis being true. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between a sample and the population.

In hypothesis testing, there are two types of hypotheses: null and alternative.

The null hypothesis, denoted by H0, is a statement of no effect, no relationship, or no difference between the sample and the population. It is assumed to be true until there is sufficient evidence to reject it. For example, the null hypothesis could be that there is no significant difference in the blood pressure of patients who received the medication and those who received a placebo.

The alternative hypothesis, denoted by H1, is a statement of an effect, relationship, or difference between the sample and the population. It is the opposite of the null hypothesis. For example, the alternative hypothesis could be that the medication reduces the blood pressure of patients compared to those who received a placebo.

There are two types of alternative hypotheses: one-tailed and two-tailed. A one-tailed test is used when there is a directional hypothesis. For example, the hypothesis could be that the medication reduces blood pressure. A two-tailed test is used when there is a non-directional hypothesis. For example, the hypothesis could be that there is a significant difference in blood pressure between patients who received the medication and those who received a placebo.

The significance level, denoted by α, is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true. It is set at the beginning of the test, usually at 5% or 1%. The p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme as

or more extreme than the observed one, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. If the p-value is less than the significance level, we reject the null hypothesis.

## Importance of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing helps to avoid Type I and Type II errors. Type I error occurs when we reject the null hypothesis when it is actually true. Type II error occurs when we fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false. By setting a significance level and calculating the p-value, we can control the probability of making these errors.

Hypothesis testing helps researchers and decision-makers make informed decisions based on evidence. For example, a medical researcher can use hypothesis testing to determine the effectiveness of a new drug. A business analyst can use hypothesis testing to evaluate the performance of a marketing campaign. By testing hypotheses, decision-makers can avoid making decisions based on guesses or assumptions.

Hypothesis testing is widely used in business analysis to test strategies and make data-driven decisions. For example, a business owner can use hypothesis testing to determine whether a new product will be profitable. By conducting A/B testing, businesses can compare the performance of two versions of a product and make data-driven decisions.

## Examples of Hypothesis Testing

- A/B testing is a popular technique used in online marketing and web design. It involves comparing two versions of a webpage or an advertisement to determine which one performs better. By conducting A/B testing, businesses can optimize their websites and advertisements to increase conversions and sales.

A t-test is used to compare the means of two samples. It is commonly used in medical research, social sciences, and business analysis. For example, a researcher can use a t-test to determine whether there is a significant difference in the cholesterol levels of patients who received a new drug and those who received a placebo.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of more than two samples. It is commonly used in medical research, social sciences, and business analysis. For example, a business owner can use ANOVA to determine whether there is a significant difference in the sales performance of three different stores.

## Steps in Hypothesis Testing

The first step in hypothesis testing is to formulate the null and alternative hypotheses. The null hypothesis is the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the sample and the population, while the alternative hypothesis is the opposite.

The second step is to select the appropriate test based on the type of data and the research question. There are different types of tests for different types of data, such as t-test for continuous data and chi-square test for categorical data.

The third step is to set the level of significance, which is usually 5% or 1%. The significance level represents the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true.

The fourth step is to calculate the p-value, which represents the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme as or more extreme than the observed one, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.

The final step is to make a decision based on the p-value and the significance level. If the p-value is less than the significance level, we reject the null hypothesis. Otherwise, we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

There are several common misconceptions about hypothesis testing. One of the most common misconceptions is that rejecting the null hypothesis means that the alternative hypothesis is true. However

this is not necessarily the case. Rejecting the null hypothesis only means that there is evidence against it, but it does not prove that the alternative hypothesis is true. Another common misconception is that hypothesis testing can prove causality. However, hypothesis testing can only provide evidence for or against a hypothesis, and causality can only be inferred from a well-designed experiment.

Hypothesis testing is an important statistical technique used to test hypotheses and make informed decisions based on evidence. It helps to avoid Type I and Type II errors, and it is widely used in medical research, social sciences, and business analysis. By following the steps in hypothesis testing and avoiding common misconceptions, researchers and decision-makers can make data-driven decisions and avoid making decisions based on guesses or assumptions.

- What is the difference between Type I and Type II errors in hypothesis testing?
- Type I error occurs when we reject the null hypothesis when it is actually true, while Type II error occurs when we fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is actually false.
- How do you select the appropriate test in hypothesis testing?
- The appropriate test is selected based on the type of data and the research question. There are different types of tests for different types of data, such as t-test for continuous data and chi-square test for categorical data.
- Can hypothesis testing prove causality?
- No, hypothesis testing can only provide evidence for or against a hypothesis, and causality can only be inferred from a well-designed experiment.
- Why is hypothesis testing important in business analysis?
- Hypothesis testing is important in business analysis because it helps businesses make data-driven decisions and avoid making decisions based on guesses or assumptions. By testing hypotheses, businesses can evaluate the effectiveness of their strategies and optimize their performance.
- What is A/B testing?

If you want to learn more about statistical analysis, including central tendency measures, check out our comprehensive statistical course . Our course provides a hands-on learning experience that covers all the essential statistical concepts and tools, empowering you to analyze complex data with confidence. With practical examples and interactive exercises, you’ll gain the skills you need to succeed in your statistical analysis endeavors. Enroll now and take your statistical knowledge to the next level!

If you’re looking to jumpstart your career as a data analyst, consider enrolling in our comprehensive Data Analyst Bootcamp with Internship program . Our program provides you with the skills and experience necessary to succeed in today’s data-driven world. You’ll learn the fundamentals of statistical analysis, as well as how to use tools such as SQL, Python, Excel, and PowerBI to analyze and visualize data. But that’s not all – our program also includes a 3-month internship with us where you can showcase your Capstone Project.

## 2 Responses

This is a great and comprehensive article on hypothesis testing, covering everything from the basics to practical examples. I particularly appreciate the section on common misconceptions, as it’s important to understand what hypothesis testing can and cannot do. Overall, a valuable resource for anyone looking to understand this statistical technique.

Thanks, Ana Carol for your Kind words, Yes these topics are very important to know in Artificial intelligence.

## Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

- New Zealand
- United States
- United Kingdom

## Singapore Data Industry Subsidy (SDIS) Program available for new students looking to re-train and work in the data industry.

The Institute of Data prepares professionals of today for the data-driven workforce of tomorrow.

## Land your dream job in tech

The Institute of Data transforms careers and companies for a data-driven world. We focus on accelerated workforce training for the industries of the future, namely cyber security, big data, artificial intelligence and the digital economy. We train professionals to build careers in these industries through our professional education programs and industry networks. We help businesses and governments build capability in their workforce with innovative training and talent solutions.

## Experience a different approach to learning

Our courses are unlike those offered in universities, online, or by private providers. With remote and in-person, you can up-skill from anywhere.

You’ll learn not just knowledge, process or theory, but experience the real power of practical training by industry experts – allowing you to confidently practice and work in the industry.

## Cyber Security Program

## Software Engineering Program

## Data Science & Artificial Intelligence Program

Get job ready, fast.

The Institute of Data’s intensive programs are expertly planned to get you trained in 3 to 6 months, totalling 400+ training and project hours. Industry Certification is also provided, which is sought-after and valued by employers everywhere.

## Find out if a career in data is right for you

We’ll keep you up-to-date with course information and resources.

## Where our students work

Our students begin their newfound careers in big data, digital and cyber security at some of the most sought-after companies across the world.

Attend an industry, education or career event in your local city or online to learn more about a career in data and meet new people.

## Singapore Data Science Program Online Info Session – 4 June

Launch your career into the high-demand data industry and enter the exciting world of Data…

## Singapore Software Engineering Program Online Info Session – 8 May

Launch your career into the high-demand data industry and enter the exciting world of Software…

## Singapore Cyber Security Program Online Info Session – 4 April

Launch your career into Singapore’s high-demand cyber security industry and enter the exciting world of…

## Take the next step in becoming a

Schedule a call with an Institute of Data Career Consultant to discuss course options.

© Institute of Data. All rights reserved.

## A Guide on Data Analysis

14 hypothesis testing.

Error types:

Type I Error (False Positive):

- Reality: nope
- Diagnosis/Analysis: yes

Type II Error (False Negative):

- Reality: yes
- Diagnosis/Analysis: nope

Power: The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually false

Always written in terms of the population parameter ( \(\beta\) ) not the estimator/estimate ( \(\hat{\beta}\) )

Sometimes, different disciplines prefer to use \(\beta\) (i.e., standardized coefficient), or \(\mathbf{b}\) (i.e., unstandardized coefficient)

\(\beta\) and \(\mathbf{b}\) are similar in interpretation; however, \(\beta\) is scale free. Hence, you can see the relative contribution of \(\beta\) to the dependent variable. On the other hand, \(\mathbf{b}\) can be more easily used in policy decisions.

\[ \beta_j = \mathbf{b} \frac{s_{x_j}}{s_y} \]

Assuming the null hypothesis is true, what is the (asymptotic) distribution of the estimator

\[ \begin{aligned} &H_0: \beta_j = 0 \\ &H_1: \beta_j \neq 0 \end{aligned} \]

then under the null, the OLS estimator has the following distribution

\[ A1-A3a, A5: \sqrt{n} \hat{\beta_j} \sim N(0,Avar(\sqrt{n}\hat{\beta}_j)) \]

- For the one-sided test, the null is a set of values, so now you choose the worst case single value that is hardest to prove and derive the distribution under the null

\[ \begin{aligned} &H_0: \beta_j\ge 0 \\ &H_1: \beta_j < 0 \end{aligned} \]

then the hardest null value to prove is \(H_0: \beta_j=0\) . Then under this specific null, the OLS estimator has the following asymptotic distribution

\[ A1-A3a, A5: \sqrt{n}\hat{\beta_j} \sim N(0,Avar(\sqrt{n}\hat{\beta}_j)) \]

## 14.1 Types of hypothesis testing

\(H_0 : \theta = \theta_0\)

\(H_1 : \theta \neq \theta_0\)

How far away / extreme \(\theta\) can be if our null hypothesis is true

Assume that our likelihood function for q is \(L(q) = q^{30}(1-q)^{70}\) Likelihood function

Log-Likelihood function

Figure from ( Fox 1997 )

typically, The likelihood ratio test (and Lagrange Multiplier (Score) ) performs better with small to moderate sample sizes, but the Wald test only requires one maximization (under the full model).

## 14.2 Wald test

\[ \begin{aligned} W &= (\hat{\theta}-\theta_0)'[cov(\hat{\theta})]^{-1}(\hat{\theta}-\theta_0) \\ W &\sim \chi_q^2 \end{aligned} \]

where \(cov(\hat{\theta})\) is given by the inverse Fisher Information matrix evaluated at \(\hat{\theta}\) and q is the rank of \(cov(\hat{\theta})\) , which is the number of non-redundant parameters in \(\theta\)

Alternatively,

\[ t_W=\frac{(\hat{\theta}-\theta_0)^2}{I(\theta_0)^{-1}} \sim \chi^2_{(v)} \]

where v is the degree of freedom.

Equivalently,

\[ s_W= \frac{\hat{\theta}-\theta_0}{\sqrt{I(\hat{\theta})^{-1}}} \sim Z \]

How far away in the distribution your sample estimate is from the hypothesized population parameter.

For a null value, what is the probability you would have obtained a realization “more extreme” or “worse” than the estimate you actually obtained?

Significance Level ( \(\alpha\) ) and Confidence Level ( \(1-\alpha\) )

- The significance level is the benchmark in which the probability is so low that we would have to reject the null
- The confidence level is the probability that sets the bounds on how far away the realization of the estimator would have to be to reject the null.

Test Statistics

- Standardized (transform) the estimator and null value to a test statistic that always has the same distribution
- Test Statistic for the OLS estimator for a single hypothesis

\[ T = \frac{\sqrt{n}(\hat{\beta}_j-\beta_{j0})}{\sqrt{n}SE(\hat{\beta_j})} \sim^a N(0,1) \]

\[ T = \frac{(\hat{\beta}_j-\beta_{j0})}{SE(\hat{\beta_j})} \sim^a N(0,1) \]

the test statistic is another random variable that is a function of the data and null hypothesis.

- T denotes the random variable test statistic
- t denotes the single realization of the test statistic

Evaluating Test Statistic: determine whether or not we reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis at a given significance / confidence level

Three equivalent ways

Critical Value

- Confidence Interval

For a given significance level, will determine the critical value \((c)\)

- One-sided: \(H_0: \beta_j \ge \beta_{j0}\)

\[ P(T<c|H_0)=\alpha \]

Reject the null if \(t<c\)

- One-sided: \(H_0: \beta_j \le \beta_{j0}\)

\[ P(T>c|H_0)=\alpha \]

Reject the null if \(t>c\)

- Two-sided: \(H_0: \beta_j \neq \beta_{j0}\)

\[ P(|T|>c|H_0)=\alpha \]

Reject the null if \(|t|>c\)

Calculate the probability that the test statistic was worse than the realization you have

\[ \text{p-value} = P(T<t|H_0) \]

\[ \text{p-value} = P(T>t|H_0) \]

\[ \text{p-value} = P(|T|<t|H_0) \]

reject the null if p-value \(< \alpha\)

Using the critical value associated with a null hypothesis and significance level, create an interval

\[ CI(\hat{\beta}_j)_{\alpha} = [\hat{\beta}_j-(c \times SE(\hat{\beta}_j)),\hat{\beta}_j+(c \times SE(\hat{\beta}_j))] \]

If the null set lies outside the interval then we reject the null.

- We are not testing whether the true population value is close to the estimate, we are testing that given a field true population value of the parameter, how like it is that we observed this estimate.
- Can be interpreted as we believe with \((1-\alpha)\times 100 \%\) probability that the confidence interval captures the true parameter value.

With stronger assumption (A1-A6), we could consider Finite Sample Properties

\[ T = \frac{\hat{\beta}_j-\beta_{j0}}{SE(\hat{\beta}_j)} \sim T(n-k) \]

- This above distributional derivation is strongly dependent on A4 and A5
- T has a student t-distribution because the numerator is normal and the denominator is \(\chi^2\) .
- Critical value and p-values will be calculated from the student t-distribution rather than the standard normal distribution.
- \(n \to \infty\) , \(T(n-k)\) is asymptotically standard normal.

Rule of thumb

if \(n-k>120\) : the critical values and p-values from the t-distribution are (almost) the same as the critical values and p-values from the standard normal distribution.

if \(n-k<120\)

- if (A1-A6) hold then the t-test is an exact finite distribution test
- if (A1-A3a, A5) hold, because the t-distribution is asymptotically normal, computing the critical values from a t-distribution is still a valid asymptotic test (i.e., not quite the right critical values and p0values, the difference goes away as \(n \to \infty\) )

## 14.2.1 Multiple Hypothesis

test multiple parameters as the same time

- \(H_0: \beta_1 = 0\ \& \ \beta_2 = 0\)
- \(H_0: \beta_1 = 1\ \& \ \beta_2 = 0\)

perform a series of simply hypothesis does not answer the question (joint distribution vs. two marginal distributions).

The test statistic is based on a restriction written in matrix form.

\[ y=\beta_0+x_1\beta_1 + x_2\beta_2 + x_3\beta_3 + \epsilon \]

Null hypothesis is \(H_0: \beta_1 = 0\) & \(\beta_2=0\) can be rewritten as \(H_0: \mathbf{R}\beta -\mathbf{q}=0\) where

- \(\mathbf{R}\) is a \(m \times k\) matrix where m is the number of restrictions and \(k\) is the number of parameters. \(\mathbf{q}\) is a \(k \times 1\) vector
- \(\mathbf{R}\) “picks up” the relevant parameters while \(\mathbf{q}\) is a the null value of the parameter

\[ \mathbf{R}= \left( \begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ \end{array} \right), \mathbf{q} = \left( \begin{array}{c} 0 \\ 0 \\ \end{array} \right) \]

Test Statistic for OLS estimator for a multiple hypothesis

\[ F = \frac{(\mathbf{R\hat{\beta}-q})\hat{\Sigma}^{-1}(\mathbf{R\hat{\beta}-q})}{m} \sim^a F(m,n-k) \]

\(\hat{\Sigma}^{-1}\) is the estimator for the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix

- if A4 holds, both the homoskedastic and heteroskedastic versions produce valid estimator
- If A4 does not hold, only the heteroskedastic version produces valid estimators.

When \(m = 1\) , there is only a single restriction, then the \(F\) -statistic is the \(t\) -statistic squared.

\(F\) distribution is strictly positive, check F-Distribution for more details.

## 14.2.2 Linear Combination

Testing multiple parameters as the same time

\[ \begin{aligned} H_0&: \beta_1 -\beta_2 = 0 \\ H_0&: \beta_1 - \beta_2 > 0 \\ H_0&: \beta_1 - 2\times\beta_2 =0 \end{aligned} \]

Each is a single restriction on a function of the parameters.

Null hypothesis:

\[ H_0: \beta_1 -\beta_2 = 0 \]

can be rewritten as

\[ H_0: \mathbf{R}\beta -\mathbf{q}=0 \]

where \(\mathbf{R}\) =(0 1 -1 0 0) and \(\mathbf{q}=0\)

## 14.2.3 Estimate Difference in Coefficients

There is no package to estimate for the difference between two coefficients and its CI, but a simple function created by Katherine Zee can be used to calculate this difference. Some modifications might be needed if you don’t use standard lm model in R.

## 14.2.4 Application

14.2.5 nonlinear.

Suppose that we have q nonlinear functions of the parameters \[ \mathbf{h}(\theta) = \{ h_1 (\theta), ..., h_q (\theta)\}' \]

The,n, the Jacobian matrix ( \(\mathbf{H}(\theta)\) ), of rank q is

\[ \mathbf{H}_{q \times p}(\theta) = \left( \begin{array} {ccc} \frac{\partial h_1(\theta)}{\partial \theta_1} & ... & \frac{\partial h_1(\theta)}{\partial \theta_p} \\ . & . & . \\ \frac{\partial h_q(\theta)}{\partial \theta_1} & ... & \frac{\partial h_q(\theta)}{\partial \theta_p} \end{array} \right) \]

where the null hypothesis \(H_0: \mathbf{h} (\theta) = 0\) can be tested against the 2-sided alternative with the Wald statistic

\[ W = \frac{\mathbf{h(\hat{\theta})'\{H(\hat{\theta})[F(\hat{\theta})'F(\hat{\theta})]^{-1}H(\hat{\theta})'\}^{-1}h(\hat{\theta})}}{s^2q} \sim F_{q,n-p} \]

## 14.3 The likelihood ratio test

\[ t_{LR} = 2[l(\hat{\theta})-l(\theta_0)] \sim \chi^2_v \]

Compare the height of the log-likelihood of the sample estimate in relation to the height of log-likelihood of the hypothesized population parameter

This test considers a ratio of two maximizations,

\[ \begin{aligned} L_r &= \text{maximized value of the likelihood under $H_0$ (the reduced model)} \\ L_f &= \text{maximized value of the likelihood under $H_0 \cup H_a$ (the full model)} \end{aligned} \]

Then, the likelihood ratio is:

\[ \Lambda = \frac{L_r}{L_f} \]

which can’t exceed 1 (since \(L_f\) is always at least as large as \(L-r\) because \(L_r\) is the result of a maximization under a restricted set of the parameter values).

The likelihood ratio statistic is:

\[ \begin{aligned} -2ln(\Lambda) &= -2ln(L_r/L_f) = -2(l_r - l_f) \\ \lim_{n \to \infty}(-2ln(\Lambda)) &\sim \chi^2_v \end{aligned} \]

where \(v\) is the number of parameters in the full model minus the number of parameters in the reduced model.

If \(L_r\) is much smaller than \(L_f\) (the likelihood ratio exceeds \(\chi_{\alpha,v}^2\) ), then we reject he reduced model and accept the full model at \(\alpha \times 100 \%\) significance level

## 14.4 Lagrange Multiplier (Score)

\[ t_S= \frac{S(\theta_0)^2}{I(\theta_0)} \sim \chi^2_v \]

where \(v\) is the degree of freedom.

Compare the slope of the log-likelihood of the sample estimate in relation to the slope of the log-likelihood of the hypothesized population parameter

## 14.5 Two One-Sided Tests (TOST) Equivalence Testing

This is a good way to test whether your population effect size is within a range of practical interest (e.g., if the effect size is 0).

## Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

- Knowledge Base
- Choosing the Right Statistical Test | Types & Examples

## Choosing the Right Statistical Test | Types & Examples

Published on January 28, 2020 by Rebecca Bevans . Revised on June 22, 2023.

Statistical tests are used in hypothesis testing . They can be used to:

- determine whether a predictor variable has a statistically significant relationship with an outcome variable.
- estimate the difference between two or more groups.

Statistical tests assume a null hypothesis of no relationship or no difference between groups. Then they determine whether the observed data fall outside of the range of values predicted by the null hypothesis.

If you already know what types of variables you’re dealing with, you can use the flowchart to choose the right statistical test for your data.

Statistical tests flowchart

## Table of contents

What does a statistical test do, when to perform a statistical test, choosing a parametric test: regression, comparison, or correlation, choosing a nonparametric test, flowchart: choosing a statistical test, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about statistical tests.

Statistical tests work by calculating a test statistic – a number that describes how much the relationship between variables in your test differs from the null hypothesis of no relationship.

It then calculates a p value (probability value). The p -value estimates how likely it is that you would see the difference described by the test statistic if the null hypothesis of no relationship were true.

If the value of the test statistic is more extreme than the statistic calculated from the null hypothesis, then you can infer a statistically significant relationship between the predictor and outcome variables.

If the value of the test statistic is less extreme than the one calculated from the null hypothesis, then you can infer no statistically significant relationship between the predictor and outcome variables.

## Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services

Discover proofreading & editing

You can perform statistical tests on data that have been collected in a statistically valid manner – either through an experiment , or through observations made using probability sampling methods .

For a statistical test to be valid , your sample size needs to be large enough to approximate the true distribution of the population being studied.

To determine which statistical test to use, you need to know:

- whether your data meets certain assumptions.
- the types of variables that you’re dealing with.

## Statistical assumptions

Statistical tests make some common assumptions about the data they are testing:

- Independence of observations (a.k.a. no autocorrelation): The observations/variables you include in your test are not related (for example, multiple measurements of a single test subject are not independent, while measurements of multiple different test subjects are independent).
- Homogeneity of variance : the variance within each group being compared is similar among all groups. If one group has much more variation than others, it will limit the test’s effectiveness.
- Normality of data : the data follows a normal distribution (a.k.a. a bell curve). This assumption applies only to quantitative data .

If your data do not meet the assumptions of normality or homogeneity of variance, you may be able to perform a nonparametric statistical test , which allows you to make comparisons without any assumptions about the data distribution.

If your data do not meet the assumption of independence of observations, you may be able to use a test that accounts for structure in your data (repeated-measures tests or tests that include blocking variables).

## Types of variables

The types of variables you have usually determine what type of statistical test you can use.

Quantitative variables represent amounts of things (e.g. the number of trees in a forest). Types of quantitative variables include:

- Continuous (aka ratio variables): represent measures and can usually be divided into units smaller than one (e.g. 0.75 grams).
- Discrete (aka integer variables): represent counts and usually can’t be divided into units smaller than one (e.g. 1 tree).

Categorical variables represent groupings of things (e.g. the different tree species in a forest). Types of categorical variables include:

- Ordinal : represent data with an order (e.g. rankings).
- Nominal : represent group names (e.g. brands or species names).
- Binary : represent data with a yes/no or 1/0 outcome (e.g. win or lose).

Choose the test that fits the types of predictor and outcome variables you have collected (if you are doing an experiment , these are the independent and dependent variables ). Consult the tables below to see which test best matches your variables.

Parametric tests usually have stricter requirements than nonparametric tests, and are able to make stronger inferences from the data. They can only be conducted with data that adheres to the common assumptions of statistical tests.

The most common types of parametric test include regression tests, comparison tests, and correlation tests.

## Regression tests

Regression tests look for cause-and-effect relationships . They can be used to estimate the effect of one or more continuous variables on another variable.

## Comparison tests

Comparison tests look for differences among group means . They can be used to test the effect of a categorical variable on the mean value of some other characteristic.

T-tests are used when comparing the means of precisely two groups (e.g., the average heights of men and women). ANOVA and MANOVA tests are used when comparing the means of more than two groups (e.g., the average heights of children, teenagers, and adults).

## Correlation tests

Correlation tests check whether variables are related without hypothesizing a cause-and-effect relationship.

These can be used to test whether two variables you want to use in (for example) a multiple regression test are autocorrelated.

Non-parametric tests don’t make as many assumptions about the data, and are useful when one or more of the common statistical assumptions are violated. However, the inferences they make aren’t as strong as with parametric tests.

## Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

- Academic style
- Vague sentences
- Style consistency

See an example

This flowchart helps you choose among parametric tests. For nonparametric alternatives, check the table above.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

- Normal distribution
- Descriptive statistics
- Measures of central tendency
- Correlation coefficient
- Null hypothesis

Methodology

- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Types of interviews
- Cohort study
- Thematic analysis

Research bias

- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Survivorship bias
- Availability heuristic
- Nonresponse bias
- Regression to the mean

Statistical tests commonly assume that:

- the data are normally distributed
- the groups that are being compared have similar variance
- the data are independent

If your data does not meet these assumptions you might still be able to use a nonparametric statistical test , which have fewer requirements but also make weaker inferences.

A test statistic is a number calculated by a statistical test . It describes how far your observed data is from the null hypothesis of no relationship between variables or no difference among sample groups.

The test statistic tells you how different two or more groups are from the overall population mean , or how different a linear slope is from the slope predicted by a null hypothesis . Different test statistics are used in different statistical tests.

Statistical significance is a term used by researchers to state that it is unlikely their observations could have occurred under the null hypothesis of a statistical test . Significance is usually denoted by a p -value , or probability value.

Statistical significance is arbitrary – it depends on the threshold, or alpha value, chosen by the researcher. The most common threshold is p < 0.05, which means that the data is likely to occur less than 5% of the time under the null hypothesis .

When the p -value falls below the chosen alpha value, then we say the result of the test is statistically significant.

Quantitative variables are any variables where the data represent amounts (e.g. height, weight, or age).

Categorical variables are any variables where the data represent groups. This includes rankings (e.g. finishing places in a race), classifications (e.g. brands of cereal), and binary outcomes (e.g. coin flips).

You need to know what type of variables you are working with to choose the right statistical test for your data and interpret your results .

Discrete and continuous variables are two types of quantitative variables :

- Discrete variables represent counts (e.g. the number of objects in a collection).
- Continuous variables represent measurable amounts (e.g. water volume or weight).

## Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Bevans, R. (2023, June 22). Choosing the Right Statistical Test | Types & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 27, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/statistics/statistical-tests/

## Is this article helpful?

## Rebecca Bevans

Other students also liked, hypothesis testing | a step-by-step guide with easy examples, test statistics | definition, interpretation, and examples, normal distribution | examples, formulas, & uses, what is your plagiarism score.

## Module 8: Inference for One Proportion

Hypothesis testing (1 of 5), learning outcomes.

- When testing a claim, distinguish among situations involving one population mean, one population proportion, two population means, or two population proportions.
- Given a claim about a population, determine null and alternative hypotheses.

## Introduction

In inference, we use a sample to draw a conclusion about a population. Two types of inference are the focus of our work in this course:

- Estimate a population parameter with a confidence interval.
- Test a claim about a population parameter with a hypothesis test.

We can also use samples from two populations to compare those populations. In this situation, the two types of inference focus on differences in the parameters.

- Estimate a difference in population parameters with a confidence interval.
- Test a claim about a difference in population parameters with a hypothesis test.

In “Estimating a Population Proportion,” we learned to estimate a population proportion using a confidence interval. For example, we estimated the proportion of all Tallahassee Community College students who are female and the proportion of all American adults who used the Internet to obtain medical information in the previous month. We will revisit confidence intervals in future modules.

Now we look more carefully at how to test a claim with a hypothesis test. Statistical investigations begin with research questions. We begin our discussion of hypothesis tests with research questions that require us to test a claim. Later we look at how a claim becomes a hypothesis.

## Research Questions about Testing Claims

Let’s revisit some of the research questions from examples in the module Types of Statistical Studies and Producing Data that involve testing a claim.

Is the average course load for community college students less than 12 semester hours? This question contains a claim about a population mean. The question contains information about the population, the variable, and the parameter. The population is all community college students. The variable is course load in semester hours . It is quantitative, so the parameter is a mean. The claim is, “The mean course load for all community college students is less than 12 semester hours.”

Do the majority of community college students qualify for federal student loans? This question contains a claim about a population proportion and information about the population, the variable, and the parameter. The population is all community college students. The variable is Qualify for federal student loan (yes or no). It is categorical, so the parameter is a proportion. The claim is, “The proportion of community college students who qualify is greater than 0.5” (a majority means more than half, or 0.5).

In community colleges, do female students and male students have different mean GPAs? This question contains a claim that compares two population means. Again, we see information about the populations, the variable, and the parameters. The two populations are female community college students and male community college students. The variable is GPA . It is quantitative, so the parameters are means. The claim is, “The mean GPA for female community college students is different from the mean GPA for male community college students.” Notice that the claim compares the two population means, but there is no claim about the numeric value of either mean.

Are college athletes more likely than nonathletes to receive academic advising? This question contains a claim that compares two population proportions: college athletes and college students who are not athletes. The variable is Receive academic advising (yes or no). The variable is categorical, so the parameters are proportions. The claim is, “The proportion of all college athletes who receive academic advising is greater than the proportion of all nonathletes in college who receive academic advising.” Notice that the claim compares two population proportions, but there is no claim about the numeric value of either proportion.

In the case of testing a claim about a single population parameter, we compare it to a numeric value. In the case of testing a claim about two population parameters, we compare them to each other.

Identify the type of claim in each research question below.

## Next Steps: Forming Hypotheses

We already know that in inference we use a sample to draw a conclusion about a population. If the research question contains a claim about the population, we translate the claim into two related hypotheses.

The null hypothesis is a hypothesis about the value of the parameter. The null hypothesis relates to our work in Linking Probability to Statistical Inference where we drew a conclusion about a population parameter on the basis of the sampling distribution. We started with an assumption about the value of the parameter, then used a simulation to simulate the selection of random samples from a population with this parameter value. Or we used the parameter value in a mathematical model to describe the center and spread of the sampling distribution. The null hypothesis gives the value of the parameter that we will use to create the sampling distribution. In this way, the null hypothesis states what we assume to be true about the population.

The alternative hypothesis usually reflects the claim in the research question about the value of the parameter. The alternative hypothesis says the parameter is “greater than” or “less than” or “not equal to” the value we assume to true in the null hypothesis.

## Stating Hypotheses

Here are the hypotheses for the research questions from the previous example. The null hypothesis is abbreviated H 0 . The alternative hypothesis is abbreviated H a .

Is the average course load for community college students less than 12 semester hours?

- H 0 : The mean course load for community college students is equal to 12 semester hours.
- H a : The mean course load for community college students is less than 12 semester hours.

Do the majority of community college students qualify for federal student loans?

- H 0 : The proportion of community college students who qualify for federal student loans is 0.5.
- H a : The proportion of community college students who qualify for federal student loans is greater than 0.5.

When the research question contains a claim that compares two populations, the null hypothesis states that the parameters are equal. We will see in Modules 9 and 10 that we translate the null hypothesis into a statement about “no difference” in parameter values. We revisit this idea in more depth later.

In community colleges, do female students and male students have different mean GPAs?

- H 0 : In community colleges, female and male students have the same mean GPAs.
- H a : In community colleges, female and male students have different mean GPAs.

Are college athletes more likely than nonathletes to receive academic advising?

- H 0 : In colleges, the proportion of athletes who receive academic advising is equal to the proportion of nonathletes who receive academic advising.
- H a : In colleges, the proportion of athletes who receive academic advising is greater than the proportion of nonathletes who receive academic advising.

Here are some general observations about null and alternative hypotheses.

- The hypotheses are competing claims about the parameter or about the comparison of parameters.
- Both hypotheses are statements about the same population parameter or same two population parameters.
- The null hypothesis contains an equal sign.
- The alternative hypothesis is always an inequality statement. It contains a “less than” or a “greater than” or a “not equal to” symbol.
- In a statistical investigation, we determine the research question, and thus the hypotheses, before we collect data.

The process of forming hypotheses, collecting data, and using the data to draw a conclusion about the hypotheses is called hypothesis testing .

## Contribute!

Improve this page Learn More

- Concepts in Statistics. Provided by : Open Learning Initiative. Located at : http://oli.cmu.edu . License : CC BY: Attribution

## Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is a tool for making statistical inferences about the population data. It is an analysis tool that tests assumptions and determines how likely something is within a given standard of accuracy. Hypothesis testing provides a way to verify whether the results of an experiment are valid.

A null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis are set up before performing the hypothesis testing. This helps to arrive at a conclusion regarding the sample obtained from the population. In this article, we will learn more about hypothesis testing, its types, steps to perform the testing, and associated examples.

## What is Hypothesis Testing in Statistics?

Hypothesis testing uses sample data from the population to draw useful conclusions regarding the population probability distribution . It tests an assumption made about the data using different types of hypothesis testing methodologies. The hypothesis testing results in either rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.

## Hypothesis Testing Definition

Hypothesis testing can be defined as a statistical tool that is used to identify if the results of an experiment are meaningful or not. It involves setting up a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. These two hypotheses will always be mutually exclusive. This means that if the null hypothesis is true then the alternative hypothesis is false and vice versa. An example of hypothesis testing is setting up a test to check if a new medicine works on a disease in a more efficient manner.

## Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a concise mathematical statement that is used to indicate that there is no difference between two possibilities. In other words, there is no difference between certain characteristics of data. This hypothesis assumes that the outcomes of an experiment are based on chance alone. It is denoted as \(H_{0}\). Hypothesis testing is used to conclude if the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. Suppose an experiment is conducted to check if girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5. The null hypothesis will say that they are the same height.

## Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis is an alternative to the null hypothesis. It is used to show that the observations of an experiment are due to some real effect. It indicates that there is a statistical significance between two possible outcomes and can be denoted as \(H_{1}\) or \(H_{a}\). For the above-mentioned example, the alternative hypothesis would be that girls are shorter than boys at the age of 5.

## Hypothesis Testing P Value

In hypothesis testing, the p value is used to indicate whether the results obtained after conducting a test are statistically significant or not. It also indicates the probability of making an error in rejecting or not rejecting the null hypothesis.This value is always a number between 0 and 1. The p value is compared to an alpha level, \(\alpha\) or significance level. The alpha level can be defined as the acceptable risk of incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis. The alpha level is usually chosen between 1% to 5%.

## Hypothesis Testing Critical region

All sets of values that lead to rejecting the null hypothesis lie in the critical region. Furthermore, the value that separates the critical region from the non-critical region is known as the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Formula

Depending upon the type of data available and the size, different types of hypothesis testing are used to determine whether the null hypothesis can be rejected or not. The hypothesis testing formula for some important test statistics are given below:

- z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\). \(\overline{x}\) is the sample mean, \(\mu\) is the population mean, \(\sigma\) is the population standard deviation and n is the size of the sample.
- t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\). s is the sample standard deviation.
- \(\chi ^{2} = \sum \frac{(O_{i}-E_{i})^{2}}{E_{i}}\). \(O_{i}\) is the observed value and \(E_{i}\) is the expected value.

We will learn more about these test statistics in the upcoming section.

## Types of Hypothesis Testing

Selecting the correct test for performing hypothesis testing can be confusing. These tests are used to determine a test statistic on the basis of which the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected. Some of the important tests used for hypothesis testing are given below.

## Hypothesis Testing Z Test

A z test is a way of hypothesis testing that is used for a large sample size (n ≥ 30). It is used to determine whether there is a difference between the population mean and the sample mean when the population standard deviation is known. It can also be used to compare the mean of two samples. It is used to compute the z test statistic. The formulas are given as follows:

- One sample: z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\).
- Two samples: z = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## Hypothesis Testing t Test

The t test is another method of hypothesis testing that is used for a small sample size (n < 30). It is also used to compare the sample mean and population mean. However, the population standard deviation is not known. Instead, the sample standard deviation is known. The mean of two samples can also be compared using the t test.

- One sample: t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\).
- Two samples: t = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{s_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{s_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## Hypothesis Testing Chi Square

The Chi square test is a hypothesis testing method that is used to check whether the variables in a population are independent or not. It is used when the test statistic is chi-squared distributed.

## One Tailed Hypothesis Testing

One tailed hypothesis testing is done when the rejection region is only in one direction. It can also be known as directional hypothesis testing because the effects can be tested in one direction only. This type of testing is further classified into the right tailed test and left tailed test.

Right Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The right tail test is also known as the upper tail test. This test is used to check whether the population parameter is greater than some value. The null and alternative hypotheses for this test are given as follows:

\(H_{0}\): The population parameter is ≤ some value

\(H_{1}\): The population parameter is > some value.

If the test statistic has a greater value than the critical value then the null hypothesis is rejected

Left Tailed Hypothesis Testing

The left tail test is also known as the lower tail test. It is used to check whether the population parameter is less than some value. The hypotheses for this hypothesis testing can be written as follows:

\(H_{0}\): The population parameter is ≥ some value

\(H_{1}\): The population parameter is < some value.

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value lesser than the critical value.

## Two Tailed Hypothesis Testing

In this hypothesis testing method, the critical region lies on both sides of the sampling distribution. It is also known as a non - directional hypothesis testing method. The two-tailed test is used when it needs to be determined if the population parameter is assumed to be different than some value. The hypotheses can be set up as follows:

\(H_{0}\): the population parameter = some value

\(H_{1}\): the population parameter ≠ some value

The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic has a value that is not equal to the critical value.

## Hypothesis Testing Steps

Hypothesis testing can be easily performed in five simple steps. The most important step is to correctly set up the hypotheses and identify the right method for hypothesis testing. The basic steps to perform hypothesis testing are as follows:

- Step 1: Set up the null hypothesis by correctly identifying whether it is the left-tailed, right-tailed, or two-tailed hypothesis testing.
- Step 2: Set up the alternative hypothesis.
- Step 3: Choose the correct significance level, \(\alpha\), and find the critical value.
- Step 4: Calculate the correct test statistic (z, t or \(\chi\)) and p-value.
- Step 5: Compare the test statistic with the critical value or compare the p-value with \(\alpha\) to arrive at a conclusion. In other words, decide if the null hypothesis is to be rejected or not.

## Hypothesis Testing Example

The best way to solve a problem on hypothesis testing is by applying the 5 steps mentioned in the previous section. Suppose a researcher claims that the mean average weight of men is greater than 100kgs with a standard deviation of 15kgs. 30 men are chosen with an average weight of 112.5 Kgs. Using hypothesis testing, check if there is enough evidence to support the researcher's claim. The confidence interval is given as 95%.

Step 1: This is an example of a right-tailed test. Set up the null hypothesis as \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 100.

Step 2: The alternative hypothesis is given by \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) > 100.

Step 3: As this is a one-tailed test, \(\alpha\) = 100% - 95% = 5%. This can be used to determine the critical value.

1 - \(\alpha\) = 1 - 0.05 = 0.95

0.95 gives the required area under the curve. Now using a normal distribution table, the area 0.95 is at z = 1.645. A similar process can be followed for a t-test. The only additional requirement is to calculate the degrees of freedom given by n - 1.

Step 4: Calculate the z test statistic. This is because the sample size is 30. Furthermore, the sample and population means are known along with the standard deviation.

z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\).

\(\mu\) = 100, \(\overline{x}\) = 112.5, n = 30, \(\sigma\) = 15

z = \(\frac{112.5-100}{\frac{15}{\sqrt{30}}}\) = 4.56

Step 5: Conclusion. As 4.56 > 1.645 thus, the null hypothesis can be rejected.

## Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals

Confidence intervals form an important part of hypothesis testing. This is because the alpha level can be determined from a given confidence interval. Suppose a confidence interval is given as 95%. Subtract the confidence interval from 100%. This gives 100 - 95 = 5% or 0.05. This is the alpha value of a one-tailed hypothesis testing. To obtain the alpha value for a two-tailed hypothesis testing, divide this value by 2. This gives 0.05 / 2 = 0.025.

Related Articles:

- Probability and Statistics
- Data Handling

Important Notes on Hypothesis Testing

- Hypothesis testing is a technique that is used to verify whether the results of an experiment are statistically significant.
- It involves the setting up of a null hypothesis and an alternate hypothesis.
- There are three types of tests that can be conducted under hypothesis testing - z test, t test, and chi square test.
- Hypothesis testing can be classified as right tail, left tail, and two tail tests.

## Examples on Hypothesis Testing

- Example 1: The average weight of a dumbbell in a gym is 90lbs. However, a physical trainer believes that the average weight might be higher. A random sample of 5 dumbbells with an average weight of 110lbs and a standard deviation of 18lbs. Using hypothesis testing check if the physical trainer's claim can be supported for a 95% confidence level. Solution: As the sample size is lesser than 30, the t-test is used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 90, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) > 90 \(\overline{x}\) = 110, \(\mu\) = 90, n = 5, s = 18. \(\alpha\) = 0.05 Using the t-distribution table, the critical value is 2.132 t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\) t = 2.484 As 2.484 > 2.132, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: The average weight of the dumbbells may be greater than 90lbs
- Example 2: The average score on a test is 80 with a standard deviation of 10. With a new teaching curriculum introduced it is believed that this score will change. On random testing, the score of 38 students, the mean was found to be 88. With a 0.05 significance level, is there any evidence to support this claim? Solution: This is an example of two-tail hypothesis testing. The z test will be used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 80, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) ≠ 80 \(\overline{x}\) = 88, \(\mu\) = 80, n = 36, \(\sigma\) = 10. \(\alpha\) = 0.05 / 2 = 0.025 The critical value using the normal distribution table is 1.96 z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\) z = \(\frac{88-80}{\frac{10}{\sqrt{36}}}\) = 4.8 As 4.8 > 1.96, the null hypothesis is rejected. Answer: There is a difference in the scores after the new curriculum was introduced.
- Example 3: The average score of a class is 90. However, a teacher believes that the average score might be lower. The scores of 6 students were randomly measured. The mean was 82 with a standard deviation of 18. With a 0.05 significance level use hypothesis testing to check if this claim is true. Solution: The t test will be used. \(H_{0}\): \(\mu\) = 90, \(H_{1}\): \(\mu\) < 90 \(\overline{x}\) = 110, \(\mu\) = 90, n = 6, s = 18 The critical value from the t table is -2.015 t = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{s}{\sqrt{n}}}\) t = \(\frac{82-90}{\frac{18}{\sqrt{6}}}\) t = -1.088 As -1.088 > -2.015, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Answer: There is not enough evidence to support the claim.

go to slide go to slide go to slide

Book a Free Trial Class

## FAQs on Hypothesis Testing

What is hypothesis testing.

Hypothesis testing in statistics is a tool that is used to make inferences about the population data. It is also used to check if the results of an experiment are valid.

## What is the z Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The z test in hypothesis testing is used to find the z test statistic for normally distributed data . The z test is used when the standard deviation of the population is known and the sample size is greater than or equal to 30.

## What is the t Test in Hypothesis Testing?

The t test in hypothesis testing is used when the data follows a student t distribution . It is used when the sample size is less than 30 and standard deviation of the population is not known.

## What is the formula for z test in Hypothesis Testing?

The formula for a one sample z test in hypothesis testing is z = \(\frac{\overline{x}-\mu}{\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{n}}}\) and for two samples is z = \(\frac{(\overline{x_{1}}-\overline{x_{2}})-(\mu_{1}-\mu_{2})}{\sqrt{\frac{\sigma_{1}^{2}}{n_{1}}+\frac{\sigma_{2}^{2}}{n_{2}}}}\).

## What is the p Value in Hypothesis Testing?

The p value helps to determine if the test results are statistically significant or not. In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis can either be rejected or not rejected based on the comparison between the p value and the alpha level.

## What is One Tail Hypothesis Testing?

When the rejection region is only on one side of the distribution curve then it is known as one tail hypothesis testing. The right tail test and the left tail test are two types of directional hypothesis testing.

## What is the Alpha Level in Two Tail Hypothesis Testing?

To get the alpha level in a two tail hypothesis testing divide \(\alpha\) by 2. This is done as there are two rejection regions in the curve.

For enquiries call:

+1-469-442-0620

- Data Science

## Hypothesis Testing in Data Science [Types, Process, Example]

Home Blog Data Science Hypothesis Testing in Data Science [Types, Process, Example]

In day-to-day life, we come across a lot of data lot of variety of content. Sometimes the information is too much that we get confused about whether the information provided is correct or not. At that moment, we get introduced to a word called “Hypothesis testing” which helps in determining the proofs and pieces of evidence for some belief or information.

## What is Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing is an integral part of statistical inference. It is used to decide whether the given sample data from the population parameter satisfies the given hypothetical condition. So, it will predict and decide using several factors whether the predictions satisfy the conditions or not. In simpler terms, trying to prove whether the facts or statements are true or not.

For example, if you predict that students who sit on the last bench are poorer and weaker than students sitting on 1st bench, then this is a hypothetical statement that needs to be clarified using different experiments. Another example we can see is implementing new business strategies to evaluate whether they will work for the business or not. All these things are very necessary when you work with data as a data scientist. If you are interested in learning about data science, visit this amazing Data Science full course to learn data science.

## How is Hypothesis Testing Used in Data Science?

It is important to know how and where we can use hypothesis testing techniques in the field of data science. Data scientists predict a lot of things in their day-to-day work, and to check the probability of whether that finding is certain or not, we use hypothesis testing. The main goal of hypothesis testing is to gauge how well the predictions perform based on the sample data provided by the population. If you are interested to know more about the applications of the data, then refer to this D ata Scien ce course in India which will give you more insights into application-based things. When data scientists work on model building using various machine learning algorithms, they need to have faith in their models and the forecasting of models. They then provide the sample data to the model for training purposes so that it can provide us with the significance of statistical data that will represent the entire population.

## Where and When to Use Hypothesis Test?

Hypothesis testing is widely used when we need to compare our results based on predictions. So, it will compare before and after results. For example, someone claimed that students writing exams from blue pen always get above 90%; now this statement proves it correct, and experiments need to be done. So, the data will be collected based on the student's input, and then the test will be done on the final result later after various experiments and observations on students' marks vs pen used, final conclusions will be made which will determine the results. Now hypothesis testing will be done to compare the 1st and the 2nd result, to see the difference and closeness of both outputs. This is how hypothesis testing is done.

## How Does Hypothesis Testing Work in Data Science?

In the whole data science life cycle, hypothesis testing is done in various stages, starting from the initial part, the 1st stage where the EDA, data pre-processing, and manipulation are done. In this stage, we will do our initial hypothesis testing to visualize the outcome in later stages. The next test will be done after we have built our model, once the model is ready and hypothesis testing is done, we will compare the results of the initial testing and the 2nd one to compare the results and significance of the results and to confirm the insights generated from the 1st cycle match with the 2nd one or not. This will help us know how the model responds to the sample training data. As we saw above, hypothesis testing is always needed when we are planning to contrast more than 2 groups. While checking on the results, it is important to check on the flexibility of the results for the sample and the population. Later, we can judge on the disagreement of the results are appropriate or vague. This is all we can do using hypothesis testing.

## Different Types of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing can be seen in several types. In total, we have 5 types of hypothesis testing. They are described below:

## 1. Alternative Hypothesis

The alternative hypothesis explains and defines the relationship between two variables. It simply indicates a positive relationship between two variables which means they do have a statistical bond. It indicates that the sample observed is going to influence or affect the outcome. An alternative hypothesis is described using H a or H 1 . Ha indicates an alternative hypothesis and H 1 explains the possibility of influenced outcome which is 1. For example, children who study from the beginning of the class have fewer chances to fail. An alternate hypothesis will be accepted once the statistical predictions become significant. The alternative hypothesis can be further divided into 3 parts.

- Left-tailed: Left tailed hypothesis can be expected when the sample value is less than the true value.
- Right-tailed: Right-tailed hypothesis can be expected when the true value is greater than the outcome/predicted value.
- Two-tailed: Two-tailed hypothesis is defined when the true value is not equal to the sample value or the output.

## 2. Null Hypothesis

The null hypothesis simply states that there is no relation between statistical variables. If the facts presented at the start do not match with the outcomes, then we can say, the testing is null hypothesis testing. The null hypothesis is represented as H 0 . For example, children who study from the beginning of the class have no fewer chances to fail. There are types of Null Hypothesis described below:

Simple Hypothesis: It helps in denoting and indicating the distribution of the population.

Composite Hypothesis: It does not denote the population distribution

Exact Hypothesis: In the exact hypothesis, the value of the hypothesis is the same as the sample distribution. Example- μ= 10

Inexact Hypothesis: Here, the hypothesis values are not equal to the sample. It will denote a particular range of values.

## 3. Non-directional Hypothesis

The non-directional hypothesis is a tow-tailed hypothesis that indicates the true value does not equal the predicted value. In simpler terms, there is no direction between the 2 variables. For an example of a non-directional hypothesis, girls and boys have different methodologies to solve a problem. Here the example explains that the thinking methodologies of a girl and a boy is different, they don’t think alike.

## 4. Directional Hypothesis

In the Directional hypothesis, there is a direct relationship between two variables. Here any of the variables influence the other.

## 5. Statistical Hypothesis

Statistical hypothesis helps in understanding the nature and character of the population. It is a great method to decide whether the values and the data we have with us satisfy the given hypothesis or not. It helps us in making different probabilistic and certain statements to predict the outcome of the population... We have several types of tests which are the T-test, Z-test, and Anova tests.

## Methods of Hypothesis Testing

1. frequentist hypothesis testing.

Frequentist hypotheses mostly work with the approach of making predictions and assumptions based on the current data which is real-time data. All the facts are based on current data. The most famous kind of frequentist approach is null hypothesis testing.

## 2. Bayesian Hypothesis Testing

Bayesian testing is a modern and latest way of hypothesis testing. It is known to be the test that works with past data to predict the future possibilities of the hypothesis. In Bayesian, it refers to the prior distribution or prior probability samples for the observed data. In the medical Industry, we observe that Doctors deal with patients’ diseases using past historical records. So, with this kind of record, it is helpful for them to understand and predict the current and upcoming health conditions of the patient.

## Importance of Hypothesis Testing in Data Science

Most of the time, people assume that data science is all about applying machine learning algorithms and getting results, that is true but in addition to the fact that to work in the data science field, one needs to be well versed with statistics as most of the background work in Data science is done through statistics. When we deal with data for pre-processing, manipulating, and analyzing, statistics play. Specifically speaking Hypothesis testing helps in making confident decisions, predicting the correct outcomes, and finding insightful conclusions regarding the population. Hypothesis testing helps us resolve tough things easily. To get more familiar with Hypothesis testing and other prediction models attend the superb useful KnowledgeHut Data Science full course which will give you more domain knowledge and will assist you in working with industry-related projects.

## Basic Steps in Hypothesis Testing [Workflow]

1. null and alternative hypothesis.

After we have done our initial research about the predictions that we want to find out if true, it is important to mention whether the hypothesis done is a null hypothesis(H0) or an alternative hypothesis (Ha). Once we understand the type of hypothesis, it will be easy for us to do mathematical research on it. A null hypothesis will usually indicate the no-relationship between the variables whereas an alternative hypothesis describes the relationship between 2 variables.

- H0 – Girls, on average, are not strong as boys
- Ha - Girls, on average are stronger than boys

## 2. Data Collection

To prove our statistical test validity, it is essential and critical to check the data and proceed with sampling them to get the correct hypothesis results. If the target data is not prepared and ready, it will become difficult to make the predictions or the statistical inference on the population that we are planning to make. It is important to prepare efficient data, so that hypothesis findings can be easy to predict.

## 3. Selection of an appropriate test statistic

To perform various analyses on the data, we need to choose a statistical test. There are various types of statistical tests available. Based on the wide spread of the data that is variance within the group or how different the data category is from one another that is variance without a group, we can proceed with our further research study.

## 4. Selection of the appropriate significant level

Once we get the result and outcome of the statistical test, we have to then proceed further to decide whether the reject or accept the null hypothesis. The significance level is indicated by alpha (α). It describes the probability of rejecting or accepting the null hypothesis. Example- Suppose the value of the significance level which is alpha is 0.05. Now, this value indicates the difference from the null hypothesis.

## 5. Calculation of the test statistics and the p-value

P value is simply the probability value and expected determined outcome which is at least as extreme and close as observed results of a hypothetical test. It helps in evaluating and verifying hypotheses against the sample data. This happens while assuming the null hypothesis is true. The lower the value of P, the higher and better will be the results of the significant value which is alpha (α). For example, if the P-value is 0.05 or even less than this, then it will be considered statistically significant. The main thing is these values are predicted based on the calculations done by deviating the values between the observed one and referenced one. The greater the difference between values, the lower the p-value will be.

## 6. Findings of the test

After knowing the P-value and statistical significance, we can determine our results and take the appropriate decision of whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis based on the facts and statistics presented to us.

## How to Calculate Hypothesis Testing?

Hypothesis testing can be done using various statistical tests. One is Z-test. The formula for Z-test is given below:

Z = ( x̅ – μ 0 ) / (σ /√n)

In the above equation, x̅ is the sample mean

- μ0 is the population mean
- σ is the standard deviation
- n is the sample size

Now depending on the Z-test result, the examination will be processed further. The result is either going to be a null hypothesis or it is going to be an alternative hypothesis. That can be measured through below formula-

- H0: μ=μ0
- Ha: μ≠μ0
- Here,
- H0 = null hypothesis
- Ha = alternate hypothesis

In this way, we calculate the hypothesis testing and can apply it to real-world scenarios.

## Real-World Examples of Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing has a wide variety of use cases that proves to be beneficial for various industries.

## 1. Healthcare

In the healthcare industry, all the research and experiments which are done to predict the success of any medicine or drug are done successfully with the help of Hypothesis testing.

## 2. Education sector

Hypothesis testing assists in experimenting with different teaching techniques to deal with the understanding capability of different students.

## 3. Mental Health

Hypothesis testing helps in indicating the factors that may cause some serious mental health issues.

## 4. Manufacturing

Testing whether the new change in the process of manufacturing helped in the improvement of the process as well as in the quantity or not. In the same way, there are many other use cases that we get to see in different sectors for hypothesis testing.

## Error Terms in Hypothesis Testing

1. type-i error.

Type I error occurs during the process of hypothesis testing when the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is accurate. This kind of error is also known as False positive because even though the statement is positive or correct but results are given as false. For example, an innocent person still goes to jail because he is considered to be guilty.

## 2. Type-II error

Type II error occurs during the process of hypothesis testing when the null hypothesis is not rejected even though it is inaccurate. This Kind of error is also called a False-negative which means even though the statements are false and inaccurate, it still says it is correct and doesn’t reject it. For example, a person is guilty, but in court, he has been proven innocent where he is guilty, so this is a Type II error.

## 3. Level of Significance

The level of significance is majorly used to measure the confidence with which a null hypothesis can be rejected. It is the value with which one can reject the null hypothesis which is H0. The level of significance gauges whether the hypothesis testing is significant or not.

P-value stands for probability value, which tells us the probability or likelihood to find the set of observations when the null hypothesis is true using statistical tests. The main purpose is to check the significance of the statistical statement.

## 5. High P-Values

A higher P-value indicates that the testing is not statistically significant. For example, a P value greater than 0.05 is considered to be having higher P value. A higher P-value also means that our evidence and proofs are not strong enough to influence the population.

In hypothesis testing, each step is responsible for getting the outcomes and the results, whether it is the selection of statistical tests or working on data, each step contributes towards the better consequences of the hypothesis testing. It is always a recommendable step when planning for predicting the outcomes and trying to experiment with the sample; hypothesis testing is a useful concept to apply.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

We can test a hypothesis by selecting a correct hypothetical test and, based on those getting results.

Many statistical tests are used for hypothetical testing which includes Z-test, T-test, etc.

Hypothesis helps us in doing various experiments and working on a specific research topic to predict the results.

The null and alternative hypothesis, data collection, selecting a statistical test, selecting significance value, calculating p-value, check your findings.

In simple words, parametric tests are purely based on assumptions whereas non-parametric tests are based on data that is collected and acquired from a sample.

## Gauri Guglani

Gauri Guglani works as a Data Analyst at Deloitte Consulting. She has done her major in Information Technology and holds great interest in the field of data science. She owns her technical skills as well as managerial skills and also is great at communicating. Since her undergraduate, Gauri has developed a profound interest in writing content and sharing her knowledge through the manual means of blog/article writing. She loves writing on topics affiliated with Statistics, Python Libraries, Machine Learning, Natural Language processes, and many more.

Avail your free 1:1 mentorship session.

Something went wrong

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

Present the findings in your results and discussion section. Though the specific details might vary, the procedure you will use when testing a hypothesis will always follow some version of these steps. Table of contents. Step 1: State your null and alternate hypothesis. Step 2: Collect data. Step 3: Perform a statistical test.

4. Photo by Anna Nekrashevich from Pexels. Hypothesis testing is a common statistical tool used in research and data science to support the certainty of findings. The aim of testing is to answer how probable an apparent effect is detected by chance given a random data sample. This article provides a detailed explanation of the key concepts in ...

Image by Author. So, a one-tailed statistical test is one whose distribution has only one tail — either the left (left-tailed test) or the right (right-tailed test).A two-tailed statistical test is one whose distribution has two tails — both left and right.. The purpose of a tail in statistical tests is to see whether the test statistic obtained falls within the tail or outside it.

6. Test Statistic: The test statistic measures how close the sample has come to the null hypothesis. Its observed value changes randomly from one random sample to a different sample. A test statistic contains information about the data that is relevant for deciding whether to reject the null hypothesis or not.

In simple terms, hypothesis testing is a method used to make decisions or inferences about population parameters based on sample data. Imagine being handed a dice and asked if it's biased. By rolling it a few times and analyzing the outcomes, you'd be engaging in the essence of hypothesis testing. Think of hypothesis testing as the ...

1. Introduction to Hypothesis Testing - Definition and significance in research and data analysis. - Brief historical background. 2. Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing - Null and Alternative…

Testing Hypotheses using Confidence Intervals. We can start the evaluation of the hypothesis setup by comparing 2006 and 2012 run times using a point estimate from the 2012 sample: x¯12 = 95.61 x ¯ 12 = 95.61 minutes. This estimate suggests the average time is actually longer than the 2006 time, 93.29 minutes.

Hypothesis Testing in Data Science is a statistical method used to assess the validity of assumptions or claims about a population based on sample data. It involves formulating two Hypotheses, the null Hypothesis (H0) and the alternative Hypothesis (Ha or H1), and then using statistical tests to find out if there is enough evidence to support ...

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to determine whether a hypothesis about a population parameter is true or not. This technique helps researchers and decision-makers make informed decisions based on evidence rather than guesses. Hypothesis testing is an essential tool in scientific research, social sciences, and business analysis.

Hypothesis testing is a crucial procedure to perform when you want to make inferences about a population using a random sample. These inferences include estimating population properties such as the mean, differences between means, proportions, and the relationships between variables. This post provides an overview of statistical hypothesis testing.

The above image shows a table with some of the most common test statistics and their corresponding tests or models.. A statistical hypothesis test is a method of statistical inference used to decide whether the data sufficiently support a particular hypothesis. A statistical hypothesis test typically involves a calculation of a test statistic.Then a decision is made, either by comparing the ...

Hypothesis testing is a statistical method used to evaluate a claim or hypothesis about a population parameter based on sample data. It involves making decisions about the validity of a statement, often referred to as the null hypothesis, by assessing the likelihood of observing the sample data if the null hypothesis were true.

A statistical hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter. This assumption may or may not be true. Hypothesis testing refers to the formal procedures used by statisticians to accept or reject statistical hypotheses. Statistical Hypotheses Factual Hypotheses The most ideal approach to decide if a factual theory is genuine is to look at the […]

Usually, parametric tests have the corresponding non-parametric test, as well described in [3]. The diagram featured at the top of this article reviews how to choose the right Hypothesis Test according to the sample. Parametric Tests. As already said, Parametric Tests assume a normal distribution in the data.

Hypothesis testing helps in determining the validity of a claim or theory about a population based on a sample of data. Moreover, hypothesis testing in data science aids in the identification of patterns and trends in the data. It helps in understanding the relationships between variables and in predicting future outcomes.

The test statistic is based on a restriction written in matrix form. y = β0 + x1β1 + x2β2 + x3β3 + ϵ. Null hypothesis is H0: β1 = 0 & β2 = 0 can be rewritten as H0: Rβ − q = 0 where. R is a m × k matrix where m is the number of restrictions and k is the number of parameters. q is a k × 1 vector.

Categorical variables represent groupings of things (e.g. the different tree species in a forest). Types of categorical variables include: Ordinal: represent data with an order (e.g. rankings). Nominal: represent group names (e.g. brands or species names). Binary: represent data with a yes/no or 1/0 outcome (e.g. win or lose).

The null hypothesis gives the value of the parameter that we will use to create the sampling distribution. In this way, the null hypothesis states what we assume to be true about the population. The alternative hypothesis usually reflects the claim in the research question about the value of the parameter. The alternative hypothesis says the ...

Hypothesis testing is a tool for making statistical inferences about the population data. It is an analysis tool that tests assumptions and determines how likely something is within a given standard of accuracy. Hypothesis testing provides a way to verify whether the results of an experiment are valid. A null hypothesis and an alternative ...

Composite Hypothesis: It does not denote the population distribution. Exact Hypothesis: In the exact hypothesis, the value of the hypothesis is the same as the sample distribution. Example- μ= 10. Inexact Hypothesis: Here, the hypothesis values are not equal to the sample. It will denote a particular range of values.

It is the total probability of achieving a value so rare and even rarer. It is the area under the normal curve beyond the P-Value mark. This P-Value is calculated using the Z score we just found. Each Z-score has a corresponding P-Value. This can be found using any statistical software like R or even from the Z-Table.

McKinsey consultants follow three steps in this cycle: Form a hypothesis about the problem and determine the data needed to test the hypothesis. Gather and analyze the necessary data, comparing ...

The Hypothesis Tester allows a researcher to generate a theoretical framework inductively from their data, or to test out a preexisting set of theoretical ideas on a given data set deductively. The hypothesis-testing component of HyperRESEARCH provides a semiformal mechanism for theory building and hypothesis testing.