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## ANOVA (Analysis of variance) – Formulas, Types, and Examples

Table of Contents

## Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to test differences between two or more means. It is similar to the t-test, but the t-test is generally used for comparing two means, while ANOVA is used when you have more than two means to compare.

ANOVA is based on comparing the variance (or variation) between the data samples to the variation within each particular sample. If the between-group variance is high and the within-group variance is low, this provides evidence that the means of the groups are significantly different.

## ANOVA Terminology

When discussing ANOVA, there are several key terms to understand:

- Factor : This is another term for the independent variable in your analysis. In a one-way ANOVA, there is one factor, while in a two-way ANOVA, there are two factors.
- Levels : These are the different groups or categories within a factor. For example, if the factor is ‘diet’ the levels might be ‘low fat’, ‘medium fat’, and ‘high fat’.
- Response Variable : This is the dependent variable or the outcome that you are measuring.
- Within-group Variance : This is the variance or spread of scores within each level of your factor.
- Between-group Variance : This is the variance or spread of scores between the different levels of your factor.
- Grand Mean : This is the overall mean when you consider all the data together, regardless of the factor level.
- Treatment Sums of Squares (SS) : This represents the between-group variability. It is the sum of the squared differences between the group means and the grand mean.
- Error Sums of Squares (SS) : This represents the within-group variability. It’s the sum of the squared differences between each observation and its group mean.
- Total Sums of Squares (SS) : This is the sum of the Treatment SS and the Error SS. It represents the total variability in the data.
- Degrees of Freedom (df) : The degrees of freedom are the number of values that have the freedom to vary when computing a statistic. For example, if you have ‘n’ observations in one group, then the degrees of freedom for that group is ‘n-1’.
- Mean Square (MS) : Mean Square is the average squared deviation and is calculated by dividing the sum of squares by the corresponding degrees of freedom.
- F-Ratio : This is the test statistic for ANOVAs, and it’s the ratio of the between-group variance to the within-group variance. If the between-group variance is significantly larger than the within-group variance, the F-ratio will be large and likely significant.
- Null Hypothesis (H0) : This is the hypothesis that there is no difference between the group means.
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : This is the hypothesis that there is a difference between at least two of the group means.
- p-value : This is the probability of obtaining a test statistic as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true. If the p-value is less than the significance level (usually 0.05), then the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.
- Post-hoc tests : These are follow-up tests conducted after an ANOVA when the null hypothesis is rejected, to determine which specific groups’ means (levels) are different from each other. Examples include Tukey’s HSD, Scheffe, Bonferroni, among others.

## Types of ANOVA

Types of ANOVA are as follows:

## One-way (or one-factor) ANOVA

This is the simplest type of ANOVA, which involves one independent variable . For example, comparing the effect of different types of diet (vegetarian, pescatarian, omnivore) on cholesterol level.

## Two-way (or two-factor) ANOVA

This involves two independent variables. This allows for testing the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable , as well as testing if there’s an interaction effect between the independent variables on the dependent variable.

## Repeated Measures ANOVA

This is used when the same subjects are measured multiple times under different conditions, or at different points in time. This type of ANOVA is often used in longitudinal studies.

## Mixed Design ANOVA

This combines features of both between-subjects (independent groups) and within-subjects (repeated measures) designs. In this model, one factor is a between-subjects variable and the other is a within-subjects variable.

## Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)

This is used when there are two or more dependent variables. It tests whether changes in the independent variable(s) correspond to changes in the dependent variables.

## Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)

This combines ANOVA and regression. ANCOVA tests whether certain factors have an effect on the outcome variable after removing the variance for which quantitative covariates (interval variables) account. This allows the comparison of one variable outcome between groups, while statistically controlling for the effect of other continuous variables that are not of primary interest.

## Nested ANOVA

This model is used when the groups can be clustered into categories. For example, if you were comparing students’ performance from different classrooms and different schools, “classroom” could be nested within “school.”

## ANOVA Formulas

ANOVA Formulas are as follows:

Sum of Squares Total (SST)

This represents the total variability in the data. It is the sum of the squared differences between each observation and the overall mean.

- yi represents each individual data point
- y_mean represents the grand mean (mean of all observations)

Sum of Squares Within (SSW)

This represents the variability within each group or factor level. It is the sum of the squared differences between each observation and its group mean.

- yij represents each individual data point within a group
- y_meani represents the mean of the ith group

Sum of Squares Between (SSB)

This represents the variability between the groups. It is the sum of the squared differences between the group means and the grand mean, multiplied by the number of observations in each group.

- ni represents the number of observations in each group
- y_mean represents the grand mean

Degrees of Freedom

The degrees of freedom are the number of values that have the freedom to vary when calculating a statistic.

For within groups (dfW):

For between groups (dfB):

For total (dfT):

- N represents the total number of observations
- k represents the number of groups

Mean Squares

Mean squares are the sum of squares divided by the respective degrees of freedom.

Mean Squares Between (MSB):

Mean Squares Within (MSW):

F-Statistic

The F-statistic is used to test whether the variability between the groups is significantly greater than the variability within the groups.

If the F-statistic is significantly higher than what would be expected by chance, we reject the null hypothesis that all group means are equal.

## Examples of ANOVA

Examples 1:

Suppose a psychologist wants to test the effect of three different types of exercise (yoga, aerobic exercise, and weight training) on stress reduction. The dependent variable is the stress level, which can be measured using a stress rating scale.

Here are hypothetical stress ratings for a group of participants after they followed each of the exercise regimes for a period:

- Yoga: [3, 2, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2]
- Aerobic Exercise: [2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2]
- Weight Training: [4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 5, 4, 5, 4, 5]

The psychologist wants to determine if there is a statistically significant difference in stress levels between these different types of exercise.

To conduct the ANOVA:

1. State the hypotheses:

- Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no difference in mean stress levels between the three types of exercise.
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a difference in mean stress levels between at least two of the types of exercise.

2. Calculate the ANOVA statistics:

- Compute the Sum of Squares Between (SSB), Sum of Squares Within (SSW), and Sum of Squares Total (SST).
- Calculate the Degrees of Freedom (dfB, dfW, dfT).
- Calculate the Mean Squares Between (MSB) and Mean Squares Within (MSW).
- Compute the F-statistic (F = MSB / MSW).

3. Check the p-value associated with the calculated F-statistic.

- If the p-value is less than the chosen significance level (often 0.05), then we reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis. This suggests there is a statistically significant difference in mean stress levels between the three exercise types.

4. Post-hoc tests

- If we reject the null hypothesis, we conduct a post-hoc test to determine which specific groups’ means (exercise types) are different from each other.

Examples 2:

Suppose an agricultural scientist wants to compare the yield of three varieties of wheat. The scientist randomly selects four fields for each variety and plants them. After harvest, the yield from each field is measured in bushels. Here are the hypothetical yields:

The scientist wants to know if the differences in yields are due to the different varieties or just random variation.

Here’s how to apply the one-way ANOVA to this situation:

- Null Hypothesis (H0): The means of the three populations are equal.
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1): At least one population mean is different.
- Calculate the Degrees of Freedom (dfB for between groups, dfW for within groups, dfT for total).
- If the p-value is less than the chosen significance level (often 0.05), then we reject the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesis. This would suggest there is a statistically significant difference in mean yields among the three varieties.
- If we reject the null hypothesis, we conduct a post-hoc test to determine which specific groups’ means (wheat varieties) are different from each other.

## How to Conduct ANOVA

Conducting an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) involves several steps. Here’s a general guideline on how to perform it:

- Null Hypothesis (H0): The means of all groups are equal.
- Alternative Hypothesis (H1): At least one group mean is different from the others.
- The significance level (often denoted as α) is usually set at 0.05. This implies that you are willing to accept a 5% chance that you are wrong in rejecting the null hypothesis.
- Data should be collected for each group under study. Make sure that the data meet the assumptions of an ANOVA: normality, independence, and homogeneity of variances.
- Calculate the Degrees of Freedom (df) for each sum of squares (dfB, dfW, dfT).
- Compute the Mean Squares Between (MSB) and Mean Squares Within (MSW) by dividing the sum of squares by the corresponding degrees of freedom.
- Compute the F-statistic as the ratio of MSB to MSW.
- Determine the critical F-value from the F-distribution table using dfB and dfW.
- If the calculated F-statistic is greater than the critical F-value, reject the null hypothesis.
- If the p-value associated with the calculated F-statistic is smaller than the significance level (0.05 typically), you reject the null hypothesis.
- If you rejected the null hypothesis, you can conduct post-hoc tests (like Tukey’s HSD) to determine which specific groups’ means (if you have more than two groups) are different from each other.
- Regardless of the result, report your findings in a clear, understandable manner. This typically includes reporting the test statistic, p-value, and whether the null hypothesis was rejected.

## When to use ANOVA

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is used when you have three or more groups and you want to compare their means to see if they are significantly different from each other. It is a statistical method that is used in a variety of research scenarios. Here are some examples of when you might use ANOVA:

- Comparing Groups : If you want to compare the performance of more than two groups, for example, testing the effectiveness of different teaching methods on student performance.
- Evaluating Interactions : In a two-way or factorial ANOVA, you can test for an interaction effect. This means you are not only interested in the effect of each individual factor, but also whether the effect of one factor depends on the level of another factor.
- Repeated Measures : If you have measured the same subjects under different conditions or at different time points, you can use repeated measures ANOVA to compare the means of these repeated measures while accounting for the correlation between measures from the same subject.
- Experimental Designs : ANOVA is often used in experimental research designs when subjects are randomly assigned to different conditions and the goal is to compare the means of the conditions.

Here are the assumptions that must be met to use ANOVA:

- Normality : The data should be approximately normally distributed.
- Homogeneity of Variances : The variances of the groups you are comparing should be roughly equal. This assumption can be tested using Levene’s test or Bartlett’s test.
- Independence : The observations should be independent of each other. This assumption is met if the data is collected appropriately with no related groups (e.g., twins, matched pairs, repeated measures).

## Applications of ANOVA

The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a powerful statistical technique that is used widely across various fields and industries. Here are some of its key applications:

Agriculture

ANOVA is commonly used in agricultural research to compare the effectiveness of different types of fertilizers, crop varieties, or farming methods. For example, an agricultural researcher could use ANOVA to determine if there are significant differences in the yields of several varieties of wheat under the same conditions.

Manufacturing and Quality Control

ANOVA is used to determine if different manufacturing processes or machines produce different levels of product quality. For instance, an engineer might use it to test whether there are differences in the strength of a product based on the machine that produced it.

Marketing Research

Marketers often use ANOVA to test the effectiveness of different advertising strategies. For example, a marketer could use ANOVA to determine whether different marketing messages have a significant impact on consumer purchase intentions.

Healthcare and Medicine

In medical research, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments or drugs. For example, a medical researcher could use ANOVA to test whether there are significant differences in recovery times for patients who receive different types of therapy.

ANOVA is used in educational research to compare the effectiveness of different teaching methods or educational interventions. For example, an educator could use it to test whether students perform significantly differently when taught with different teaching methods.

Psychology and Social Sciences

Psychologists and social scientists use ANOVA to compare group means on various psychological and social variables. For example, a psychologist could use it to determine if there are significant differences in stress levels among individuals in different occupations.

Biology and Environmental Sciences

Biologists and environmental scientists use ANOVA to compare different biological and environmental conditions. For example, an environmental scientist could use it to determine if there are significant differences in the levels of a pollutant in different bodies of water.

## Advantages of ANOVA

Here are some advantages of using ANOVA:

Comparing Multiple Groups: One of the key advantages of ANOVA is the ability to compare the means of three or more groups. This makes it more powerful and flexible than the t-test, which is limited to comparing only two groups.

Control of Type I Error: When comparing multiple groups, the chances of making a Type I error (false positive) increases. One of the strengths of ANOVA is that it controls the Type I error rate across all comparisons. This is in contrast to performing multiple pairwise t-tests which can inflate the Type I error rate.

Testing Interactions: In factorial ANOVA, you can test not only the main effect of each factor, but also the interaction effect between factors. This can provide valuable insights into how different factors or variables interact with each other.

Handling Continuous and Categorical Variables: ANOVA can handle both continuous and categorical variables . The dependent variable is continuous and the independent variables are categorical.

Robustness: ANOVA is considered robust to violations of normality assumption when group sizes are equal. This means that even if your data do not perfectly meet the normality assumption, you might still get valid results.

Provides Detailed Analysis: ANOVA provides a detailed breakdown of variances and interactions between variables which can be useful in understanding the underlying factors affecting the outcome.

Capability to Handle Complex Experimental Designs: Advanced types of ANOVA (like repeated measures ANOVA, MANOVA, etc.) can handle more complex experimental designs, including those where measurements are taken on the same subjects over time, or when you want to analyze multiple dependent variables at once.

## Disadvantages of ANOVA

Some limitations or disadvantages that are important to consider:

Assumptions: ANOVA relies on several assumptions including normality (the data follows a normal distribution), independence (the observations are independent of each other), and homogeneity of variances (the variances of the groups are roughly equal). If these assumptions are violated, the results of the ANOVA may not be valid.

Sensitivity to Outliers: ANOVA can be sensitive to outliers. A single extreme value in one group can affect the sum of squares and consequently influence the F-statistic and the overall result of the test.

Dichotomous Variables: ANOVA is not suitable for dichotomous variables (variables that can take only two values, like yes/no or male/female). It is used to compare the means of groups for a continuous dependent variable.

Lack of Specificity: Although ANOVA can tell you that there is a significant difference between groups, it doesn’t tell you which specific groups are significantly different from each other. You need to carry out further post-hoc tests (like Tukey’s HSD or Bonferroni) for these pairwise comparisons.

Complexity with Multiple Factors: When dealing with multiple factors and interactions in factorial ANOVA, interpretation can become complex. The presence of interaction effects can make main effects difficult to interpret.

Requires Larger Sample Sizes: To detect an effect of a certain size, ANOVA generally requires larger sample sizes than a t-test.

Equal Group Sizes: While not always a strict requirement, ANOVA is most powerful and its assumptions are most likely to be met when groups are of equal or similar sizes.

## About the author

## Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

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## The Ultimate Guide to ANOVA

Get all of your ANOVA questions answered here

ANOVA is the go-to analysis tool for classical experimental design, which forms the backbone of scientific research.

In this article, we’ll guide you through what ANOVA is, how to determine which version to use to evaluate your particular experiment, and provide detailed examples for the most common forms of ANOVA.

This includes a (brief) discussion of crossed, nested, fixed and random factors, and covers the majority of ANOVA models that a scientist would encounter before requiring the assistance of a statistician or modeling expert.

## What is ANOVA used for?

ANOVA, or (Fisher’s) analysis of variance, is a critical analytical technique for evaluating differences between three or more sample means from an experiment. As the name implies, it partitions out the variance in the response variable based on one or more explanatory factors.

As you will see there are many types of ANOVA such as one-, two-, and three-way ANOVA as well as nested and repeated measures ANOVA. The graphic below shows a simple example of an experiment that requires ANOVA in which researchers measured the levels of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in plasma across patients with different viral respiratory infections.

Many researchers may not realize that, for the majority of experiments, the characteristics of the experiment that you run dictate the ANOVA that you need to use to test the results. While it’s a massive topic (with professional training needed for some of the advanced techniques), this is a practical guide covering what most researchers need to know about ANOVA.

## When should I use ANOVA?

If your response variable is numeric, and you’re looking for how that number differs across several categorical groups, then ANOVA is an ideal place to start. After running an experiment, ANOVA is used to analyze whether there are differences between the mean response of one or more of these grouping factors.

ANOVA can handle a large variety of experimental factors such as repeated measures on the same experimental unit (e.g., before/during/after).

If instead of evaluating treatment differences, you want to develop a model using a set of numeric variables to predict that numeric response variable, see linear regression and t tests .

## What is the difference between one-way, two-way and three-way ANOVA?

The number of “ways” in ANOVA (e.g., one-way, two-way, …) is simply the number of factors in your experiment.

Although the difference in names sounds trivial, the complexity of ANOVA increases greatly with each added factor. To use an example from agriculture, let’s say we have designed an experiment to research how different factors influence the yield of a crop.

## An experiment with a single factor

In the most basic version, we want to evaluate three different fertilizers. Because we have more than two groups, we have to use ANOVA. Since there is only one factor (fertilizer), this is a one-way ANOVA. One-way ANOVA is the easiest to analyze and understand, but probably not that useful in practice, because having only one factor is a pretty simplistic experiment.

## What happens when you add a second factor?

If we have two different fields, we might want to add a second factor to see if the field itself influences growth. Within each field, we apply all three fertilizers (which is still the main interest). This is called a crossed design. In this case we have two factors, field and fertilizer, and would need a two-way ANOVA.

As you might imagine, this makes interpretation more complicated (although still very manageable) simply because more factors are involved. There is now a fertilizer effect, as well as a field effect, and there could be an interaction effect, where the fertilizer behaves differently on each field.

## How about adding a third factor?

Finally, it is possible to have more than two factors in an ANOVA. In our example, perhaps you also wanted to test out different irrigation systems. You could have a three-way ANOVA due to the presence of fertilizer, field, and irrigation factors. This greatly increases the complication.

Now in addition to the three main effects (fertilizer, field and irrigation), there are three two-way interaction effects (fertilizer by field, fertilizer by irrigation, and field by irrigation), and one three-way interaction effect.

If any of the interaction effects are statistically significant, then presenting the results gets quite complicated. “Fertilizer A works better on Field B with Irrigation Method C ….”

In practice, two-way ANOVA is often as complex as many researchers want to get before consulting with a statistician. That being said, three-way ANOVAs are cumbersome, but manageable when each factor only has two levels.

## What are crossed and nested factors?

In addition to increasing the difficulty with interpretation, experiments (or the resulting ANOVA) with more than one factor add another level of complexity, which is determining whether the factors are crossed or nested.

With crossed factors, every combination of levels among each factor is observed. For example, each fertilizer is applied to each field (so the fields are subdivided into three sections in this case).

With nested factors, different levels of a factor appear within another factor. An example is applying different fertilizers to each field, such as fertilizers A and B to field 1 and fertilizers C and D to field 2. See more about nested ANOVA here .

## What are fixed and random factors?

Another challenging concept with two or more factors is determining whether to treat the factors as fixed or random.

Fixed factors are used when all levels of a factor (e.g., Fertilizer A, Fertilizer B, Fertilizer C) are specified and you want to determine the effect that factor has on the mean response.

Random factors are used when only some levels of a factor are observed (e.g., Field 1, Field 2, Field 3) out of a large or infinite possible number (e.g., all fields), but rather than specify the effect of the factor, which you can’t do because you didn’t observe all possible levels, you want to quantify the variability that’s within that factor (variability added within each field).

Many introductory courses on ANOVA only discuss fixed factors, and we will largely follow suit other than with two specific scenarios (nested factors and repeated measures).

## What are the (practical) assumptions of ANOVA?

These are one-way ANOVA assumptions, but also carryover for more complicated two-way or repeated measures ANOVA.

- Categorical treatment or factor variables - ANOVA evaluates mean differences between one or more categorical variables (such as treatment groups), which are referred to as factors or “ways.”
- Three or more groups - There must be at least three distinct groups (or levels of a categorical variable) across all factors in an ANOVA. The possibilities are endless: one factor of three different groups, two factors of two groups each (2x2), and so on. If you have fewer than three groups, you can probably get away with a simple t-test.
- Numeric Response - While the groups are categorical, the data measured in each group (i.e., the response variable) still needs to be numeric. ANOVA is fundamentally a quantitative method for measuring the differences in a numeric response between groups. If your response variable isn’t continuous, then you need a more specialized modelling framework such as logistic regression or chi-square contingency table analysis to name a few.
- Random assignment - The makeup of each experimental group should be determined by random selection.
- Normality - The distribution within each factor combination should be approximately normal, although ANOVA is fairly robust to this assumption as the sample size increases due to the central limit theorem.

## What is the formula for ANOVA?

The formula to calculate ANOVA varies depending on the number of factors, assumptions about how the factors influence the model (blocking variables, fixed or random effects, nested factors, etc.), and any potential overlap or correlation between observed values (e.g., subsampling, repeated measures).

The good news about running ANOVA in the 21st century is that statistical software handles the majority of the tedious calculations. The main thing that a researcher needs to do is select the appropriate ANOVA.

An example formula for a two-factor crossed ANOVA is:

## How do I know which ANOVA to use?

As statisticians, we like to imagine that you’re reading this before you’ve run your experiment. You can save a lot of headache by simplifying an experiment into a standard format (when possible) to make the analysis straightforward.

Regardless, we’ll walk you through picking the right ANOVA for your experiment and provide examples for the most popular cases. The first question is:

## Do you only have a single factor of interest?

If you have only measured a single factor (e.g., fertilizer A, fertilizer B, .etc.), then use one-way ANOVA . If you have more than one, then you need to consider the following:

## Are you measuring the same observational unit (e.g., subject) multiple times?

This is where repeated measures come into play and can be a really confusing question for researchers, but if this sounds like it might describe your experiment, see repeated measures ANOVA . Otherwise:

## Are any of the factors nested, where the levels are different depending on the levels of another factor?

In this case, you have a nested ANOVA design. If you don’t have nested factors or repeated measures, then it becomes simple:

## Do you have two categorical factors?

Then use two-way ANOVA.

## Do you have three categorical factors?

Use three-way ANOVA.

## Do you have variables that you recorded that aren’t categorical (such as age, weight, etc.)?

Although these are outside the scope of this guide, if you have a single continuous variable, you might be able to use ANCOVA, which allows for a continuous covariate. With multiple continuous covariates, you probably want to use a mixed model or possibly multiple linear regression.

Prism does offer multiple linear regression but assumes that all factors are fixed. A full “mixed model” analysis is not yet available in Prism, but is offered as options within the one- and two-way ANOVA parameters.

## How do I perform ANOVA?

Once you’ve determined which ANOVA is appropriate for your experiment, use statistical software to run the calculations. Below, we provide detailed examples of one, two and three-way ANOVA models.

## How do I read and interpret an ANOVA table?

Interpreting any kind of ANOVA should start with the ANOVA table in the output. These tables are what give ANOVA its name, since they partition out the variance in the response into the various factors and interaction terms. This is done by calculating the sum of squares (SS) and mean squares (MS), which can be used to determine the variance in the response that is explained by each factor.

If you have predetermined your level of significance, interpretation mostly comes down to the p-values that come from the F-tests. The null hypothesis for each factor is that there is no significant difference between groups of that factor. All of the following factors are statistically significant with a very small p-value.

## One-way ANOVA Example

An example of one-way ANOVA is an experiment of cell growth in petri dishes. The response variable is a measure of their growth, and the variable of interest is treatment, which has three levels: formula A, formula B, and a control.

Classic one-way ANOVA assumes equal variances within each sample group. If that isn’t a valid assumption for your data, you have a number of alternatives .

## Calculating a one-way ANOVA

Using Prism to do the analysis, we will run a one-way ANOVA and will choose 95% as our significance threshold. Since we are interested in the differences between each of the three groups, we will evaluate each and correct for multiple comparisons (more on this later!).

For the following, we’ll assume equal variances within the treatment groups. Consider

The first test to look at is the overall (or omnibus) F-test, with the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between any of the treatment groups. In this case, there is a significant difference between the three groups (p<0.0001), which tells us that at least one of the groups has a statistically significant difference.

Now we can move to the heart of the issue, which is to determine which group means are statistically different. To learn more, we should graph the data and test the differences (using a multiple comparison correction).

## Graphing one-way ANOVA

The easiest way to visualize the results from an ANOVA is to use a simple chart that shows all of the individual points. Rather than a bar chart, it’s best to use a plot that shows all of the data points (and means) for each group such as a scatter or violin plot.

As an example, below you can see a graph of the cell growth levels for each data point in each treatment group, along with a line to represent their mean. This can help give credence to any significant differences found, as well as show how closely groups overlap.

## Determining statistical significance between groups

In addition to the graphic, what we really want to know is which treatment means are statistically different from each other. Because we are performing multiple tests, we’ll use a multiple comparison correction . For our example, we’ll use Tukey’s correction (although if we were only interested in the difference between each formula to the control, we could use Dunnett’s correction instead).

In this case, the mean cell growth for Formula A is significantly higher than the control (p<.0001) and Formula B ( p=0.002 ), but there’s no significant difference between Formula B and the control.

## Two-way ANOVA example

For two-way ANOVA, there are two factors involved. Our example will focus on a case of cell lines. Suppose we have a 2x2 design (four total groupings). There are two different treatments (serum-starved and normal culture) and two different fields. There are 19 total cell line “experimental units” being evaluated, up to 5 in each group (note that with 4 groups and 19 observational units, this study isn’t balanced). Although there are multiple units in each group, they are all completely different replicates and therefore not repeated measures of the same unit.

As with one-way ANOVA, it’s a good idea to graph the data as well as look at the ANOVA table for results.

## Graphing two-way ANOVA

There are many options here. Like our one-way example, we recommend a similar graphing approach that shows all the data points themselves along with the means.

## Determining statistical significance between groups in two-way ANOVA

Let’s use a two-way ANOVA with a 95% significance threshold to evaluate both factors’ effects on the response, a measure of growth.

Feel free to use our two-way ANOVA checklist as often as you need for your own analysis.

First, notice there are three sources of variation included in the model, which are interaction, treatment, and field.

The first effect to look at is the interaction term, because if it’s significant, it changes how you interpret the main effects (e.g., treatment and field). The interaction effect calculates if the effect of a factor depends on the other factor. In this case, the significant interaction term (p<.0001) indicates that the treatment effect depends on the field type.

A significant interaction term muddies the interpretation, so that you no longer have the simple conclusion that “Treatment A outperforms Treatment B.” In this case, the graphic is particularly useful. It suggests that while there may be some difference between three of the groups, the precise combination of serum starved in field 2 outperformed the rest.

To confirm whether there is a statistically significant result, we would run pairwise comparisons (comparing each factor level combination with every other one) and account for multiple comparisons.

## Do I need to correct for multiple comparisons for two-way ANOVA?

If you’re comparing the means for more than one combination of treatment groups, then absolutely! Here’s more information about multiple comparisons for two-way ANOVA .

## Repeated measures ANOVA

So far we have focused almost exclusively on “ordinary” ANOVA and its differences depending on how many factors are involved. In all of these cases, each observation is completely unrelated to the others. Other than the combination of factors that may be the same across replicates, each replicate on its own is independent.

There is a second common branch of ANOVA known as repeated measures . In these cases, the units are related in that they are matched up in some way. Repeated measures are used to model correlation between measurements within an individual or subject. Repeated measures ANOVA is useful (and increases statistical power) when the variability within individuals is large relative to the variability among individuals.

It’s important that all levels of your repeated measures factor (usually time) are consistent. If they aren’t, you’ll need to consider running a mixed model, which is a more advanced statistical technique.

There are two common forms of repeated measures:

- You observe the same individual or subject at different time points. If you’re familiar with paired t-tests, this is an extension to that. (You can also have the same individual receive all of the treatments, which adds another level of repeated measures.)
- You have a randomized block design, where matched elements receive each treatment. For example, you split a large sample of blood taken from one person into 3 (or more) smaller samples, and each of those smaller samples gets exactly one treatment.

Repeated measures ANOVA can have any number of factors. See analysis checklists for one-way repeated measures ANOVA and two-way repeated measures ANOVA .

## What does it mean to assume sphericity with repeated measures ANOVA?

Repeated measures are almost always treated as random factors, which means that the correlation structure between levels of the repeated measures needs to be defined. The assumption of sphericity means that you assume that each level of the repeated measures has the same correlation with every other level.

This is almost never the case with repeated measures over time (e.g., baseline, at treatment, 1 hour after treatment), and in those cases, we recommend not assuming sphericity. However, if you used a randomized block design, then sphericity is usually appropriate .

## Example two-way ANOVA with repeated measures

Say we have two treatments (control and treatment) to evaluate using test animals. We’ll apply both treatments to each two animals (replicates) with sufficient time in between the treatments so there isn’t a crossover (or carry-over) effect. Also, we’ll measure five different time points for each treatment (baseline, at time of injection, one hour after, …). This is repeated measures because we will need to measure matching samples from the same animal under each treatment as we track how its stimulation level changes over time.

The output shows the test results from the main and interaction effects. Due to the interaction between time and treatment being significant (p<.0001), the fact that the treatment main effect isn’t significant (p=.154) isn’t noteworthy.

## Graphing repeated measures ANOVA

As we’ve been saying, graphing the data is useful, and this is particularly true when the interaction term is significant. Here we get an explanation of why the interaction between treatment and time was significant, but treatment on its own was not. As soon as one hour after injection (and all time points after), treated units show a higher response level than the control even as it decreases over those 12 hours. Thus the effect of time depends on treatment. At the earlier time points, there is no difference between treatment and control.

Graphing repeated measures data is an art, but a good graphic helps you understand and communicate the results. For example, it’s a completely different experiment, but here’s a great plot of another repeated measures experiment with before and after values that are measured on three different animal types.

## What if I have three or more factors?

Interpreting three or more factors is very challenging and usually requires advanced training and experience .

Just as two-way ANOVA is more complex than one-way, three-way ANOVA adds much more potential for confusion. Not only are you dealing with three different factors, you will now be testing seven hypotheses at the same time. Two-way interactions still exist here, and you may even run into a significant three-way interaction term.

It takes careful planning and advanced experimental design to be able to untangle the combinations that will be involved ( see more details here ).

## Non-parametric ANOVA alternatives

As with t-tests (or virtually any statistical method), there are alternatives to ANOVA for testing differences between three groups. ANOVA is means-focused and evaluated in comparison to an F-distribution.

The two main non-parametric cousins to ANOVA are the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman’s tests. Just as is true with everything else in ANOVA, it is likely that one of the two options is more appropriate for your experiment.

Kruskal-Wallis tests the difference between medians (rather than means) for 3 or more groups. It is only useful as an “ordinary ANOVA” alternative, without matched subjects like you have in repeated measures. Here are some tips for interpreting Kruskal-Wallis test results.

Friedman’s Test is the opposite, designed as an alternative to repeated measures ANOVA with matched subjects. Here are some tips for interpreting Friedman's Test .

## What are simple, main, and interaction effects in ANOVA?

Consider the two-way ANOVA model setup that contains two different kinds of effects to evaluate:

The 𝛼 and 𝛽 factors are “main” effects, which are the isolated effect of a given factor. “Main effect” is used interchangeably with “simple effect” in some textbooks.

The interaction term is denoted as “𝛼𝛽”, and it allows for the effect of a factor to depend on the level of another factor. It can only be tested when you have replicates in your study. Otherwise, the error term is assumed to be the interaction term.

## What are multiple comparisons?

When you’re doing multiple statistical tests on the same set of data, there’s a greater propensity to discover statistically significant differences that aren’t true differences. Multiple comparison corrections attempt to control for this, and in general control what is called the familywise error rate. There are a number of multiple comparison testing methods , which all have pros and cons depending on your particular experimental design and research questions.

## What does the word “way” mean in one-way vs two-way ANOVA?

In statistics overall, it can be hard to keep track of factors, groups, and tails. To the untrained eye “two-way ANOVA” could mean any of these things.

The best way to think about ANOVA is in terms of factors or variables in your experiment. Suppose you have one factor in your analysis (perhaps “treatment”). You will likely see that written as a one-way ANOVA. Even if that factor has several different treatment groups, there is only one factor, and that’s what drives the name.

Also, “way” has absolutely nothing to do with “tails” like a t-test. ANOVA relies on F tests, which can only test for equal vs unequal because they rely on squared terms. So ANOVA does not have the “one-or-two tails” question .

## What is the difference between ANOVA and a t-test?

ANOVA is an extension of the t-test. If you only have two group means to compare, use a t-test. Anything more requires ANOVA.

## What is the difference between ANOVA and chi-square?

Chi-square is designed for contingency tables, or counts of items within groups (e.g., type of animal). The goal is to see whether the counts in a particular sample match the counts you would expect by random chance.

ANOVA separates subjects into groups for evaluation, but there is some numeric response variable of interest (e.g., glucose level).

## Can ANOVA evaluate effects on multiple response variables at the same time?

Multiple response variables makes things much more complicated than multiple factors. ANOVA (as we’ve discussed it here) can obviously handle multiple factors but it isn’t designed for tracking more than one response at a time.

Technically, there is an expansion approach designed for this called Multivariate (or Multiple) ANOVA, or more commonly written as MANOVA. Things get complicated quickly, and in general requires advanced training.

## Can ANOVA evaluate numeric factors in addition to the usual categorical factors?

It sounds like you are looking for ANCOVA (analysis of covariance). You can treat a continuous (numeric) factor as categorical, in which case you could use ANOVA, but this is a common point of confusion .

## What is the definition of ANOVA?

ANOVA stands for analysis of variance, and, true to its name, it is a statistical technique that analyzes how experimental factors influence the variance in the response variable from an experiment.

## What is blocking in Anova?

Blocking is an incredibly powerful and useful strategy in experimental design when you have a factor that you think will heavily influence the outcome, so you want to control for it in your experiment. Blocking affects how the randomization is done with the experiment. Usually blocking variables are nuisance variables that are important to control for but are not inherently of interest.

A simple example is an experiment evaluating the efficacy of a medical drug and blocking by age of the subject. To do blocking, you must first gather the ages of all of the participants in the study, appropriately bin them into groups (e.g., 10-30, 30-50, etc.), and then randomly assign an equal number of treatments to the subjects within each group.

There’s an entire field of study around blocking. Some examples include having multiple blocking variables, incomplete block designs where not all treatments appear in all blocks, and balanced (or unbalanced) blocking designs where equal (or unequal) numbers of replicates appear in each block and treatment combination.

## What is ANOVA in statistics?

For a one-way ANOVA test, the overall ANOVA null hypothesis is that the mean responses are equal for all treatments. The ANOVA p-value comes from an F-test.

## Can I do ANOVA in R?

While Prism makes ANOVA much more straightforward, you can use open-source coding languages like R as well. Here are some examples of R code for repeated measures ANOVA, both one-way ANOVA in R and two-way ANOVA in R .

## Perform your own ANOVA

Are you ready for your own Analysis of variance? Prism makes choosing the correct ANOVA model simple and transparent .

Start your 30 day free trial of Prism and get access to:

- A step by step guide on how to perform ANOVA
- Sample data to save you time
- More tips on how Prism can help your research

With Prism, in a matter of minutes you learn how to go from entering data to performing statistical analyses and generating high-quality graphs.

Teach yourself statistics

## One-Way Analysis of Variance: Example

In this lesson, we apply one-way analysis of variance to some fictitious data, and we show how to interpret the results of our analysis.

Note: Computations for analysis of variance are usually handled by a software package. For this example, however, we will do the computations "manually", since the gory details have educational value.

## Problem Statement

A pharmaceutical company conducts an experiment to test the effect of a new cholesterol medication. The company selects 15 subjects randomly from a larger population. Each subject is randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Within each treament group, subjects receive a different dose of the new medication. In Group 1, subjects receive 0 mg/day; in Group 2, 50 mg/day; and in Group 3, 100 mg/day.

The treatment levels represent all the levels of interest to the experimenter, so this experiment used a fixed-effects model to select treatment levels for study.

After 30 days, doctors measure the cholesterol level of each subject. The results for all 15 subjects appear in the table below:

In conducting this experiment, the experimenter had two research questions:

- Does dosage level have a significant effect on cholesterol level?
- How strong is the effect of dosage level on cholesterol level?

To answer these questions, the experimenter intends to use one-way analysis of variance.

## Is One-Way ANOVA the Right Technique?

Before you crunch the first number in one-way analysis of variance, you must be sure that one-way analysis of variance is the correct technique. That means you need to ask two questions:

- Is the experimental design compatible with one-way analysis of variance?
- Does the data set satisfy the critical assumptions required for one-way analysis of variance?

Let's address both of those questions.

## Experimental Design

As we discussed in the previous lesson (see One-Way Analysis of Variance: Fixed Effects ), one-way analysis of variance is only appropriate with one experimental design - a completely randomized design. That is exactly the design used in our cholesterol study, so we can check the experimental design box.

## Critical Assumptions

We also learned in the previous lesson that one-way analysis of variance makes three critical assumptions:

- Independence . The dependent variable score for each experimental unit is independent of the score for any other unit.
- Normality . In the population, dependent variable scores are normally distributed within treatment groups.
- Equality of variance . In the population, the variance of dependent variable scores in each treatment group is equal. (Equality of variance is also known as homogeneity of variance or homoscedasticity.)

Therefore, for the cholesterol study, we need to make sure our data set is consistent with the critical assumptions.

## Independence of Scores

The assumption of independence is the most important assumption. When that assumption is violated, the resulting statistical tests can be misleading.

The independence assumption is satisfied by the design of the study, which features random selection of subjects and random assignment to treatment groups. Randomization tends to distribute effects of extraneous variables evenly across groups.

## Normal Distributions in Groups

Violations of normality can be a problem when sample size is small, as it is in this cholesterol study. Therefore, it is important to be on the lookout for any indication of non-normality.

There are many different ways to check for normality. On this website, we describe three at: How to Test for Normality: Three Simple Tests . Given the small sample size, our best option for testing normality is to look at the following descriptive statistics:

- Central tendency. The mean and the median are summary measures used to describe central tendency - the most "typical" value in a set of values. With a normal distribution, the mean is equal to the median.
- Skewness. Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of a probability distribution. If observations are equally distributed around the mean, the skewness value is zero; otherwise, the skewness value is positive or negative. As a rule of thumb, skewness between -2 and +2 is consistent with a normal distribution.
- Kurtosis. Kurtosis is a measure of whether observations cluster around the mean of the distribution or in the tails of the distribution. The normal distribution has a kurtosis value of zero. As a rule of thumb, kurtosis between -2 and +2 is consistent with a normal distribution.

The table below shows the mean, median, skewness, and kurtosis for each group from our study.

In all three groups, the difference between the mean and median looks small (relative to the range ). And skewness and kurtosis measures are consistent with a normal distribution (i.e., between -2 and +2). These are crude tests, but they provide some confidence for the assumption of normality in each group.

Note: With Excel, you can easily compute the descriptive statistics in Table 1. To see how, go to: How to Test for Normality: Example 1 .

## Homogeneity of Variance

When the normality of variance assumption is satisfied, you can use Hartley's Fmax test to test for homogeneity of variance. Here's how to implement the test:

where X i, j is the score for observation i in Group j , X j is the mean of Group j , and n j is the number of observations in Group j .

Here is the variance ( s 2 j ) for each group in the cholesterol study.

F RATIO = s 2 MAX / s 2 MIN

F RATIO = 1170 / 450

F RATIO = 2.6

where s 2 MAX is the largest group variance, and s 2 MIN is the smallest group variance.

where n is the largest sample size in any group.

Note: The critical F values in the table are based on a significance level of 0.05.

Here, the F ratio (2.6) is smaller than the Fmax value (15.5), so we conclude that the variances are homogeneous.

Note: Other tests, such as Bartlett's test , can also test for homogeneity of variance. For the record, Bartlett's test yields the same conclusion for the cholesterol study; namely, the variances are homogeneous.

## Analysis of Variance

Having confirmed that the critical assumptions are tenable, we can proceed with a one-way analysis of variance. That means taking the following steps:

- Specify a mathematical model to describe the causal factors that affect the dependent variable.
- Write statistical hypotheses to be tested by experimental data.
- Specify a significance level for a hypothesis test.
- Compute the grand mean and the mean scores for each group.
- Compute sums of squares for each effect in the model.
- Find the degrees of freedom associated with each effect in the model.
- Based on sums of squares and degrees of freedom, compute mean squares for each effect in the model.
- Compute a test statistic , based on observed mean squares and their expected values.
- Find the P value for the test statistic.
- Accept or reject the null hypothesis , based on the P value and the significance level.
- Assess the magnitude of the effect of the independent variable, based on sums of squares.

Now, let's execute each step, one-by-one, with our cholesterol medication experiment.

## Mathematical Model

For every experimental design, there is a mathematical model that accounts for all of the independent and extraneous variables that affect the dependent variable. In our experiment, the dependent variable ( X ) is the cholesterol level of a subject, and the independent variable ( β ) is the dosage level administered to a subject.

For example, here is the fixed-effects model for a completely randomized design:

X i j = μ + β j + ε i ( j )

where X i j is the cholesterol level for subject i in treatment group j , μ is the population mean, β j is the effect of the dosage level administered to subjects in group j ; and ε i ( j ) is the effect of all other extraneous variables on subject i in treatment j .

## Statistical Hypotheses

For fixed-effects models, it is common practice to write statistical hypotheses in terms of the treatment effect β j . With that in mind, here is the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis for a one-way analysis of variance:

H 0 : β j = 0 for all j

H 1 : β j ≠ 0 for some j

If the null hypothesis is true, the mean score (i.e., mean cholesterol level) in each treatment group should equal the population mean. Thus, if the null hypothesis is true, mean scores in the k treatment groups should be equal. If the null hypothesis is false, at least one pair of mean scores should be unequal.

## Significance Level

The significance level (also known as alpha or α) is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. The significance level for an experiment is specified by the experimenter, before data collection begins.

Experimenters often choose significance levels of 0.05 or 0.01. For this experiment, let's use a significance level of 0.05.

## Mean Scores

Analysis of variance begins by computing a grand mean and group means:

X = ( 1 / 15 ) * ( 210 + 210 + ... + 270 + 240 )

- Group means. The mean of group j ( X j ) is the mean of all observations in group j , computed as follows:

X 1 = 258

X 2 = 246

X 3 = 210

In the equations above, n is the total sample size across all groups; and n j is the sample size in Group j .

## Sums of Squares

A sum of squares is the sum of squared deviations from a mean score. One-way analysis of variance makes use of three sums of squares:

SSB = 5 * [ ( 238-258 ) 2 + ( 238-246) 2 + ( 238-210 ) 2 ]

SSW = 2304 + ... + 900 = 9000

- Total sum of squares. The total sum of squares (SST) measures variation of all scores around the grand mean. It can be computed from the following formula: SST = k Σ j=1 n j Σ i=1 ( X i j - X ) 2

SST = 784 + 4 + 1084 + ... + 784 + 784 + 4

SST = 15,240

It turns out that the total sum of squares is equal to the between-groups sum of squares plus the within-groups sum of squares, as shown below:

SST = SSB + SSW

15,240 = 6240 + 9000

## Degrees of Freedom

The term degrees of freedom (df) refers to the number of independent sample points used to compute a statistic minus the number of parameters estimated from the sample points.

To illustrate what is going on, let's find the degrees of freedom associated with the various sum of squares computations:

Here, the formula uses k independent sample points, the sample means X j . And it uses one parameter estimate, the grand mean X , which was estimated from the sample points. So, the between-groups sum of squares has k - 1 degrees of freedom ( df BG ).

df BG = k - 1 = 5 - 1 = 4

Here, the formula uses n independent sample points, the individual subject scores X i j . And it uses k parameter estimates, the group means X j , which were estimated from the sample points. So, the within-groups sum of squares has n - k degrees of freedom ( df WG ).

n = Σ n i = 5 + 5 + 5 = 15

df WG = n - k = 15 - 3 = 12

Here, the formula uses n independent sample points, the individual subject scores X i j . And it uses one parameter estimate, the grand mean X , which was estimated from the sample points. So, the total sum of squares has n - 1 degrees of freedom ( df TOT ).

df TOT = n - 1 = 15 - 1 = 14

The degrees of freedom for each sum of squares are summarized in the table below:

## Mean Squares

A mean square is an estimate of population variance. It is computed by dividing a sum of squares (SS) by its corresponding degrees of freedom (df), as shown below:

MS = SS / df

To conduct a one-way analysis of variance, we are interested in two mean squares:

MS WG = SSW / df WG

MS WG = 9000 / 12 = 750

MS BG = SSB / df BG

MS BG = 6240 / 2 = 3120

## Expected Value

The expected value of a mean square is the average value of the mean square over a large number of experiments.

Statisticians have derived formulas for the expected value of the within-groups mean square ( MS WG ) and for the expected value of the between-groups mean square ( MS BG ). For one-way analysis of variance, the expected value formulas are:

## Fixed- and Random-Effects:

E( MS WG ) = σ ε 2

## Fixed-Effects:

Random-effects:.

E( MS BG ) = σ ε 2 + nσ β 2

In the equations above, E( MS WG ) is the expected value of the within-groups mean square; E( MS BG ) is the expected value of the between-groups mean square; n is total sample size; k is the number of treatment groups; β j is the treatment effect in Group j ; σ ε 2 is the variance attributable to everything except the treatment effect (i.e., all the extraneous variables); and σ β 2 is the variance due to random selection of treatment levels.

Notice that MS BG should equal MS WG when the variation due to treatment effects ( β j for fixed effects and σ β 2 for random effects) is zero (i.e., when the independent variable does not affect the dependent variable). And MS BG should be bigger than the MS WG when the variation due to treatment effects is not zero (i.e., when the independent variable does affect the dependent variable)

Conclusion: By examining the relative size of the mean squares, we can make a judgment about whether an independent variable affects a dependent variable.

## Test Statistic

Suppose we use the mean squares to define a test statistic F as follows:

F(v 1 , v 2 ) = MS BG / MS WG

F(2, 12) = 3120 / 750 = 4.16

where MS BG is the between-groups mean square, MS WG is the within-groups mean square, v 1 is the degrees of freedom for MS BG , and v 2 is the degrees of freedom for MS WG .

Defined in this way, the F ratio measures the size of MS BG relative to MS WG . The F ratio is a convenient measure that we can use to test the null hypothesis. Here's how:

- When the F ratio is close to one, MS BG is approximately equal to MS WG . This indicates that the independent variable did not affect the dependent variable, so we cannot reject the null hypothesis.
- When the F ratio is significantly greater than one, MS BG is bigger than MS WG . This indicates that the independent variable did affect the dependent variable, so we must reject the null hypothesis.

What does it mean for the F ratio to be significantly greater than one? To answer that question, we need to talk about the P-value.

In an experiment, a P-value is the probability of obtaining a result more extreme than the observed experimental outcome, assuming the null hypothesis is true.

With analysis of variance, the F ratio is the observed experimental outcome that we are interested in. So, the P-value would be the probability that an F statistic would be more extreme (i.e., bigger) than the actual F ratio computed from experimental data.

We can use Stat Trek's F Distribution Calculator to find the probability that an F statistic will be bigger than the actual F ratio observed in the experiment. Enter the between-groups degrees of freedom (2), the within-groups degrees of freedom (12), and the observed F ratio (4.16) into the calculator; then, click the Calculate button.

From the calculator, we see that the P ( F > 4.16 ) equals about 0.04. Therefore, the P-Value is 0.04.

## Hypothesis Test

Recall that we specified a significance level 0.05 for this experiment. Once you know the significance level and the P-value, the hypothesis test is routine. Here's the decision rule for accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis:

- If the P-value is bigger than the significance level, accept the null hypothesis.
- If the P-value is equal to or smaller than the significance level, reject the null hypothesis.

Since the P-value (0.04) in our experiment is smaller than the significance level (0.05), we reject the null hypothesis that drug dosage had no effect on cholesterol level. And we conclude that the mean cholesterol level in at least one treatment group differed significantly from the mean cholesterol level in another group.

## Magnitude of Effect

The hypothesis test tells us whether the independent variable in our experiment has a statistically significant effect on the dependent variable, but it does not address the magnitude of the effect. Here's the issue:

- When the sample size is large, you may find that even small differences in treatment means are statistically significant.
- When the sample size is small, you may find that even big differences in treatment means are not statistically significant.

With this in mind, it is customary to supplement analysis of variance with an appropriate measure of effect size. Eta squared (η 2 ) is one such measure. Eta squared is the proportion of variance in the dependent variable that is explained by a treatment effect. The eta squared formula for one-way analysis of variance is:

η 2 = SSB / SST

where SSB is the between-groups sum of squares and SST is the total sum of squares.

Given this formula, we can compute eta squared for this drug dosage experiment, as shown below:

η 2 = SSB / SST = 6240 / 15240 = 0.41

Thus, 41 percent of the variance in our dependent variable (cholesterol level) can be explained by variation in our independent variable (dosage level). It appears that the relationship between dosage level and cholesterol level is significant not only in a statistical sense; it is significant in a practical sense as well.

## ANOVA Summary Table

It is traditional to summarize ANOVA results in an analysis of variance table. The analysis that we just conducted provides all of the information that we need to produce the following ANOVA summary table:

Analysis of Variance Table

This ANOVA table allows any researcher to interpret the results of the experiment, at a glance.

The P-value (shown in the last column of the ANOVA table) is the probability that an F statistic would be more extreme (bigger) than the F ratio shown in the table, assuming the null hypothesis is true. When the P-value is bigger than the significance level, we accept the null hypothesis; when it is smaller, we reject it. Here, the P-value (0.04) is smaller than the significance level (0.05), so we reject the null hypothesis.

To assess the strength of the treatment effect, an experimenter might compute eta squared (η 2 ). The computation is easy, using sum of squares entries from the ANOVA table, as shown below:

η 2 = SSB / SST = 6,240 / 15,240 = 0.41

For this experiment, an eta squared of 0.41 means that 41% of the variance in the dependent variable can be explained by the effect of the independent variable.

## An Easier Option

In this lesson, we showed all of the hand calculations for a one-way analysis of variance. In the real world, researchers seldom conduct analysis of variance by hand. They use statistical software. In the next lesson, we'll analyze data from this problem with Excel. Hopefully, we'll get the same result.

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## Keyboard Shortcuts

Lesson 10: introduction to anova, overview section .

In the previous lessons, we learned how to perform inference for a population mean from one sample and also how to compare population means from two samples (independent and paired). In this Lesson, we introduce Analysis of Variance or ANOVA. ANOVA is a statistical method that analyzes variances to determine if the means from more than two populations are the same. In other words, we have a quantitative response variable and a categorical explanatory variable with more than two levels. In ANOVA, the categorical explanatory is typically referred to as the factor.

- Describe the logic behind analysis of variance.
- Set up and perform one-way ANOVA.
- Identify the information in the ANOVA table.
- Interpret the results from ANOVA output.
- Perform multiple comparisons and interpret the results, when appropriate.

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

## Section 6.2: One-Way ANOVA Assumptions, Interpretation, and Write Up

Learning Objectives

At the end of this section you should be able to answer the following questions:

- What are assumptions that need to be met before performing a Between Groups ANOVA?
- How would you interpret a Main Effect in a One-Way ANOVA?

## One-Way ANOVA Assumptions

There are a number of assumptions that need to be met before performing a Between Groups ANOVA:

- The dependent variable (the variable of interest) needs to be a continuous scale (i.e., the data needs to be at either an interval or ratio measurement).
- The independent variable needs to have two independent groups with two levels. When testing three or more independent, categorical groups it is best to use a one-way ANOVA, The test could be used to test the difference between just two groups, however, an independent samples t-test would be more appropriate.
- The data should have independence of observations (i.e., there shouldn’t be the same participants who are in both groups.)
- The dependent variable should be normally or near-to-normally distributed for each group. It is worth noting that while the t-test is robust for minor violations in normality, if your data is very non-normal, it would be worth using a non-parametric test or bootstrapping (see later chapters).
- There should be no spurious outliers.
- The data must have homogeneity of variances. This assumption can be tested using Levene’s test for homogeneity of variances in the statistics package. which is shown in the output included in the next chapter.

## Sample Size

A consideration for ANOVA is homogeneity. Homogeneity, in this context, just means that all of the groups’ distribution and errors differ in approximately the same way, regardless of the mean for each group. The more incompatible or unequal the group sizes are in a simple one-way between-subjects ANOVA, the more important the assumption of homogeneity is. Unequal group sizes in factorial designs can create ambiguity in results. You can test for homogeneity in PSPP and SPSS. In this class, a significant result indicates that homogeneity has been violated.

## Equal cell Sizes

It is preferable to have similar or the same number of observations in each group. This provides a stronger model that tends not to violate any of the assumptions. Having unequal groups can lead to violations in normality or homogeneity of variance.

## One-Way ANOVA Interpretation

Below you click to see the output for the ANOVA test of the Research Question, we have included the research example and hypothesis we will be working through is: Is there a difference in reported levels of mental distress for full-time, part-time, and casual employees?

PowerPoint: One Way ANOVA

Please have a look at the following slides:

- Chapter Six – One Way ANOVA

## Main Effects

As can be seen in the circled section in red on Slide 3, the main effect was significant. By looking at the purple circle, we can see the means for each group. In the light blue circle is the test statistic, which in this case is the F value. Finally, in the dark blue circle, we can see both values for the degrees of freedom.

## Posthoc Tests

In order to run posthoc tests, we need to enter some syntax. This will be covered in the slides for this section, so please do go and have a look at the syntax that has been used. The information has also been included on Slide 4.

## Posthoc Test Results

These are the results. There are a number of different tests that can be used in posthoc differences tests, to control for type 1 or type 2 errors, however, for this example none have been used.

As can be seen in the red and green circles on Slide 6, both part-time and casual workers reported higher mental distress than full-time workers. This can be cross-referenced with the means on the results slide. As be seen in blue, there was not a significant difference between casual and part-time workers.

## One-Way ANOVA Write Up

The following text represents how you may write up a One Way ANOVA:

A one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine if levels of mental distress were different across employment status. Participants were classified into three groups: Full-time (n = 161), Part-time (n = 83), Casual (n = 123). There was a statistically significant difference between groups as determined by one-way ANOVA ( F (2,364) = 13.17, p < .001). Post-hoc tests revealed that mental distress was significantly higher in participants who were part-time and casually employed, when compare to full-time ( Mdiff = 4.11, p = .012, and Mdiff = 7.34, p < .001, respectively). Additionally, no difference was found between participants who were employed part-time and casually ( Mdiff =3.23, p = .06).

Statistics for Research Students Copyright © 2022 by University of Southern Queensland is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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## Educational Research Basics by Del Siegle

Anova, regression, and chi-square.

( and other things that go bump in the night)

A variety of statistical procedures exist. The appropriate statistical procedure depends on the research question(s) we are asking and the type of data we collected. While EPSY 5601 is not intended to be a statistics class, some familiarity with different statistical procedures is warranted.

Parametric Data Analysis

Investigating Differences

One Independent Variable (With Two Levels) and One Dependent Variable

When we wish to know whether the means of two groups (one independent variable (e.g., gender) with two levels (e.g., males and females) differ, a t test is appropriate. In order to calculate a t test, we need to know the mean, standard deviation, and number of subjects in each of the two groups. An example of a t test research question is “ Is there a significant difference between the reading scores of boys and girls in sixth grade? ” A sample answer might be, “Boys ( M =5.67, SD =.45) and girls ( M =5.76, SD =.50) score similarly in reading, t (23)=.54, p >.05.” [Note: The (23) is the degrees of freedom for a t test. It is the number of subjects minus the number of groups (always 2 groups with a t-test). In this example, there were 25 subjects and 2 groups so the degrees of freedom is 25-2=23.] Remember, a t test can only compare the means of two groups (independent variable, e.g., gender) on a single dependent variable (e.g., reading score). You may wish to review the instructor notes for t tests.

One Independent Variable (With More Than Two Levels) and One Dependent Variable

If the independent variable (e.g., political party affiliation) has more than two levels (e.g., Democrats, Republicans, and Independents) to compare and we wish to know if they differ on a dependent variable (e.g., attitude about a tax cut), we need to do an ANOVA ( AN alysis O f VA riance). In other words, if we have one independent variable (with three or more groups/levels) and one dependent variable, we do a one-way ANOVA. A sample research question is, “ Do Democrats, Republicans, and Independents differ on their option about a tax cut? ” A sample answer is, “Democrats ( M =3.56, SD =.56) are less likely to favor a tax cut than Republicans ( M =5.67, SD =.60) or Independents ( M =5.34, SD =.45), F (2,120)=5.67, p <.05.” [Note: The (2,120) are the degrees of freedom for an ANOVA. The first number is the number of groups minus 1. Because we had three political parties it is 2, 3-1=2. The second number is the total number of subjects minus the number of groups. Because we had 123 subject and 3 groups, it is 120 (123-3)]. The one-way ANOVA has one independent variable (political party) with more than two groups/levels (Democrat, Republican, and Independent) and one dependent variable (attitude about a tax cut).

More Than One Independent Variable (With Two or More Levels Each) and One Dependent Variable

ANOVAs can have more than one independent variable. A two-way ANOVA has two independent variable (e.g. political party and gender), a three-way ANOVA has three independent variables (e.g., political party, gender, and education status), etc. These ANOVA still only have one dependent variable (e.g., attitude about a tax cut). A two-way ANOVA has three research questions: One for each of the two independent variables and one for the interaction of the two independent variables.

Sample Research Questions for a Two-Way ANOVA: Do Democrats, Republicans, and Independents differ on their opinion about a tax cut? Do males and females differ on their opinion about a tax cut? Is there an interaction between gender and political party affiliation regarding opinions about a tax cut?

A two-way ANOVA has three null hypotheses, three alternative hypotheses and three answers to the research question. The answers to the research questions are similar to the answer provided for the one-way ANOVA, only there are three of them.

One or More Independent Variables (With Two or More Levels Each) and More Than One Dependent Variable

Sometimes we have several independent variables and several dependent variables. In this case we do a MANOVA ( M ultiple AN alysis O f VA riance). Suffices to say, multivariate statistics (of which MANOVA is a member) can be rather complicated.

Investigating Relationships

Simple Correlation

Sometimes we wish to know if there is a relationship between two variables. A simple correlation measures the relationship between two variables. The variables have equal status and are not considered independent variables or dependent variables. In our class we used Pearson ‘s r which measures a linear relationship between two continuous variables. While other types of relationships with other types of variables exist, we will not cover them in this class. A sample research question for a simple correlation is, “ What is the relationship between height and arm span ?” A sample answer is, “There is a relationship between height and arm span, r (34)=.87, p <.05.” You may wish to review the instructor notes for correlations . A canonical correlation measures the relationship between sets of multiple variables (this is multivariate statistic and is beyond the scope of this discussion).

An extension of the simple correlation is regression. In regression, one or more variables (predictors) are used to predict an outcome (criterion). One may wish to predict a college student’s GPA by using his or her high school GPA, SAT scores, and college major. Data for several hundred students would be fed into a regression statistics program and the statistics program would determine how well the predictor variables (high school GPA, SAT scores, and college major) were related to the criterion variable (college GPA). Based on the information, the program would create a mathematical formula for predicting the criterion variable (college GPA) using those predictor variables (high school GPA, SAT scores, and/or college major) that are significant. Not all of the variables entered may be significant predictors. A sample research question might be, “ What is the individual and combined power of high school GPA, SAT scores, and college major in predicting graduating college GPA? ” The output of a regression analysis contains a variety of information. R 2 tells how much of the variation in the criterion (e.g., final college GPA) can be accounted for by the predictors (e.g., high school GPA, SAT scores, and college major (dummy coded 0 for Education Major and 1 for Non-Education Major). A research report might note that “High school GPA, SAT scores, and college major are significant predictors of final college GPA, R 2 =.56.” In this example, 56% of an individual’s college GPA can be predicted with his or her high school GPA, SAT scores, and college major). The regression equation for such a study might look like the following: Y’= .15 + (HS GPA * .75) + (SAT * .001) + (Major * -.75). By inserting an individual’s high school GPA, SAT score, and college major (0 for Education Major and 1 for Non-Education Major) into the formula, we could predict what someone’s final college GPA will be (well…at least 56% of it). For example, someone with a high school GPA of 4.0, SAT score of 800, and an education major (0), would have a predicted GPA of 3.95 (.15 + (4.0 * .75) + (800 * .001) + (0 * -.75)). Universities often use regression when selecting students for enrollment.

I have created a sample SPSS regression printout with interpretation if you wish to explore this topic further. You will not be responsible for reading or interpreting the SPSS printout.

Non Parametric Data Analysis

We might count the incidents of something and compare what our actual data showed with what we would expect. Suppose we surveyed 27 people regarding whether they preferred red, blue, or yellow as a color. If there were no preference, we would expect that 9 would select red, 9 would select blue, and 9 would select yellow. We use a chi-square to compare what we observe (actual) with what we expect. If our sample indicated that 2 liked red, 20 liked blue, and 5 liked yellow, we might be rather confident that more people prefer blue. If our sample indicated that 8 liked read, 10 liked blue, and 9 liked yellow, we might not be very confident that blue is generally favored. Chi-square helps us make decisions about whether the observed outcome differs significantly from the expected outcome. A sample research question is, “ Is there a preference for the red, blue, and yellow color? ” A sample answer is “There was not equal preference for the colors red, blue, or yellow. More people preferred blue than red or yellow, X 2 (2) = 12.54, p < .05″. Just as t-tests tell us how confident we can be about saying that there are differences between the means of two groups, the chi-square tells us how confident we can be about saying that our observed results differ from expected results.

Each of the stats produces a test statistic (e.g., t , F , r , R 2 , X 2 ) that is used with degrees of freedom (based on the number of subjects and/or number of groups) that are used to determine the level of statistical significance (value of p ). Ultimately, we are interested in whether p is less than or greater than .05 (or some other value predetermined by the researcher). It all boils down the the value of p . If p <.05 we say there are differences for t-tests, ANOVAs, and Chi-squares or there are relationships for correlations and regressions.

Model Building

Thanks to improvements in computing power, data analysis has moved beyond simply comparing one or two variables into creating models with sets of variables. Structural Equation Modeling and Hierarchical Linear Modeling are two examples of these techniques. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyzes paths between variables and tests the direct and indirect relationships between variables as well as the fit of the entire model of paths or relationships. For example, a researcher could measure the relationship between IQ and school achievment, while also including other variables such as motivation, family education level, and previous achievement.

The example below shows the relationships between various factors and enjoyment of school. When a line (path) connects two variables, there is a relationship between the variables. If two variable are not related, they are not connected by a line (path). The strengths of the relationships are indicated on the lines (path). In this model we can see that there is a positive relationship between Parents’ Education Level and students’ Scholastic Ability . We can see that there is not a relationship between Teacher Perception of Academic Skills and students’ Enjoyment of School . We can see there is a negative relationship between students’ Scholastic Ability and their Enjoyment of School . See D. Betsy McCoach’s article for more information on SEM.

Often the educational data we collect violates the important assumption of independence that is required for the simpler statistical procedures. Students are often grouped (nested) in classrooms. Those classrooms are grouped (nested) in schools. The schools are grouped (nested) in districts. This nesting violates the assumption of independence because individuals within a group are often similar. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was designed to work with nested data. HLM allows researchers to measure the effect of the classroom, as well as the effect of attending a particular school, as well as measuring the effect of being a student in a given district on some selected variable, such as mathematics achievement. For more information on HLM, see D. Betsy McCoach’s article .

Del Siegle www.delsiegle.info [email protected]

## Repeated Measures ANOVA

Introduction.

Repeated measures ANOVA is the equivalent of the one-way ANOVA, but for related, not independent groups, and is the extension of the dependent t-test . A repeated measures ANOVA is also referred to as a within-subjects ANOVA or ANOVA for correlated samples. All these names imply the nature of the repeated measures ANOVA, that of a test to detect any overall differences between related means. There are many complex designs that can make use of repeated measures, but throughout this guide, we will be referring to the most simple case, that of a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. This particular test requires one independent variable and one dependent variable. The dependent variable needs to be continuous (interval or ratio) and the independent variable categorical (either nominal or ordinal ).

## When to use a Repeated Measures ANOVA

We can analyse data using a repeated measures ANOVA for two types of study design. Studies that investigate either (1) changes in mean scores over three or more time points, or (2) differences in mean scores under three or more different conditions. For example, for (1), you might be investigating the effect of a 6-month exercise training programme on blood pressure and want to measure blood pressure at 3 separate time points (pre-, midway and post-exercise intervention), which would allow you to develop a time-course for any exercise effect. For (2), you might get the same subjects to eat different types of cake (chocolate, caramel and lemon) and rate each one for taste, rather than having different people taste each different cake. The important point with these two study designs is that the same people are being measured more than once on the same dependent variable (i.e., why it is called repeated measures).

In repeated measures ANOVA, the independent variable has categories called levels or related groups . Where measurements are repeated over time, such as when measuring changes in blood pressure due to an exercise-training programme, the independent variable is time . Each level (or related group ) is a specific time point. Hence, for the exercise-training study, there would be three time points and each time-point is a level of the independent variable (a schematic of a time-course repeated measures design is shown below):

Where measurements are made under different conditions, the conditions are the levels (or related groups) of the independent variable (e.g., type of cake is the independent variable with chocolate, caramel, and lemon cake as the levels of the independent variable). A schematic of a different-conditions repeated measures design is shown below. It should be noted that often the levels of the independent variable are not referred to as conditions, but treatments . Which one you want to use is up to you. There is no right or wrong naming convention. You will also see the independent variable more commonly referred to as the within-subjects factor .

The above two schematics have shown an example of each type of repeated measures ANOVA design, but you will also often see these designs expressed in tabular form, such as shown below:

This particular table describes a study with six subjects (S 1 to S 6 ) performing under three conditions or at three time points (T 1 to T 3 ). As highlighted earlier, the within-subjects factor could also have been labelled "treatment" instead of "time/condition". They all relate to the same thing: subjects undergoing repeated measurements at either different time points or under different conditions/treatments.

## Hypothesis for Repeated Measures ANOVA

The repeated measures ANOVA tests for whether there are any differences between related population means. The null hypothesis (H 0 ) states that the means are equal:

H 0 : µ 1 = µ 2 = µ 3 = … = µ k

where µ = population mean and k = number of related groups. The alternative hypothesis (H A ) states that the related population means are not equal (at least one mean is different to another mean):

H A : at least two means are significantly different

For our exercise-training example, the null hypothesis (H 0 ) is that mean blood pressure is the same at all time points (pre-, 3 months, and 6 months). The alternative hypothesis is that mean blood pressure is significantly different at one or more time points. A repeated measures ANOVA will not inform you where the differences between groups lie as it is an omnibus statistical test. The same would be true if you were investigating different conditions or treatments rather than time points, as used in this example. If your repeated measures ANOVA is statistically significant, you can run post hoc tests that can highlight exactly where these differences occur. You can learn how to run appropriate post-hoc tests for a repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS Statistics on page 2 of our guide: One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA in SPSS Statistics .

## Logic of the Repeated Measures ANOVA

The logic behind a repeated measures ANOVA is very similar to that of a between-subjects ANOVA. Recall that a between-subjects ANOVA partitions total variability into between-groups variability (SS b ) and within-groups variability (SS w ), as shown below:

In this design, within-group variability (SS w ) is defined as the error variability (SS error ). Following division by the appropriate degrees of freedom, a mean sum of squares for between-groups (MS b ) and within-groups (MS w ) is determined and an F -statistic is calculated as the ratio of MS b to MS w (or MS error ), as shown below:

A repeated measures ANOVA calculates an F -statistic in a similar way:

The advantage of a repeated measures ANOVA is that whereas within-group variability (SS w ) expresses the error variability (SS error ) in an independent (between-subjects) ANOVA, a repeated measures ANOVA can further partition this error term, reducing its size, as is illustrated below:

This has the effect of increasing the value of the F -statistic due to the reduction of the denominator and leading to an increase in the power of the test to detect significant differences between means (this is discussed in more detail later). Mathematically, and as illustrated above, we partition the variability attributable to the differences between groups (SS conditions ) and variability within groups (SS w ) exactly as we do in a between-subjects (independent) ANOVA. However, with a repeated measures ANOVA, as we are using the same subjects in each group, we can remove the variability due to the individual differences between subjects, referred to as SS subjects , from the within-groups variability (SS w ). How is this achieved? Quite simply, we treat each subject as a block. That is, each subject becomes a level of a factor called subjects. We then calculate this variability as we do with any between-subjects factor. The ability to subtract SS subjects will leave us with a smaller SS error term, as highlighted below:

Now that we have removed the between-subjects variability, our new SS error only reflects individual variability to each condition. You might recognise this as the interaction effect of subject by conditions; that is, how subjects react to the different conditions. Whether this leads to a more powerful test will depend on whether the reduction in SS error more than compensates for the reduction in degrees of freedom for the error term (as degrees of freedom go from ( n - k ) to ( n - 1 )( k - 1 ) (remembering that there are more subjects in the independent ANOVA design).

The next page of our guide deals with how to calculate a repeated measures ANOVA.

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## 13.E: F Distribution and One-Way ANOVA (Exercises)

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These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Introductory Statistics" by OpenStax.

## 13.1: Introduction

13.2: one-way anova.

Three different traffic routes are tested for mean driving time. The entries in the table are the driving times in minutes on the three different routes. The one-way \(ANOVA\) results are shown in Table.

State \(SS_{\text{between}}\), \(SS_{\text{within}}\), and the \(F\) statistic.

\(SS_{\text{between}} = 26\)

\(SS_{\text{within}} = 441\)

\(F = 0.2653\)

Suppose a group is interested in determining whether teenagers obtain their drivers licenses at approximately the same average age across the country. Suppose that the following data are randomly collected from five teenagers in each region of the country. The numbers represent the age at which teenagers obtained their drivers licenses.

State the hypotheses.

\(H_{0}\): ____________

\(H_{a}\): ____________

## 13.3: The F-Distribution and the F-Ratio

Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. There are five basic assumptions that must be fulfilled in order to perform a one-way \(ANOVA\) test. What are they?

Exercise 13.2.1

Write one assumption.

Each population from which a sample is taken is assumed to be normal.

Exercise 13.2.2

Write another assumption.

Exercise 13.2.3

Write a third assumption.

The populations are assumed to have equal standard deviations (or variances).

Exercise 13.2.4

Write a fourth assumption.

Exercise 13.2.5

Write the final assumption.

The response is a numerical value.

Exercise 13.2.6

State the null hypothesis for a one-way \(ANOVA\) test if there are four groups.

Exercise 13.2.7

State the alternative hypothesis for a one-way \(ANOVA\) test if there are three groups.

\(H_{a}: \text{At least two of the group means } \mu_{1}, \mu_{2}, \mu_{3} \text{ are not equal.}\)

Exercise 13.2.8

When do you use an \(ANOVA\) test?

Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. Suppose a group is interested in determining whether teenagers obtain their drivers licenses at approximately the same average age across the country. Suppose that the following data are randomly collected from five teenagers in each region of the country. The numbers represent the age at which teenagers obtained their drivers licenses.

\(H_{0}: \mu_{1} = \mu_{2} = \mu_{3} = \mu_{4} = \mu_{5}\)

\(H_{a}\): At least any two of the group means \(\mu_{1} , \mu_{2}, \dotso, \mu_{5}\) are not equal.

degrees of freedom – numerator: \(df(\text{num}) =\) _________

degrees of freedom – denominator: \(df(\text{denom}) =\) ________

\(df(\text{denom}) = 15\)

\(F\) statistic = ________

## 13.4: Facts About the F Distribution

Exercise 13.4.4

An \(F\) statistic can have what values?

Exercise 13.4.5

What happens to the curves as the degrees of freedom for the numerator and the denominator get larger?

The curves approximate the normal distribution.

Use the following information to answer the next seven exercise. Four basketball teams took a random sample of players regarding how high each player can jump (in inches). The results are shown in Table.

Exercise 13.4.6

What is the \(df(\text{num})\)?

Exercise 13.4.7

What is the \(df(\text{denom})\)?

Exercise 13.4.8

What are the Sum of Squares and Mean Squares Factors?

Exercise 13.4.9

What are the Sum of Squares and Mean Squares Errors?

\(SS = 237.33; MS = 23.73\)

Exercise 13.4.10

What is the \(F\) statistic?

Exercise 13.4.11

What is the \(p\text{-value}\)?

Exercise 13.4.12

At the 5% significance level, is there a difference in the mean jump heights among the teams?

Use the following information to answer the next seven exercises. A video game developer is testing a new game on three different groups. Each group represents a different target market for the game. The developer collects scores from a random sample from each group. The results are shown in Table

Exercise 13.4.13

Exercise 13.4.14

Exercise 13.4.15

What are the \(SS_{\text{between}}\) and \(MS_{\text{between}}\)?

\(SS_{\text{between}} = 5,700.4\);

\(MS_{\text{between}} = 2,850.2\)

Exercise 13.4.16

What are the \(SS_{\text{within}}\) and \(MS_{\text{within}}\)?

Exercise 13.4.17

What is the \(F\) Statistic?

Exercise 13.4.18

Exercise 13.4.19

At the 10% significance level, are the scores among the different groups different?

Yes, there is enough evidence to show that the scores among the groups are statistically significant at the 10% level.

Enter the data into your calculator or computer.

Exercise 13.4.20

\(p\text{-value} =\) ______

State the decisions and conclusions (in complete sentences) for the following preconceived levels of \(\alpha\).

Exercise 13.4.21

\(\alpha = 0.05\)

- Decision: ____________________________
- Conclusion: ____________________________

Exercise 13.4.22

\(\alpha = 0.01\)

Use the following information to answer the next eight exercises. Groups of men from three different areas of the country are to be tested for mean weight. The entries in the table are the weights for the different groups. The one-way \(ANOVA\) results are shown in Table .

Exercise 13.3.2

What is the Sum of Squares Factor?

Exercise 13.3.3

What is the Sum of Squares Error?

Exercise 13.3.4

What is the \(df\) for the numerator?

Exercise 13.3.5

What is the \(df\) for the denominator?

Exercise 13.3.6

What is the Mean Square Factor?

Exercise 13.3.7

What is the Mean Square Error?

Exercise 13.3.8

Use the following information to answer the next eight exercises. Girls from four different soccer teams are to be tested for mean goals scored per game. The entries in the table are the goals per game for the different teams. The one-way \(ANOVA\) results are shown in Table .

Exercise 13.3.9

What is \(SS_{\text{between}}\)?

Exercise 13.3.10

Exercise 13.3.11

What is \(MS_{\text{between}}\)?

Exercise 13.3.12

What is \(SS_{\text{within}}\)?

Exercise 13.3.13

Exercise 13.3.14

What is \(MS_{\text{within}}\)?

Exercise 13.3.15

Exercise 13.3.16

Judging by the \(F\) statistic, do you think it is likely or unlikely that you will reject the null hypothesis?

Because a one-way \(ANOVA\) test is always right-tailed, a high \(F\) statistic corresponds to a low \(p\text{-value}\), so it is likely that we will reject the null hypothesis.

Use a solution sheet to conduct the following hypothesis tests. The solution sheet can be found in [link] .

Three students, Linda, Tuan, and Javier, are given five laboratory rats each for a nutritional experiment. Each rat's weight is recorded in grams. Linda feeds her rats Formula A, Tuan feeds his rats Formula B, and Javier feeds his rats Formula C. At the end of a specified time period, each rat is weighed again, and the net gain in grams is recorded. Using a significance level of 10%, test the hypothesis that the three formulas produce the same mean weight gain.

- \(H_{0}: \mu_{L} = \mu_{T} = \mu_{J}\)
- at least any two of the means are different
- \(df(\text{num}) = 2; df(\text{denom}) = 12\)
- \(F\) distribution
- Check student’s solution.
- Decision: Do not reject null hypothesis; Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the means are different.

A grassroots group opposed to a proposed increase in the gas tax claimed that the increase would hurt working-class people the most, since they commute the farthest to work. Suppose that the group randomly surveyed 24 individuals and asked them their daily one-way commuting mileage. The results are in Table . Using a 5% significance level, test the hypothesis that the three mean commuting mileages are the same.

Examine the seven practice laps from [link] . Determine whether the mean lap time is statistically the same for the seven practice laps, or if there is at least one lap that has a different mean time from the others.

- \(H_{0}: \mu_{1} = \mu_{2} = \mu_{3} = \mu_{4} = \mu_{5} = \mu_{6} = \mu_{T}\)
- At least two mean lap times are different.
- \(df(\text{num}) = 6; df(\text{denom}) = 98\)
- Decision: Do not reject null hypothesis; Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the mean lap times are different.

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. Table lists the number of pages in four different types of magazines.

Using a significance level of 5%, test the hypothesis that the four magazine types have the same mean length.

Eliminate one magazine type that you now feel has a mean length different from the others. Redo the hypothesis test, testing that the remaining three means are statistically the same. Use a new solution sheet. Based on this test, are the mean lengths for the remaining three magazines statistically the same?

- \(H_{a}: \mu_{d} = \mu_{n} = \mu_{h}\)
- At least any two of the magazines have different mean lengths.
- \(df(\text{num}) = 2, df(\text{denom}) = 12\)
- \(F\) distribtuion
- \(F = 15.28\)
- \(p\text{-value} = 0.001\)
- \(\alpha: 0.05\)
- Decision: Reject the Null Hypothesis.
- Reason for decision: \(p\text{-value} < \alpha\)
- Conclusion: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean lengths of the magazines are different.

A researcher wants to know if the mean times (in minutes) that people watch their favorite news station are the same. Suppose that Table shows the results of a study.

Assume that all distributions are normal, the four population standard deviations are approximately the same, and the data were collected independently and randomly. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

Are the means for the final exams the same for all statistics class delivery types? Table shows the scores on final exams from several randomly selected classes that used the different delivery types.

- \(H_{0}: \mu_{o} = \mu_{h} = \mu_{f}\)
- At least two of the means are different.
- \(df(\text{n}) = 2, df(\text{d}) = 13\)
- \(F_{2,13}\)
- Decision: Do not reject the null hypothesis.
- Conclusion: The mean scores of different class delivery are not different.

Are the mean number of times a month a person eats out the same for whites, blacks, Hispanics and Asians? Suppose that Table shows the results of a study.

Are the mean numbers of daily visitors to a ski resort the same for the three types of snow conditions? Suppose that Table shows the results of a study.

- \(H_{0}: \mu_{p} = \mu_{m} = \mu_{h}\)
- At least any two of the means are different.
- \(df(\text{n}) = 2, df(\text{d}) = 12\)
- \(F_{2,12}\)
- Conclusion: There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean numbers of daily visitors are different.

Sanjay made identical paper airplanes out of three different weights of paper, light, medium and heavy. He made four airplanes from each of the weights, and launched them himself across the room. Here are the distances (in meters) that his planes flew.

Figure 13.4.1.

- Take a look at the data in the graph. Look at the spread of data for each group (light, medium, heavy). Does it seem reasonable to assume a normal distribution with the same variance for each group? Yes or No.
- Why is this a balanced design?
- Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation for each group.
- variance of the group means __________
- \(MS_{\text{between}} =\) ___________
- mean of the three sample variances ___________
- \(MS_{\text{within}} =\) _____________
- \(F\) statistic = ____________
- \(df(\text{num}) =\) __________, \(df(\text{denom}) =\) ___________
- number of groups _______
- number of observations _______
- \(p\text{-value} =\) __________ (\(P(F >\) _______\() =\) __________)
- Graph the \(p\text{-value}\).
- decision: _______________________
- conclusion: _______________________________________________________________

DDT is a pesticide that has been banned from use in the United States and most other areas of the world. It is quite effective, but persisted in the environment and over time became seen as harmful to higher-level organisms. Famously, egg shells of eagles and other raptors were believed to be thinner and prone to breakage in the nest because of ingestion of DDT in the food chain of the birds.

An experiment was conducted on the number of eggs (fecundity) laid by female fruit flies. There are three groups of flies. One group was bred to be resistant to DDT (the RS group). Another was bred to be especially susceptible to DDT (SS). Finally there was a control line of non-selected or typical fruitflies (NS). Here are the data:

The values are the average number of eggs laid daily for each of 75 flies (25 in each group) over the first 14 days of their lives. Using a 1% level of significance, are the mean rates of egg selection for the three strains of fruitfly different? If so, in what way? Specifically, the researchers were interested in whether or not the selectively bred strains were different from the nonselected line, and whether the two selected lines were different from each other.

Here is a chart of the three groups:

The data appear normally distributed from the chart and of similar spread. There do not appear to be any serious outliers, so we may proceed with our ANOVA calculations, to see if we have good evidence of a difference between the three groups.

\(H_{0}: \mu_{1} = \mu_{2} = \mu_{3}\);

\(H_{a}: \mu_{i} \neq \mu_{j}\) some \(i \neq j\).

Define \(\mu_{1}, \mu_{2}, \mu_{3}\), as the population mean number of eggs laid by the three groups of fruit flies.

\(F\) statistic \(= 8.6657\);

\(p\text{-value} = 0.0004\)

Decision: Since the \(p\text{-value}\) is less than the level of significance of 0.01, we reject the null hypothesis.

Conclusion: We have good evidence that the average number of eggs laid during the first 14 days of life for these three strains of fruitflies are different.

Interestingly, if you perform a two sample \(t\)-test to compare the RS and NS groups they are significantly different (\(p = 0.0013\)). Similarly, SS and NS are significantly different (\(p = 0.0006\)). However, the two selected groups, RS and SS are not significantly different (\(p = 0.5176\)). Thus we appear to have good evidence that selection either for resistance or for susceptibility involves a reduced rate of egg production (for these specific strains) as compared to flies that were not selected for resistance or susceptibility to DDT. Here, genetic selection has apparently involved a loss of fecundity.

The data shown is the recorded body temperatures of 130 subjects as estimated from available histograms.

Traditionally we are taught that the normal human body temperature is 98.6 F. This is not quite correct for everyone. Are the mean temperatures among the four groups different?

Calculate 95% confidence intervals for the mean body temperature in each group and comment about the confidence intervals.

## 13.5: Test of Two Variances

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. There are two assumptions that must be true in order to perform an \(F\) test of two variances.

Exercise 13.5.2

Name one assumption that must be true.

The populations from which the two samples are drawn are normally distributed.

Exercise 13.5.3

What is the other assumption that must be true?

Use the following information to answer the next five exercises. Two coworkers commute from the same building. They are interested in whether or not there is any variation in the time it takes them to drive to work. They each record their times for 20 commutes. The first worker’s times have a variance of 12.1. The second worker’s times have a variance of 16.9. The first worker thinks that he is more consistent with his commute times and that his commute time is shorter. Test the claim at the 10% level.

Exercise 13.5.4

State the null and alternative hypotheses.

\(H_{0}: \sigma_{1} = \sigma_{2}\)

\(H_{a}: \sigma_{1} < \sigma_{2}\)

- \(H_{0}: \sigma^{2}_{1} = \sigma^{2}_{2}\)

\(H_{a}: \sigma^{2}_{1} < \sigma^{2}_{2}\)

Exercise 13.5.5

What is \(s_{1}\) in this problem?

Exercise 13.5.6

What is \(s_{2}\) in this problem?

Exercise 13.5.7

What is \(n\)?

Exercise 13.5.8

Exercise 13.5.9

Exercise 13.5.10

Is the claim accurate?

No, at the 10% level of significance, we do not reject the null hypothesis and state that the data do not show that the variation in drive times for the first worker is less than the variation in drive times for the second worker.

Use the following information to answer the next four exercises. Two students are interested in whether or not there is variation in their test scores for math class. There are 15 total math tests they have taken so far. The first student’s grades have a standard deviation of 38.1. The second student’s grades have a standard deviation of 22.5. The second student thinks his scores are lower.

Exercise 13.5.11

Exercise 13.5.12

Exercise 13.5.13

Exercise 13.5.14

At the 5% significance level, do we reject the null hypothesis?

Reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to say that the variance of the grades for the first student is higher than the variance in the grades for the second student.

Use the following information to answer the next three exercises. Two cyclists are comparing the variances of their overall paces going uphill. Each cyclist records his or her speeds going up 35 hills. The first cyclist has a variance of 23.8 and the second cyclist has a variance of 32.1. The cyclists want to see if their variances are the same or different.

Exercise 13.5.15

Exercise 13.5.16

Exercise 13.5.17

At the 5% significance level, what can we say about the cyclists’ variances?

Three students, Linda, Tuan, and Javier, are given five laboratory rats each for a nutritional experiment. Each rat’s weight is recorded in grams. Linda feeds her rats Formula A, Tuan feeds his rats Formula B, and Javier feeds his rats Formula C. At the end of a specified time period, each rat is weighed again and the net gain in grams is recorded.

Determine whether or not the variance in weight gain is statistically the same among Javier’s and Linda’s rats. Test at a significance level of 10%.

- \(H_{a}: \sigma^{2}_{1} \neq \sigma^{2}_{1}\)
- \(df(\text{num}) = 4; df(\text{denom}) = 4\)
- \(F_{4, 4}\)
- \(2(0.1563) = 0.3126\). Using the TI-83+/84+ function 2-SampFtest, you get the test statistic as 2.9986 and p -value directly as 0.3127. If you input the lists in a different order, you get a test statistic of 0.3335 but the \(p\text{-value}\) is the same because this is a two-tailed test.
- Check student't solution.
- Decision: Do not reject the null hypothesis; Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to conclude that the variances are different.

A grassroots group opposed to a proposed increase in the gas tax claimed that the increase would hurt working-class people the most, since they commute the farthest to work. Suppose that the group randomly surveyed 24 individuals and asked them their daily one-way commuting mileage. The results are as follows.

Determine whether or not the variance in mileage driven is statistically the same among the working class and professional (middle income) groups. Use a 5% significance level.

Refer to the data from [link] .

Examine practice laps 3 and 4. Determine whether or not the variance in lap time is statistically the same for those practice laps.

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises. The following table lists the number of pages in four different types of magazines.

- \(df(\text{n}) = 19, df(\text{d}) = 19\)
- \(F_{19,19}\)
- Reason for decision: \(p\text{-value} > \alpha\)
- Conclusion: There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that the variances are different.

Which two magazine types do you think have the same variance in length?

Which two magazine types do you think have different variances in length?

The answers may vary. Sample answer: Home decorating magazines and news magazines have different variances.

Is the variance for the amount of money, in dollars, that shoppers spend on Saturdays at the mall the same as the variance for the amount of money that shoppers spend on Sundays at the mall? Suppose that the Table shows the results of a study.

Are the variances for incomes on the East Coast and the West Coast the same? Suppose that Table shows the results of a study. Income is shown in thousands of dollars. Assume that both distributions are normal. Use a level of significance of 0.05.

- \(df(\text{n}) = 7, df(\text{d}) = 6\)
- \(F_{7,6}\)

Thirty men in college were taught a method of finger tapping. They were randomly assigned to three groups of ten, with each receiving one of three doses of caffeine: 0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg. This is approximately the amount in no, one, or two cups of coffee. Two hours after ingesting the caffeine, the men had the rate of finger tapping per minute recorded. The experiment was double blind, so neither the recorders nor the students knew which group they were in. Does caffeine affect the rate of tapping, and if so how?

Here are the data:

King Manuel I, Komnenus ruled the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople (Istanbul) during the years 1145 to 1180 A.D. The empire was very powerful during his reign, but declined significantly afterwards. Coins minted during his era were found in Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Nine coins were from his first coinage, seven from the second, four from the third, and seven from a fourth. These spanned most of his reign. We have data on the silver content of the coins:

Did the silver content of the coins change over the course of Manuel’s reign?

Here are the means and variances of each coinage. The data are unbalanced.

Here is a strip chart of the silver content of the coins:

While there are differences in spread, it is not unreasonable to use \(ANOVA\) techniques. Here is the completed \(ANOVA\) table:

\(P(F > 26.272) = 0\);

Reject the null hypothesis for any alpha. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean silver content among the four coinages are different. From the strip chart, it appears that the first and second coinages had higher silver contents than the third and fourth.

The American League and the National League of Major League Baseball are each divided into three divisions: East, Central, and West. Many years, fans talk about some divisions being stronger (having better teams) than other divisions. This may have consequences for the postseason. For instance, in 2012 Tampa Bay won 90 games and did not play in the postseason, while Detroit won only 88 and did play in the postseason. This may have been an oddity, but is there good evidence that in the 2012 season, the American League divisions were significantly different in overall records? Use the following data to test whether the mean number of wins per team in the three American League divisions were the same or not. Note that the data are not balanced, as two divisions had five teams, while one had only four.

Here is a stripchart of the number of wins for the 14 teams in the AL for the 2012 season.

While the spread seems similar, there may be some question about the normality of the data, given the wide gaps in the middle near the 0.500 mark of 82 games (teams play 162 games each season in MLB). However, one-way \(ANOVA\) is robust.

Here is the \(ANOVA\) table for the data:

\(P(F > 1.5521) = 0.2548\)

Since the \(p\text{-value}\) is so large, there is not good evidence against the null hypothesis of equal means. We decline to reject the null hypothesis. Thus, for 2012, there is not any have any good evidence of a significant difference in mean number of wins between the divisions of the American League.

## 13.6: Lab: One-Way ANOVA

Statistics Made Easy

## Repeated Measures ANOVA: Definition, Formula, and Example

A repeated measures ANOVA is used to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the means of three or more groups in which the same subjects show up in each group.

A repeated measures ANOVA is typically used in two specific situations:

1. Measuring the mean scores of subjects during three or more time points. For example, you might want to measure the resting heart rate of subjects one month before they start a training program, during the middle of the training program, and one month after the training program to see if there is a significant difference in mean resting heart rate across these three time points.

2. Measuring the mean scores of subjects under three different conditions. For example, you might have subjects watch three different movies and rate each one based on how much they enjoyed it.

## One-Way ANOVA vs. Repeated Measures ANOVA

In a typical one-way ANOVA , different subjects are used in each group. For example, we might ask subjects to rate three movies, just like in the example above, but we use different subjects to rate each movie:

In this case, we would conduct a typical one-way ANOVA to test for the difference between the mean ratings of the three movies.

In real life there are two benefits of using the same subjects across multiple treatment conditions:

1. It’s cheaper and faster for researchers to recruit and pay a smaller number of people to carry out an experiment since they can just obtain data from the same people multiple times.

2. We are able to attribute some of the variance in the data to the subjects themselves, which makes it easier to obtain a smaller p-value.

One potential drawback of this type of design is that subjects might get bored or tired if an experiment lasts too long, which could skew the results. For example, subjects might give lower movie ratings to the third movie they watch because they’re tired and ready to go home.

## Repeated Measures ANOVA: Example

Suppose we recruit five subjects to participate in a training program. We measure their resting heart rate before participating in a training program, after participating for 4 months, and after participating for 8 months.

The following table shows the results:

We want to know whether there is a difference in mean resting heart rate at these three time points so we conduct a repeated measures ANOVA at the .05 significance level using the following steps:

Step 1. State the hypotheses.

The null hypothesis (H 0 ): µ 1 = µ 2 = µ 3 (the population means are all equal)

The alternative hypothesis: (Ha): at least one population mean is different from the rest

Step 2. Perform the repeated measures ANOVA.

We will use the Repeated Measures ANOVA Calculator using the following input:

Once we click “Calculate” then the following output will automatically appear:

Step 3. Interpret the results.

From the output table we see that the F test statistic is 9.598 and the corresponding p-value is 0.00749 .

Since this p-value is less than 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis. This means we have sufficient evidence to say that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean resting heart rate at the three different points in time.

## Additional Resources

The following articles explain how to perform a repeated measures ANOVA using different statistical softwares:

Repeated Measures ANOVA in Excel Repeated Measures ANOVA in R Repeated Measures ANOVA in Stata Repeated Measures ANOVA in Python Repeated Measures ANOVA in SPSS Repeated Measures ANOVA in Google Sheets Repeated Measures ANOVA By Hand Repeated Measures ANOVA Calculator

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Hey there. My name is Zach Bobbitt. I have a Masters of Science degree in Applied Statistics and I’ve worked on machine learning algorithms for professional businesses in both healthcare and retail. I’m passionate about statistics, machine learning, and data visualization and I created Statology to be a resource for both students and teachers alike. My goal with this site is to help you learn statistics through using simple terms, plenty of real-world examples, and helpful illustrations.

## 2 Replies to “Repeated Measures ANOVA: Definition, Formula, and Example”

thank you for the easy to understand explanation. are there post-hoc tests like the bonferroni for one way anova?

This was so helpful, thankyou. However, wanted to ask if the alternative non parametrics tests determines mean differences or MEDIAN.?

Somewhere, I read that non parametric are used to determine median difference since it is non outlier.

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## COMMENTS

Use a one-way ANOVA when you have collected data about one categorical independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable. The independent variable should have at least three levels (i.e. at least three different groups or categories). ANOVA tells you if the dependent variable changes according to the level of the independent variable.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to test differences between two or more means. It is similar to the t-test, but the t-test is generally used for comparing two means, while ANOVA is used when you have more than two means to compare. ANOVA is based on comparing the variance (or variation) between the data samples to the ...

ANOVA Real Life Example #1. A large scale farm is interested in understanding which of three different fertilizers leads to the highest crop yield. They sprinkle each fertilizer on ten different fields and measure the total yield at the end of the growing season. To understand whether there is a statistically significant difference in the mean ...

The Ultimate Guide to ANOVA. ANOVA is the go-to analysis tool for classical experimental design, which forms the backbone of scientific research. In this article, we'll guide you through what ANOVA is, how to determine which version to use to evaluate your particular experiment, and provide detailed examples for the most common forms of ANOVA.

The ANOVA Test. An ANOVA test is a way to find out if survey or experiment results are significant. In other words, they help you to figure out if you need to reject the null hypothesis or accept the alternate hypothesis. Basically, you're testing groups to see if there's a difference between them.

The eta squared formula for one-way analysis of variance is: η 2 = SSB / SST. where SSB is the between-groups sum of squares and SST is the total sum of squares. Given this formula, we can compute eta squared for this drug dosage experiment, as shown below: η 2 = SSB / SST = 6240 / 15240 = 0.41.

The question is whether or not this difference is statistically significant. Fortunately, a one-way ANOVA allows us to answer this question. One-Way ANOVA: Assumptions. For the results of a one-way ANOVA to be valid, the following assumptions should be met: 1. Normality - Each sample was drawn from a normally distributed population. 2.

In this Lesson, we introduce Analysis of Variance or ANOVA. ANOVA is a statistical method that analyzes variances to determine if the means from more than two populations are the same. In other words, we have a quantitative response variable and a categorical explanatory variable with more than two levels. In ANOVA, the categorical explanatory ...

One-way ANOVA assumes your group data follow the normal distribution. However, your groups can be skewed if your sample size is large enough because of the central limit theorem. Here are the sample size guidelines: 2 - 9 groups: At least 15 in each group. 10 - 12 groups: At least 20 per group. For one-way ANOVA, unimodal data can be mildly ...

See three examples of ANOVA in action as you learn how it can be applied to more complex statistical analyses. Analysis of variance, or ANOVA, is an approach to comparing data with multiple means across different groups, and allows us to see patterns and trends within complex and varied data. See three examples of ANOVA in action as you learn ...

ANOVA, short for Analysis of Variance, is a statistical method used to see if there are significant differences between the averages of three or more unrelated groups. This technique is especially useful when comparing more than two groups, which is a limitation of other tests like the t-test and z-test. For example, ANOVA can compare average ...

Sample Size. A consideration for ANOVA is homogeneity. Homogeneity, in this context, just means that all of the groups' distribution and errors differ in approximately the same way, regardless of the mean for each group. ... Below you click to see the output for the ANOVA test of the Research Question, we have included the research example ...

These ANOVA still only have one dependent variable (e.g., attitude about a tax cut). A two-way ANOVA has three research questions: One for each of the two independent variables and one for the interaction of the two independent variables. Sample Research Questions for a Two-Way ANOVA:

Question 1. Students were given different drug treatments before revising for their exams. Some were given a memory drug, some a placebo drug and some no treatment. The exam scores (%) are shown below for the three different groups: Carry out a one-way ANOVA by hand to test the hypothesis that the treatments will have different effects.

Current: page 17: The research question and the one-way ANOVA model The research question and the one-way ANOVA model ... The ANOVA model above tells us that the response variable (yield in our example) depends on: A part we can explain by the treatment effect (τ_i ), the insecticide.

ANOVA Examples STAT 314 1. If we define s = MSE, then of which parameter is s an estimate? If we define s = MSE, then s i s a n e s t i m a t e o f t h e common population standard deviation, σ, of the populations under consideration.(This presumes, of course, that the equal-standard-deviations assumption holds.) 2. Explain the reason for the word variance in the phrase analysis of variance.

A two-way ANOVA ("analysis of variance") is used to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the means of three or more independent groups that have been split on two variables (sometimes called "factors").. This tutorial explains the following: When to use a two-way ANOVA. The assumptions that should be met to perform a two-way ANOVA.

Repeated measures ANOVA is the equivalent of the one-way ANOVA, but for related, not independent groups, and is the extension of the dependent t-test. A repeated measures ANOVA is also referred to as a within-subjects ANOVA or ANOVA for correlated samples. All these names imply the nature of the repeated measures ANOVA, that of a test to detect ...

Figure 13.5.2. While the spread seems similar, there may be some question about the normality of the data, given the wide gaps in the middle near the 0.500 mark of 82 games (teams play 162 games each season in MLB). However, one-way ANOVA is robust. Here is the ANOVA table for the data:

The table helps to quickly identify the right Analysis of Variance to choose in different scenarios. The factorial ANOVA should be used when the research question asks for the influence of two or more independent variables on one dependent variable. Examples of typical questions that are answered by the ANOVA are as follows:

A repeated measures ANOVA is used to determine whether or not there is a statistically significant difference between the means of three or more groups in which the same subjects show up in each group. A repeated measures ANOVA is typically used in two specific situations: 1. Measuring the mean scores of subjects during three or more time points.