28 Best Academic Search Engines That make your research easier

Academic Search Engines

If you’re a researcher or scholar, you know that conducting effective online research is a critical part of your job. And if you’re like most people, you’re always on the lookout for new and better ways to do it. 

This article aims to give you an edge over researchers that rely mainly on Google for their entire research process.

Table of Contents

#1. Google Scholar

Google Scholar is an academic search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

#2. ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) 

ERIC (short for educational resources information center) is a great academic search engine that focuses on education-related literature. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and produced by the Institute of Education Sciences. 

ERIC indexes over a million articles, reports, conference papers, and other resources on all aspects of education from early childhood to higher education. So, search results are more relevant to Education on ERIC. 

ERIC is a free online database of education-related literature. 

#3. Wolfram Alpha

Wolfram Alpha is a “computational knowledge engine” that can answer factual questions posed in natural language. It can be a useful search tool. 

Wolfram Alpha can also be used to find academic articles. Just type in your keywords and Wolfram Alpha will generate a list of academic articles that match your query.

#4. iSEEK Education 

iSEEK is a search engine targeting students, teachers, administrators, and caregiver. It’s designed to be safe with editor-reviewed content.

iSEEK Education is free to use.

#5. BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

CORE is an academic search engine that focuses on open access research papers. A link to the full text PDF or complete text web page is supplied for each search result. It’s academic search engine dedicated to open access research papers.

You might also like:

#7. Science.gov

#8. semantic scholar, #9. refseek.

This is one of the free search engines that feels like Yahoo with a massive directory. It could be good when you are just looking for research ideas from unexpected angles. It could lead you to some other database that you might not know such as the CIA The World Factbook, which is a great reference tool.

#10. ResearchGate 

A mixture of social networking site + forum + content databases where researchers can build their profile, share research papers, and interact with one another.

#11. DataONE Search (formerly CiteULike) 

#12. dataelixir , #13. lazyscholar – browser extension, #14. citeseerx – digital library from penstate, #15. the lens – patents search , #16. fatcat – wiki for bibliographic catalog , #17. lexis web – legal database, #18. infotopia – part of the vlrc family, #19. virtual learning resources center, #21. worldwidescience.

Over 70 countries’ databases are used on the website. When a user enters a query, it contacts databases from all across the world and shows results in both English and translated journals and academic resources.

#22. Google Books

A user can browse thousands of books on Google Books, from popular titles to old titles, to find pages that include their search terms. You can look through pages, read online reviews, and find out where to buy a hard copy once you find the book you are interested in.

#23. DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals)

#24. baidu scholar, #25. pubmed central, #26. medline®.

MEDLINE® is a paid subscription database for life sciences and biomedicine that includes more than 28 million citations to journal articles. For finding reliable, carefully chosen health information, Medline Plus provides a powerful search tool and even a dictionary.

Defunct Academic Search Engines 

#27. microsoft academic  .

Microsoft Academic

#28. Scizzle

Final thoughts.

There are many academic search engines that can help researchers and scholars find the information they need. This list provides a variety of options, starting with more familiar engines and moving on to less well-known ones. 

10 thoughts on “28 Best Academic Search Engines That make your research easier”

Thank you so much Joannah..I have found this information useful to me as librarian in an academic library

You are welcome! We are happy to hear that!

Thank You Team, for providing a comprehensive list of academic search engines that can help make research easier for students and scholars. The variety of search engines included offers a range of options for finding scholarly articles, journals, and other academic resources. The article also provides a brief summary of each search engine’s features, which helps in determining which one is the best fit for a specific research topic. Overall, this article is a valuable resource for anyone looking for a quick and easy way to access a wealth of academic information.

We appreciate your support and thank you for your kind words. We will continue to provide valuable resources for students and researchers in the future. Please let us know if you have any further questions or suggestions.

No more questions Thank You

I cannot thank you enough!!! thanks alot 🙂

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Expontum – Helps researchers quickly find knowledge gaps and identify what research projects have been completed before. Expontum is free, open access, and available to all globally with no paid versions of the site. Automated processes scan research article information 24/7 so this website is constantly updating. By looking at over 35 million research publications (240 million by the end of 2023), the site has 146 million tagged research subjects and 122 million tagged research attributes. Learn more about methodology and sources on the Expontum About Page ( https://www.expontum.com/about.php )

Hey Ryan, I clicked and checked your site and thought it was very relevant to our reader. Thank you for sharing. And, we will be reviewing your site soon.

Sounds good! Thanks, Joannah!

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The 8 Best Open Access Journal Sites for Students

These sites provide credible research papers on a wide variety of subjects. Better yet, it's all free!

If you're a student, you know how important it is to cite your sources when making an argument. And to do so, you turn to no other than scholarly journals, which are basically physical or digital books that collect written works from experts in different fields.

Thanks to technology, there are a wealth of well-reputed scholarly journals on the internet for our perusal. However, due to intellectual property laws, many of them charge expensive fees.

Because of this, many nonprofit organizations have begun launching free, open access journal websites for the benefit of students and the general public.

What Are Open Access Journals?

Open access journals, as the name suggests, are websites where users are able to access scholarly articles and research papers for free. They are an immensely helpful source for individuals and groups who need to search for reliable academic information but are unable to pay for it.

Here, we’ve compiled a list of the best open access journals for you to expand your knowledge on different disciplines.

1. Elsevier

Elsevier open access journals homepage

With over 140 years of serving the scientific community, open access journals on Elsevier are known to be highly credible and widely cited.

Journals on Elsevier cover just about any area of science and medicine you can think of, including cardiology, anesthesiology, infectious diseases, and even soil mechanics.

The open access journals also have English translations of scientific publications from around the world, including Spain, Brazil, China, and Saudi Arabia.

To get started on Elsevier, simply navigate to its open access website, and search for journals that are marked as Gold open access . Keep in mind that journals with  Green open access  labels are subscription journals that you need to pay for.

2. SAGE Open

SAGE open access journals homepage

SAGE is another well-established journal publisher in academia. Its open access website promises to deliver studies that adhere to the most rigorous peer-review standards for researchers, students, and the general public.

Because of the pandemic, SAGE has also made all COVID-19-related studies free to read and download. In the social sciences, the Black Lives Matter movement has also made publications about structural racism and police violence on SAGE available for free.

Similar to Elsevier, SAGE’s open access journals on the site are marked as Gold .

3. SpringerOpen

Springer open access journals homepage

Launched in 2010, SpringerOpen has since gained a reputation as one of the most reputable open access journals in academia. The organization invites professionals from all fields of science, technology, the humanities, and the social sciences to submit research papers to raise awareness on different issues in society.

In addition to open access journals, SpringerOpen also runs a blog where you can read about the latest interviews, insights, and analyses with researchers and editors from Springer.

If you are still not sure about what kinds of sources you are looking for, don't fret. SpringerOpen has a search engine called the Journal Suggester that will recommend suitable scholarly articles. This personalized approach makes Springer the more user-friendly selection on the list.

4. BioMed Central

BioMed Central open access journals homepage

BioMed Central’s (BMC) online journals have been open access since 1999. The publication is owned by Springer Nature, which also runs SpringerOpen.

Some of BMC’s most well-known publications include BMC Biology and BMC Medicine. So if you’re looking for information related to either of those fields, don’t forget to check out BMC.

BMC is also a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics, a UK charity organization that promotes integrity in scholarly research. With its history and affiliations, data obtained from BMC is reputable, so you don’t have to worry about spreading false information.

5. Royal Society Open Science

Royal Society open access journals homepage

As its name clearly states, the Royal Society Open Science is an open access journal published by the Royal Society in the UK, the world’s oldest and perhaps most renowned independent scientific academy.

With that reputation alone, you can be sure that the quality of its research papers is top-notch. Its editorial team is also comprised of some of the best scientists in the field. The Royal Society Open Source publishes peer-reviewed content from a wide range of disciplines, including life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, engineering, and computer sciences.

Research papers put out by the Royal Society Open Science are also regularly covered by mainstream news outlets, including BBC and CNN.

JSTOR open access journal homepage

If you are a humanities student, especially an English major, consider JSTOR your savior. JSTOR is one of the best humanities-focused publications in academia, and by popular demand, it has now made many of its scholarly journals open access.

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Besides English, open access titles on JSTOR are available in Spanish, thanks to its partnership with El Colegio de Mexico and the Latin American Council of Social Sciences.

If you are a liberal arts student, get excited, because JSTOR also has a sister site called Artstor . Artstor has a collection of over 1.3 million images, videos, documents, and audio files from museums for you to download for free.

And as if that is not enough, JSTOR also has a section dedicated to  Early Journal Content . This makes articles published before 1923 in the US (and before 1870 everywhere else in the world) available for free.

7. MDPI Humanities

MDPI Humanities open access journals homepage

Here’s another Humanities-focused journal for students of the liberal arts.

MDPI is a publisher of open access journals based in Basel, Switzerland. It has an extensive worldwide network of over 67,000 editors working on 297 diverse, peer-reviewed journals.

Humanities is an online publication and is released quarterly. From film studies to linguistics and literature, you can find almost any research paper on different areas in the humanities and social sciences.

Aside from its quarterly journals, the website also has regular announcements about humanities-related conferences happening all around the world. If you’d like to receive new editions of the journal every quarter, you can also sign up for email alerts on the website.

8. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)

DOAJ open access journals homepage

If you're still unable to find what you're looking for from the above websites, why not try the DOAJ?

Think of the DOAJ as an alternative to Google Scholar. It's essentially a search engine that allows you to look up over 15,000 open access journals on the internet. Unlike other specialized publications on this list, journals on DOAJ cover all areas, in all disciplines. Journals in different languages from around the world can also be found on the site.

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The DOAJ is a 100 percent not-for-profit website, and its journal review process is supported by hundreds of passionate editorial staff, all of whom are volunteers.

Taking Advantage of Open Access Journals

Open access journals are probably the best sources of legitimate, reliable, and evidence-backed information on the internet.

The next time you’re completing an important assignment, don’t forget to browse these websites to locate the best scholarly journals to lend extra credibility to your argument.

Reference management. Clean and simple.

The top list of academic research databases

best research databases

2. Web of Science

5. ieee xplore, 6. sciencedirect, 7. directory of open access journals (doaj), get the most out of your academic research database, frequently asked questions about academic research databases, related articles.

Whether you are writing a thesis , dissertation, or research paper it is a key task to survey prior literature and research findings. More likely than not, you will be looking for trusted resources, most likely peer-reviewed research articles.

Academic research databases make it easy to locate the literature you are looking for. We have compiled the top list of trusted academic resources to help you get started with your research:

Scopus is one of the two big commercial, bibliographic databases that cover scholarly literature from almost any discipline. Besides searching for research articles, Scopus also provides academic journal rankings, author profiles, and an h-index calculator .

  • Coverage: 90.6 million core records
  • References: N/A
  • Discipline: Multidisciplinary
  • Access options: Limited free preview, full access by institutional subscription only
  • Provider: Elsevier

Search interface of Scopus

Web of Science also known as Web of Knowledge is the second big bibliographic database. Usually, academic institutions provide either access to Web of Science or Scopus on their campus network for free.

  • Coverage: approx. 100 million items
  • References: 1.4 billion
  • Access options: institutional subscription only
  • Provider: Clarivate (formerly Thomson Reuters)

Web of Science landing page

PubMed is the number one resource for anyone looking for literature in medicine or biological sciences. PubMed stores abstracts and bibliographic details of more than 30 million papers and provides full text links to the publisher sites or links to the free PDF on PubMed Central (PMC) .

  • Coverage: approx. 35 million items
  • Discipline: Medicine and Biological Sciences
  • Access options: free
  • Provider: NIH

Search interface of PubMed

For education sciences, ERIC is the number one destination. ERIC stands for Education Resources Information Center, and is a database that specifically hosts education-related literature.

  • Coverage: approx. 1.6 million items
  • Discipline: Education
  • Provider: U.S. Department of Education

Search interface of ERIC academic database

IEEE Xplore is the leading academic database in the field of engineering and computer science. It's not only journal articles, but also conference papers, standards and books that can be search for.

  • Coverage: approx. 6 million items
  • Discipline: Engineering
  • Provider: IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)

Search interface of IEEE Xplore

ScienceDirect is the gateway to the millions of academic articles published by Elsevier, 1.4 million of which are open access. Journals and books can be searched via a single interface.

  • Coverage: approx. 19.5 million items

Search interface of ScienceDirect

The DOAJ is an open-access academic database that can be accessed and searched for free.

  • Coverage: over 8 million records
  • Provider: DOAJ

Search interface of DOAJ database

JSTOR is another great resource to find research papers. Any article published before 1924 in the United States is available for free and JSTOR also offers scholarships for independent researchers.

  • Coverage: more than 12 million items
  • Provider: ITHAKA

Search interface of JSTOR

Start using a reference manager like Paperpile to save, organize, and cite your references. Paperpile integrates with PubMed and many popular databases, so you can save references and PDFs directly to your library using the Paperpile buttons:

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Scopus is one of the two big commercial, bibliographic databases that cover scholarly literature from almost any discipline. Beside searching for research articles, Scopus also provides academic journal rankings, author profiles, and an h-index calculator .

PubMed is the number one resource for anyone looking for literature in medicine or biological sciences. PubMed stores abstracts and bibliographic details of more than 30 million papers and provides full text links to the publisher sites or links to the free PDF on PubMed Central (PMC)

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Resources for Academic Research: 12 Best Websites & Tools

Learn about the best 12 websites, tools, and resources for academic research to streamline and improve your research. Find out more now!

It is best to use scholarly or professional resources that are reliable, accurate, and valid for academic coursework and resources for academic research project assignments.

These are typically books and articles that have been reviewed before publication, but they can also be media and websites from reputable organizations and institutions.

When you do a research project, write a paper, or start a blog, you would then read articles to see what other people have done and then build on their work.

What are Resources for Academic Research?

Resources for academic research are the tools, materials, and information sources that scholars, students, and researchers use to conduct thorough and accurate research on a given topic.

Academic journals, books, online databases, primary and secondary sources, and research tools such as citation generators, reference managers, and statistical analysis software are examples of these resources .

Access to reliable and diverse resources is essential for producing high-quality academic work that is credible, informative, and current.

12 Best Websites, Tools & Resources for Academic Research

What sources will lead you to trustworthy resources for academic research? When you need to find sources, use these academic resources instead of scrolling through pages of search results.

  • Google Scholar

Google Scholar offers a wide range of scholarly literature, including articles, theses, books, and conference papers, making it a great resource for academic study.

Google Scholar allows researchers to search for information on a topic, find relevant material for their literature review, track citations of their work, remain up-to-date on new research in their field, and evaluate their work using metrics like the h-index and i10-index.

It’s a comprehensive, user-friendly academic research resource with powerful search capabilities, email alerts, and Google integration. This important website helps researchers find, access, and manage research data.


  • Keyword, author, or title search box for scholarly literature.
  • Tracking your work’s citations.
  • Advanced search filters by publication date, author, or journal.
  • Full-text articles and papers for convenient reference.
  • Email alerts for keywords or topics to remain current on research in your profession.
  • Work impact metrics like the h-index and i10-index.
  • Google Books and Google Drive integration for saving and organizing research resources.

JSTOR is an online library with academic journals, books, and primary sources from many fields. It was started in 1995 as a non-profit organization by JSTOR Inc. and a number of academic institutions.

More than 12 million academic articles and books from more than 2,000 publishers are in JSTOR’s online library. Content on JSTOR comes from many different fields, such as the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.

Individuals and institutions can subscribe to JSTOR’s digital library, and researchers, students, and scholars worldwide use it as a reliable and complete resource for academic research.

  • JSTOR offers scholarly journals, books, and primary materials.
  • JSTOR material spans humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.
  • JSTOR’s stored content, including historical records, gives academics a broad perspective.
  • Users can search the platform’s huge database for keywords, authors, titles, and more.
  • PDFs of JSTOR articles can be downloaded.
  • Sharing, citation, and exporting options help scholars collaborate on the platform.
  • JSTOR’s pricing makes it’s content affordable for all sizes and budgets.

ProQuest is a global information content and technology company that gives access to research databases, electronic books, and digital archives. Eugene B. Power started it in 1938 as University Microfilms to store and distribute dissertations and theses on microfilm.

Today, ProQuest gives you access to a wide range of content, such as academic journals, newspapers, dissertations, and primary sources. The databases on ProQuest cover a wide range of subjects, including the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural sciences.

Researchers, students, and scholars worldwide use ProQuest because it is a reliable, all-inclusive resource for academic research.

Features : 

  • Offers access to research databases, e-books, and digital archives in a wide range of fields.
  • There are a lot of academic journals, newspapers, dissertations, and primary sources in this collection.
  • Included are the social sciences, the humanities, and the natural sciences.
  • Users can search by author, title, keyword, subject, and other criteria.
  • Many of its databases let you read articles and other materials in full text.
  • Includes tools for saving research, organizing it, and sharing it with others.
  • Offers different pricing options so that people and organizations of all sizes and budgets can use it.
  • Offers easy access to ProQuest’s services through mobile apps and the web so that they can be used from anywhere.
  • Users can get a lot of help with customer service and training.
  • ResearchGate

ResearchGate is a social networking site for academics and researchers to cooperate. In 2008, a group of scientists founded it to allow researchers to share their work, communicate, and network.

One of the largest research communities online, ResearchGate has over 17 million users. The platform lets scholars create profiles, share publications, ask and answer questions, and network with like-minded researchers.

A citation tracker and reputation score help scholars manage their research activity on ResearchGate.

  • A social network for scientists and researchers.
  • Enables scholars to create profiles, share work, and network.
  • Researcher cooperation and discussion platform.
  • A citation tracker, online reputation score , and analytics assist scholars in managing their research.
  • Job board and career resource for researchers.
  • Allows field researchers to ask and answer questions.
  • Offers a news feed on cutting-edge research.
  • Provides scholars with peer assessment and feedback.
  • Allows researchers to advertise their work and gain academic recognition.
  • Provides free and premium memberships.

Zotero, a free, open-source reference manager, helps scholars organize and credit their sources. The George Mason University Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media was founded in 2006.

Zotero lets users organize and search papers, books, web pages, and other study materials. It connects with various online browsers to gather and save research sources when surfing.

Researchers may easily format their citations and bibliographies in their discipline’s style with Zotero’s several citation formats. As a handy and effective tool for managing research resources, researchers, students, and scholars worldwide use it.

  • A free, open-source reference manager.
  • Organizes, stores, and cites research sources.
  • Organizes and stores research items in a searchable database.
  • It connects with various online browsers to gather and save research sources when surfing.
  • Offers a variety of citation styles for producing citations and bibliographies.
  • Enables people to share their research.
  • Provides note-taking, labeling, and research source highlighting features.
  • Automatically refreshes and syncs devices for easy research access.
  • Provides many plugins and add-ons to increase functionality.
  • Includes excellent documentation and a helpful user community.

Mendeley, a free reference management and academic, social network, lets researchers organize and share their articles and resources. It was started in 2008 by academicians and software developers and acquired by Elsevier in 2013.

Mendeley lets users create a searchable database of research papers, books, and other resources, including citation management, collaboration, and discovery capabilities. It offers groups, profiles, and suggestions to assist the researcher’s network.

Mendeley is a convenient and effective research management tool used by academics, students, and intellectuals worldwide.

  • Free academic networking and reference management.
  • Helps scholars organize and share papers and resources.
  • Provides a searchable database of research papers, books, etc.
  • Citation, collaboration, and discovery tools.
  • Helps researchers network with groups, profiles, and recommendations.
  • Annotates, highlights, and organizes research.
  • Formats citations and bibliographies in several fields.
  • Plugins and add-ons for major word processing and research applications.
  • Automatic updates and device syncing make research materials accessible anywhere.
  • Has a strong user community and substantial documentation.

Grammarly is a real-time writing tool that checks spelling, punctuation, and style. It was created in 2009 by linguists and software engineers and is now one of the most popular writing tools.

Grammarly is available as a browser extension, a desktop program for Windows and macOS, and a web app. It comes in free and premium versions, with the premium version adding genre-specific writing style advice, plagiarism detection, and readability scoring.

Grammarly improves writing for millions of writers, students, and professionals worldwide.

  • Real-time grammar and spelling checker for writers.
  • Helps writers improve style and tone.
  • Software engineers and linguists created it.
  • Use a web app, browser extension, or desktop software.
  • Free and paid versions are available.
  • The premium edition includes genre-specific writing style suggestions, plagiarism detection, and a readability score.
  • Helps writers improve their writing quality and clarity.
  • Available in English and others.
  • Compatible with Google Documents, Microsoft Word, and others.
  • Provides thorough grammar and writing instructions in an easy-to-use interface.
  • Helps non-native English speakers improve their writing.
  • Microsoft Academic

Microsoft Research created the free public search engine Microsoft Academic. It offers scientific, technological, engineering, mathematical, social science, and humanities research papers, journals, conference proceedings, and other scholarly publications.

Microsoft Academic leverages advanced natural language processing and machine learning to recognize author, publication, and research domain relationships, making it easier for scholars to find relevant material and track field changes. Citation analysis, research network visualization, and author profile management are also available.

  • A free public search engine built by Microsoft Research.
  • Accesses academic journals, conference proceedings, research papers, and other scholarly publications.
  • Understands authors, publications, and research fields using advanced natural language processing and machine learning.
  • Helps researchers find relevant literature and follow industry trends.
  • Citation analysis, visualization of research networks, and author profile creation and management are available.
  • Has powerful filters and semantic search in a user-friendly interface.
  • Citation counts, trends, and co-authorship networks are provided.
  • Enables users to set personalized research alerts.
  • APIs enable developers to access data and functionality.
  • Zotero and Mendeley integration supported.

Evernote lets users capture, organize, and share notes and information across devices. It helps users recall everything from personal notes and to-do lists to business documents and research notes.

Evernote lets users make and save notes in text, photos, audio, and site clippings. Tagging, search, and device synchronization make it easy for users to find and retrieve their notes anytime, anywhere.

The premium edition of Evernote includes PDF annotation, presentation mode, and team collaboration.

  • Note-taking app for multiple platforms.
  • Enables users to take, organize, and share notes across devices.
  • Helps users recall anything from personal notes and to-do lists to research and business paperwork.
  • Enables users to make and save notes in numerous formats, including text, photos, audio, and site clippings.
  • Allows users to find and retrieve their notes anytime, anywhere, with labeling, search, and device syncing.
  • Has configurable notebooks and notes and a simple interface.
  • Offers note formatting, annotation, and editing features.
  • Supports Google Drive, Slack, and other productivity apps.
  • Provides a free version with limited functionality and a paid version with PDF annotation, presentation mode, and team collaboration.
  • Search notes, journals, and tags with a sophisticated search function.
  • To keep organized, lets users set reminders and make to-do lists.

The US National Library of Medicine (NLM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) maintains PubMed, a free biomedical literature and research article database (NIH). It comprises over 32 million citations and abstracts of papers from more than 8,000 biomedical journals and books, dissertations, and other health and medicine-related resources.

PubMed covers a wide range of medical issues, including clinical research, genetics, nursing, and pharmacology. Medical researchers, students, and professionals can use it to find the newest medical research.

  • Free biomedical research article database.
  • Managed by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the NIH (NIH)
  • 32 million citations and abstracts from over 8,000 biomedical journals.
  • Clinical research, genetics, nursing, pharmacology, and more.
  • Obtains full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC)
  • Includes Boolean operators, search fields, and filters.
  • Accesses MeSH, a fully controlled vocabulary for indexing articles.
  • Saves and exports search results and send email alerts for new publications matching search criteria.
  • Has a simple interface and search tools.
  • Links to important publications, citations, and other resources.
  • PubMed has a smartphone app.
  • QuestionPro Insight Hub

QuestionPro Insight Hub connects businesses and organizations to millions of consumers and expert panelists globally for market research. The platform allows users to build surveys, run polls, conduct focus groups, and collect data from social media, email, mobile devices, and websites. Advanced analytics and reporting options enable users to evaluate data and understand customer behavior, preferences, and opinions.

Businesses may use QuestionPro Insight Hub to acquire real-time feedback from their target audience, optimize their products and services, and make informed business decisions based on consumer insights. The platform is appropriate for startups to enterprise-level enterprises in fields including healthcare, education, finance, and more.

  • Access to millions of professional and consumer panelists all over the world
  • Customizable surveys with different types of questions, themes, and templates
  • Advanced logic and branching options for surveys
  • Integration with many data collection sources, like social media, email, mobile devices, and websites
  • Text analytics and sentiment analysis are built in for free-form responses.
  • Real-time reporting and analytics with dashboards and charts that the user can change
  • Collaboration tools that let team members share surveys, results, and insights
  • Survey participants can get invitations and reminders by email that they can customize.
  • Tools for running moderated and unmoderated discussions in online focus groups
  • Polling tools to get quick feedback from customers and stakeholders and to get them involved
  • Targeting options that make it easier to reach specific groups and demographics
  • Compliance with GDPR and CCPA for privacy and security of data
  • API and the ability to connect to other business platforms and applications.
  • QuestionPro Live polls

QuestionPro Live Polls lets presenters communicate with their audience by running live polls during presentations, meetings, webinars, and other events that require real-time input. Presenters can modify QuestionPro Live Polls and obtain rapid audience reactions.

QuestionPro Live Polls include:

  • Different question kinds.
  • Configurable designs.
  • Real-time live polling results.
  • Multiple distribution choices.
  • Audience engagement tools.
  • Analytics and reporting.
  • Integration with other platforms.

The solution lets presenters generate multiple-choice, rating scales, and open-ended polls.

SMS, email, QR codes, and social media to distribute QuestionPro Live Polls. Presenters and guests can instantly see real-time polling results on the screen. Presenters can quickly poll their audience regardless of location or device.

QuestionPro Live Polls encourages audience participation with countdown timers, animations, and gamification. Presenters can learn about audience opinions, preferences, and habits using poll analytics and reporting.

QuestionPro Live Polls is great for audience engagement, real-time feedback, and interactive presentations and events.


  • Multiple question types, including multiple-choice, rating scales, and open-ended questions
  • Poll designs that can be changed to fit the theme of the presentation or event
  • The results of the poll were shown on the screen right away.
  • Several ways to spread the word, like SMS, email, QR codes, and social media
  • Tools for getting people to pay attention, such as countdown timers, animations, and gamification elements
  • Analytics and reporting tools can help you determine what your audience thinks, likes, and does.
  • Integration with other platforms, like PowerPoint, Zoom, and other video conferencing tools
  • You can target your audience based on different demographic and psychographic factors to get more accurate feedback and insights.

LEARN ABOUT: Speaker evaluation form

In conclusion, the 12 best websites, tools, and resources for academic research offer students, scholars, and researchers a wealth of information and tools to help them in their quest for knowledge. Databases, search engines, citation generators, and collaboration tools are just a few of the features these resources offer.

Using these resources, researchers can improve their research and produce high-quality academic work. Researchers should keep up with the latest tools and technologies, as these can greatly improve their research and help their field advance.

QuestionPro’s Insight Hub and Livepolls are powerful data collection tools. These tools have various features, such as doing surveys, visualizing data, and polling in real-time, which can greatly improve the research process.

With the ability to collect data from a wide range of sources, researchers can gain valuable insights and come to conclusions that are based on facts. Combining these two tools can help researchers do high-quality research and make important contributions to their field. So get more help for your academic research with the help of QuestionPro.


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21 Legit Research Databases for Free Journal Articles in 2024


Written by  Scribendi

Has this ever happened to you? While looking for websites for research, you come across a research paper site that claims to connect academics to a peer-reviewed article database for free.

Intrigued, you search for keywords related to your topic, only to discover that you must pay a hefty subscription fee to access the service. After the umpteenth time being duped, you begin to wonder if there's even such a thing as free journal articles.

Subscription fees and paywalls are often the bane of students and academics, especially those at small institutions who don't provide access to many free article directories and repositories.

Whether you're working on an undergraduate paper, a PhD dissertation, or a medical research study, we want to help you find tools to locate and access the information you need to produce well-researched, compelling, and innovative work.

Below, we discuss why peer-reviewed articles are superior and list out the best free article databases to use in 2024.

Download Our Free Research Database Roundup PDF

Why peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are more authoritative.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Determining what sources are reliable can be challenging. Peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles are the gold standard in academic research. Reputable academic journals have a rigorous peer-review process.

The peer review process provides accountability to the academic community, as well as to the content of the article. The peer review process involves qualified experts in a specific (often very specific) field performing a review of an article's methods and findings to determine things like quality and credibility.

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in peer-reviewed article databases and research databases, and if you know that a database of journals is reliable, that can offer reassurances about the reliability of a free article. Peer review is often double blind, meaning that the author removes all identifying information and, likewise, does not know the identity of the reviewers. This helps reviewers maintain objectivity and impartiality so as to judge an article based on its merit.

Where to Find Peer-Reviewed Articles

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in a variety of research databases. Below is a list of some of the major databases you can use to find peer-reviewed articles and other sources in disciplines spanning the humanities, sciences, and social sciences.

What Are Open Access Journals?

An open access (OA) journal is a journal whose content can be accessed without payment. This provides scholars, students, and researchers with free journal articles. OA journals use alternate methods of funding to cover publication costs so that articles can be published without having to pass those publication costs on to the reader.

Open Access Journals

Some of these funding models include standard funding methods like advertising, public funding, and author payment models, where the author pays a fee in order to publish in the journal. There are OA journals that have non-peer-reviewed academic content, as well as journals that focus on dissertations, theses, and papers from conferences, but the main focus of OA is peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles.

The internet has certainly made it easier to access research articles and other scholarly publications without needing access to a university library, and OA takes another step in that direction by removing financial barriers to academic content.

Choosing Wisely

Features of legitimate oa journals.

 There are things to look out for when trying to decide if a free publication journal is legitimate:

Mission statement —The mission statement for an OA journal should be available on their website.

Publication history —Is the journal well established? How long has it been available?

Editorial board —Who are the members of the editorial board, and what are their credentials?

Indexing —Can the journal be found in a reliable database?

Peer review —What is the peer review process? Does the journal allow enough time in the process for a reliable assessment of quality?

Impact factor —What is the average number of times the journal is cited over a two-year period?

Features of Illegitimate OA Journals

There are predatory publications that take advantage of the OA format, and they are something to be wary of. Here are some things to look out for:

Contact information —Is contact information provided? Can it be verified?

Turnaround —If the journal makes dubious claims about the amount of time from submission to publication, it is likely unreliable.

Editorial board —Much like determining legitimacy, looking at the editorial board and their credentials can help determine illegitimacy.

Indexing —Can the journal be found in any scholarly databases?

Peer review —Is there a statement about the peer review process? Does it fit what you know about peer review?

How to Find Scholarly Articles

Identify keywords.

Keywords are included in an article by the author. Keywords are an excellent way to find content relevant to your research topic or area of interest. In academic searches, much like you would on a search engine, you can use keywords to navigate through what is available to find exactly what you're looking for.

Authors provide keywords that will help you easily find their article when researching a related topic, often including general terms to accommodate broader searches, as well as some more specific terms for those with a narrower scope. Keywords can be used individually or in combination to refine your scholarly article search.

Narrow Down Results

Sometimes, search results can be overwhelming, and searching for free articles on a journal database is no exception, but there are multiple ways to narrow down your results. A good place to start is discipline.

What category does your topic fall into (psychology, architecture, machine learning, etc.)? You can also narrow down your search with a year range if you're looking for articles that are more recent.

A Boolean search can be incredibly helpful. This entails including terms like AND between two keywords in your search if you need both keywords to be in your results (or, if you are looking to exclude certain keywords, to exclude these words from the results).

Consider Different Avenues

If you're not having luck using keywords in your search for free articles, you may still be able to find what you're looking for by changing your tactics. Casting a wider net sometimes yields positive results, so it may be helpful to try searching by subject if keywords aren't getting you anywhere.

You can search for a specific publisher to see if they have OA publications in the academic journal database. And, if you know more precisely what you're looking for, you can search for the title of the article or the author's name.

Determining the Credibility of Scholarly Sources

Ensuring that sources are both credible and reliable is crucial to academic research. Use these strategies to help evaluate the usefulness of scholarly sources:

  • Peer Review : Look for articles that have undergone a rigorous peer-review process. Peer-reviewed articles are typically vetted by experts in the field, ensuring the accuracy of the research findings.
Tip: To determine whether an article has undergone rigorous peer review, review the journal's editorial policies, which are often available on the journal's website. Look for information about the peer-review process, including the criteria for selecting reviewers, the process for handling conflicts of interest, and any transparency measures in place.
  • Publisher Reputation : Consider the reputation of the publisher. Established publishers, such as well-known academic journals, are more likely to adhere to high editorial standards and publishing ethics.
  • Author Credentials : Evaluate the credentials and expertise of the authors. Check their affiliations, academic credentials, and past publications to assess their authority in the field.
  • Citations and References : Examine the citations and references provided in the article. A well-researched article will cite credible sources to support its arguments and findings. Verify the accuracy of the cited sources and ensure they are from reputable sources.
  • Publication Date : Consider the publication date of the article. While older articles may still be relevant, particularly in certain fields, it is best to prioritize recent publications for up-to-date research and findings.
  • Journal Impact Factor : Assess the journal's impact factor or other metrics that indicate its influence and reputation within the academic community. Higher impact factor journals are generally considered more prestigious and reliable. 
Tip: Journal Citation Reports (JCR), produced by Clarivate Analytics, is a widely used source for impact factor data. You can access JCR through academic libraries or directly from the Clarivate Analytics website if you have a subscription.
  • Peer Recommendations : Seek recommendations from peers, mentors, or professors in your field. They can provide valuable insights and guidance on reputable sources and journals within your area of study.
  • Cross-Verification : Cross-verify the information presented in the article with other credible sources. Compare findings, methodologies, and conclusions with similar studies to ensure consistency and reliability.

By employing these strategies, researchers can confidently evaluate the credibility and reliability of scholarly sources, ensuring the integrity of their research contributions in an ever-evolving landscape.

The Top 21 Free Online Journal and Research Databases

Navigating OA journals, research article databases, and academic websites trying to find high-quality sources for your research can really make your head spin. What constitutes a reliable database? What is a useful resource for your discipline and research topic? How can you find and access full-text, peer-reviewed articles?

Fortunately, we're here to help. Having covered some of the ins and outs of peer review, OA journals, and how to search for articles, we have compiled a list of the top 21 free online journals and the best research databases. This list of databases is a great resource to help you navigate the wide world of academic research.

These databases provide a variety of free sources, from abstracts and citations to full-text, peer-reviewed OA journals. With databases covering specific areas of research and interdisciplinary databases that provide a variety of material, these are some of our favorite free databases, and they're totally legit!

CORE is a multidisciplinary aggregator of OA research. CORE has the largest collection of OA articles available. It allows users to search more than 219 million OA articles. While most of these link to the full-text article on the original publisher's site, or to a PDF available for download, five million records are hosted directly on CORE.

CORE's mission statement is a simple and straightforward commitment to offering OA articles to anyone, anywhere in the world. They also host communities that are available for researchers to join and an ambassador community to enhance their services globally. In addition to a straightforward keyword search, CORE offers advanced search options to filter results by publication type, year, language, journal, repository, and author.

CORE's user interface is easy to use and navigate. Search results can be sorted based on relevance or recency, and you can search for relevant content directly from the results screen.

Collection : 219,537,133 OA articles

Other Services : Additional services are available from CORE, with extras that are geared toward researchers, repositories, and businesses. There are tools for accessing raw data, including an API that provides direct access to data, datasets that are available for download, and FastSync for syncing data content from the CORE database.

CORE has a recommender plug-in that suggests relevant OA content in the database while conducting a search and a discovery feature that helps you discover OA versions of paywalled articles. Other features include tools for managing content, such as a dashboard for managing repository output and the Repository Edition service to enhance discoverability.

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles : Yes

Advanced Search Options : Language, author, journal, publisher, repository, DOI, year

2. ScienceOpen

Functioning as a research and publishing network, ScienceOpen offers OA to more than 74 million articles in all areas of science. Although you do need to register to view the full text of articles, registration is free. The advanced search function is highly detailed, allowing you to find exactly the research you're looking for.

The Berlin- and Boston-based company was founded in 2013 to "facilitate open and public communications between academics and to allow ideas to be judged on their merit, regardless of where they come from." Search results can be exported for easy integration with reference management systems.

You can also bookmark articles for later research. There are extensive networking options, including your Science Open profile, a forum for interacting with other researchers, the ability to track your usage and citations, and an interactive bibliography. Users have the ability to review articles and provide their knowledge and insight within the community.

Collection : 74,560,631

Other Services : None

Advanced Search Options :   Content type, source, author, journal, discipline

3. Directory of Open Access Journals

A multidisciplinary, community-curated directory, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) gives researchers access to high-quality peer-reviewed journals. It has archived more than two million articles from 17,193 journals, allowing you to either browse by subject or search by keyword.

The site was launched in 2003 with the aim of increasing the visibility of OA scholarly journals online. Content on the site covers subjects from science, to law, to fine arts, and everything in between. DOAJ has a commitment to "increase the visibility, accessibility, reputation, usage and impact of quality, peer-reviewed, OA scholarly research journals globally, regardless of discipline, geography or language."

Information about the journal is available with each search result. Abstracts are also available in a collapsible format directly from the search screen. The scholarly article website is somewhat simple, but it is easy to navigate. There are 16 principles of transparency and best practices in scholarly publishing that clearly outline DOAJ policies and standards.

Collection : 6,817,242

Advanced Search Options :   Subject, journal, year

4. Education Resources Information Center

The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) of the Institution of Education Sciences allows you to search by topic for material related to the field of education. Links lead to other sites, where you may have to purchase the information, but you can search for full-text articles only. You can also search only peer-reviewed sources.

The service primarily indexes journals, gray literature (such as technical reports, white papers, and government documents), and books. All sources of material on ERIC go through a formal review process prior to being indexed. ERIC's selection policy is available as a PDF on their website.

The ERIC website has an extensive FAQ section to address user questions. This includes categories like general questions, peer review, and ERIC content. There are also tips for advanced searches, as well as general guidance on the best way to search the database. ERIC is an excellent database for content specific to education.

Collection : 1,292,897

Advanced Search Options : Boolean

5. arXiv e-Print Archive

The arXiv e-Print Archive is run by Cornell University Library and curated by volunteer moderators, and it now offers OA to more than one million e-prints.

There are advisory committees for all eight subjects available on the database. With a stated commitment to an "emphasis on openness, collaboration, and scholarship," the arXiv e-Print Archive is an excellent STEM resource.

The interface is not as user-friendly as some of the other databases available, and the website hosts a blog to provide news and updates, but it is otherwise a straightforward math and science resource. There are simple and advanced search options, and, in addition to conducting searches for specific topics and articles, users can browse content by subject. The arXiv e-Print Archive clearly states that they do not peer review the e-prints in the database.

Collection : 1,983,891

Good Source of Peer-Reviewed Articles : No

Advanced Search Options :   Subject, date, title, author, abstract, DOI

6. Social Science Research Network

The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a collection of papers from the social sciences community. It is a highly interdisciplinary platform used to search for scholarly articles related to 67 social science topics. SSRN has a variety of research networks for the various topics available through the free scholarly database.

The site offers more than 700,000 abstracts and more than 600,000 full-text papers. There is not yet a specific option to search for only full-text articles, but, because most of the papers on the site are free access, it's not often that you encounter a paywall. There is currently no option to search for only peer-reviewed articles.

You must become a member to use the services, but registration is free and enables you to interact with other scholars around the world. SSRN is "passionately committed to increasing inclusion, diversity and equity in scholarly research," and they encourage and discuss the use of inclusive language in scholarship whenever possible.

Collection : 1,058,739 abstracts; 915,452 articles

Advanced Search Options : Term, author, date, network

7. Public Library of Science

Public Library of Science (PLOS) is a big player in the world of OA science. Publishing 12 OA journals, the nonprofit organization is committed to facilitating openness in academic research. According to the site, "all PLOS content is at the highest possible level of OA, meaning that scientific articles are immediately and freely available to anyone, anywhere."

PLOS outlines four fundamental goals that guide the organization: break boundaries, empower researchers, redefine quality, and open science. All PLOS journals are peer-reviewed, and all 12 journals uphold rigorous ethical standards for research, publication, and scientific reporting.

PLOS does not offer advanced search options. Content is organized by topic into research communities that users can browse through, in addition to options to search for both articles and journals. The PLOS website also has resources for peer reviewers, including guidance on becoming a reviewer and on how to best participate in the peer review process.

Collection : 12 journals

Advanced Search Options : None

8. OpenDOAR

OpenDOAR, or the Directory of Open Access Repositories, is a comprehensive resource for finding free OA journals and articles. Using Google Custom Search, OpenDOAR combs through OA repositories around the world and returns relevant research in all disciplines.

The repositories it searches through are assessed and categorized by OpenDOAR staff to ensure they meet quality standards. Inclusion criteria for the database include requirements for OA content, global access, and categorically appropriate content, in addition to various other quality assurance measures. OpenDOAR has metadata, data, content, preservation, and submission policies for repositories, in addition to two OA policy statements regarding minimum and optimum recommendations.

This database allows users to browse and search repositories, which can then be selected, and articles and data can be accessed from the repository directly. As a repository database, much of the content on the site is geared toward the support of repositories and OA standards.

Collection : 5,768 repositories

Other Services : OpenDOAR offers a variety of additional services. Given the nature of the platform, services are primarily aimed at repositories and institutions, and there is a marked focus on OA in general. Sherpa services are OA archiving tools for authors and institutions.

They also offer various resources for OA support and compliance regarding standards and policies. The publication router matches publications and publishers with appropriate repositories.

There are also services and resources from JISC for repositories for cost management, discoverability, research impact, and interoperability, including ORCID consortium membership information. Additionally, a repository self-assessment tool is available for members.

Advanced Search Options :   Name, organization name, repository type, software name, content type, subject, country, region

9. Bielefeld Academic Search Engine

The Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE) is operated by the Bielefeld University Library in Germany, and it offers more than 240 million documents from more than 8,000 sources. Sixty percent of its content is OA, and you can filter your search accordingly.

BASE has rigorous inclusion requirements for content providers regarding quality and relevance, and they maintain a list of content providers for the sake of transparency, which can be easily found on their website. BASE has a fairly elegant interface. Search results can be organized by author, title, or date.

From the search results, items can be selected and exported, added to favorites, emailed, and searched in Google Scholar. There are basic and advanced search features, with the advanced search offering numerous options for refining search criteria. There is also a feature on the website that saves recent searches without additional steps from the user.

Collection : 276,019,066 documents; 9,286 content providers

Advanced Search Options :   Author, subject, year, content provider, language, document type, access, terms of reuse

Research Databases

10. Digital Library of the Commons Repository

Run by Indiana University, the Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) Repository is a multidisciplinary journal repository that allows users to access thousands of free and OA articles from around the world. You can browse by document type, date, author, title, and more or search for keywords relevant to your topic.

DCL also offers the Comprehensive Bibliography of the Commons, an image database, and a keyword thesaurus for enhanced search parameters. The repository includes books, book chapters, conference papers, journal articles, surveys, theses and dissertations, and working papers. DCL advanced search features drop-down menus of search types with built-in Boolean search options.

Searches can be sorted by relevance, title, date, or submission date in ascending or descending order. Abstracts are included in selected search results, with access to full texts available, and citations can be exported from the same page. Additionally, the image database search includes tips for better search results.

Collection : 10,784

Advanced Search Options :   Author, date, title, subject, sector, region, conference

11. CIA World Factbook

The CIA World Factbook is a little different from the other resources on this list in that it is not an online journal directory or repository. It is, however, a useful free online research database for academics in a variety of disciplines.

All the information is free to access, and it provides facts about every country in the world, which are organized by category and include information about history, geography, transportation, and much more. The World Factbook can be searched by country or region, and there is also information about the world's oceans.

This site contains resources related to the CIA as an organization rather than being a scientific journal database specifically. The site has a user interface that is easy to navigate. The site also provides a section for updates regarding changes to what information is available and how it is organized, making it easier to interact with the information you are searching for.

Collection : 266 countries

12. Paperity

Paperity boasts its status as the "first multidisciplinary aggregator of OA journals and papers." Their focus is on helping you avoid paywalls while connecting you to authoritative research. In addition to providing readers with easy access to thousands of journals, Paperity seeks to help authors reach their audiences and help journals increase their exposure to boost readership.

Paperity has journal articles for every discipline, and the database offers more than a dozen advanced search options, including the length of the paper and the number of authors. There is even an option to include, exclude, or exclusively search gray papers.

Paperity is available for mobile, with both a mobile site and the Paperity Reader, an app that is available for both Android and Apple users. The database is also available on social media. You can interact with Paperity via Twitter and Facebook, and links to their social media are available on their homepage, including their Twitter feed.

Collection : 8,837,396

Advanced Search Options : Title, abstract, journal title, journal ISSN, publisher, year of publication, number of characters, number of authors, DOI, author, affiliation, language, country, region, continent, gray papers

13. dblp Computer Science Bibliography

The dblp Computer Science Bibliography is an online index of major computer science publications. dblp was founded in 1993, though until 2010 it was a university-specific database at the University of Trier in Germany. It is currently maintained by the Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz Center for Informatics.

Although it provides access to both OA articles and those behind a paywall, you can limit your search to only OA articles. The site indexes more than three million publications, making it an invaluable resource in the world of computer science. dblp entries are color-coded based on the type of item.

dblp has an extensive FAQ section, so questions that might arise about topics like the database itself, navigating the website, or the data on dblp, in addition to several other topics, are likely to be answered. The website also hosts a blog and has a section devoted to website statistics.

Collection : 5,884,702

14. EconBiz

EconBiz is a great resource for economic and business studies. A service of the Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, it offers access to full texts online, with the option of searching for OA material only. Their literature search is performed across multiple international databases.

EconBiz has an incredibly useful research skills section, with resources such as Guided Walk, a service to help students and researchers navigate searches, evaluate sources, and correctly cite references; the Research Guide EconDesk, a help desk to answer specific questions and provide advice to aid in literature searches; and the Academic Career Kit for what they refer to as Early Career Researchers.

Other helpful resources include personal literature lists, a calendar of events for relevant calls for papers, conferences, and workshops, and an economics terminology thesaurus to help in finding keywords for searches. To stay up-to-date with EconBiz, you can sign up for their newsletter.

Collection : 1,075,219

Advanced Search Options :   Title, subject, author, institution, ISBN/ISSN, journal, publisher, language, OA only

15. BioMed Central

BioMed Central provides OA research from more than 300 peer-reviewed journals. While originally focused on resources related to the physical sciences, math, and engineering, BioMed Central has branched out to include journals that cover a broader range of disciplines, with the aim of providing a single platform that provides OA articles for a variety of research needs. You can browse these journals by subject or title, or you can search all articles for your required keyword.

BioMed Central has a commitment to peer-reviewed sources and to the peer review process itself, continually seeking to help and improve the peer review process. They're "committed to maintaining high standards through full and stringent peer review."

Additionally, the website includes resources to assist and support editors as part of their commitment to providing high-quality, peer-reviewed OA articles.

Collection : 507,212

Other Services : BMC administers the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry. While initially designed for registering clinical trials, since its creation in 2000, the registry has broadened its scope to include other health studies as well.

The registry is recognized by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, as well as the World Health Organization (WHO), and it meets the requirements established by the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.

The study records included in the registry are all searchable and free to access. The ISRCTN registry "supports transparency in clinical research, helps reduce selective reporting of results and ensures an unbiased and complete evidence base."

Advanced Search Options :   Author, title, journal, list

A multidisciplinary search engine, JURN provides links to various scholarly websites, articles, and journals that are free to access or OA. Covering the fields of the arts, humanities, business, law, nature, science, and medicine, JURN has indexed almost 5,000 repositories to help you find exactly what you're looking for.

Search features are enhanced by Google, but searches are filtered through their index of repositories. JURN seeks to reach a wide audience, with their search engine tailored to researchers from "university lecturers and students seeking a strong search tool for OA content" and "advanced and ambitious students, age 14-18" to "amateur historians and biographers" and "unemployed and retired lecturers."

That being said, JURN is very upfront about its limitations. They admit to not being a good resource for educational studies, social studies, or psychology, and conference archives are generally not included due to frequently unstable URLs.

Collection : 5,064 indexed journals

Other Services : JURN has a browser add-on called UserScript. This add-on allows users to integrate the JURN database directly into Google Search. When performing a search through Google, the add-on creates a link that sends the search directly to JURN CSE. JURN CSE is a search service that is hosted by Google.

Clicking the link from the Google Search bar will run your search through the JURN database from the Google homepage. There is also an interface for a DuckDuckGo search box; while this search engine has an emphasis on user privacy, for smaller sites that may be indexed by JURN, DuckDuckGo may not provide the same depth of results.

Advanced Search Options :   Google search modifiers

Dryad is a digital repository of curated, OA scientific research data. Launched in 2009, it is run by a not-for-profit membership organization, with a community of institutional and publisher members for whom their services have been designed. Members include institutions such as Stanford, UCLA, and Yale, as well as publishers like Oxford University Press and Wiley.

Dryad aims to "promote a world where research data is openly available, integrated with the scholarly literature, and routinely reused to create knowledge." It is free to access for the search and discovery of data. Their user experience is geared toward easy self-depositing, supports Creative Commons licensing, and provides DOIs for all their content.

Note that there is a publishing charge associated if you wish to publish your data in Dryad.  When searching datasets, they are accompanied by author information and abstracts for the associated studies, and citation information is provided for easy attribution.

Collection : 44,458

Advanced Search Options : No

Run by the British Library, the E-Theses Online Service (EThOS) allows you to search over 500,000 doctoral theses in a variety of disciplines. All of the doctoral theses available on EThOS have been awarded by higher education institutions in the United Kingdom.

Although some full texts are behind paywalls, you can limit your search to items available for immediate download, either directly through EThOS or through an institution's website. More than half of the records in the database provide access to full-text theses.

EThOS notes that they do not hold all records for all institutions, but they strive to index as many doctoral theses as possible, and the database is constantly expanding, with approximately 3,000 new records added and 2,000 new full-text theses available every month. The availability of full-text theses is dependent on multiple factors, including their availability in the institutional repository and the level of repository development.

Collection : 500,000+

Advanced Search Options : Abstract, author's first name, author's last name, awarding body, current institution, EThOS ID, year, language, qualifications, research supervisor, sponsor/funder, keyword, title

PubMed is a research platform well-known in the fields of science and medicine. It was created and developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). It has been available since 1996 and offers access to "more than 33 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books."

While PubMed does not provide full-text articles directly, and many full-text articles may be behind paywalls or require subscriptions to access them, when articles are available from free sources, such as through PubMed Central (PMC), those links are provided with the citations and abstracts that PubMed does provide.

PMC, which was established in 2000 by the NLM, is a free full-text archive that includes more than 6,000,000 records. PubMed records link directly to corresponding PMC results. PMC content is provided by publishers and other content owners, digitization projects, and authors directly.

Collection : 33,000,000+

Advanced Search Options : Author's first name, author's last name, identifier, corporation, date completed, date created, date entered, date modified, date published, MeSH, book, conflict of interest statement, EC/RN number, editor, filter, grant number, page number, pharmacological action, volume, publication type, publisher, secondary source ID, text, title, abstract, transliterated title

20. Semantic Scholar

A unique and easy-to-use resource, Semantic Scholar defines itself not just as a research database but also as a "search and discovery tool." Semantic Scholar harnesses the power of artificial intelligence to efficiently sort through millions of science-related papers based on your search terms.

Through this singular application of machine learning, Semantic Scholar expands search results to include topic overviews based on your search terms, with the option to create an alert for or further explore the topic. It also provides links to related topics.

In addition, search results produce "TLDR" summaries in order to provide concise overviews of articles and enhance your research by helping you to navigate quickly and easily through the available literature to find the most relevant information. According to the site, although some articles are behind paywalls, "the data [they] have for those articles is limited," so you can expect to receive mostly full-text results.

Collection : 203,379,033

Other Services : Semantic Scholar supports multiple popular browsers. Content can be accessed through both mobile and desktop versions of Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, and Opera.

Additionally, Semantic Scholar provides browser extensions for both Chrome and Firefox, so AI-powered scholarly search results are never more than a click away. The mobile interface includes an option for Semantic Swipe, a new way of interacting with your research results.

There are also beta features that can be accessed as part of the Beta Program, which will provide you with features that are being actively developed and require user feedback for further improvement.

Advanced Search Options : Field of study, date range, publication type, author, journal, conference, PDF

Zenodo, powered by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), was launched in 2013. Taking its name from Zenodotus, the first librarian of the ancient library of Alexandria, Zenodo is a tool "built and developed by researchers, to ensure that everyone can join in open science." Zenodo accepts all research from every discipline in any file format.

However, Zenodo also curates uploads and promotes peer-reviewed material that is available through OA. A DOI is assigned to everything that is uploaded to Zenodo, making research easily findable and citable. You can sort by keyword, title, journal, and more and download OA documents directly from the site.

While there are closed access and restricted access items in the database, the vast majority of research is OA material. Search results can be filtered by access type, making it easy to view the free articles available in the database.

Collection : 2,220,000+

Advanced Search Options : Access, file type, keywords

Check out our roundup of free research databases as a handy one-page PDF.

How to find peer-reviewed articles.

There are a lot of free scholarly articles available from various sources. The internet is a big place. So how do you go about finding peer-reviewed articles when conducting your research? It's important to make sure you are using reputable sources.

The first source of the article is the person or people who wrote it. Checking out the author can give you some initial insight into how much you can trust what you’re reading. Looking into the publication information of your sources can also indicate whether the article is reliable.

Aspects of the article, such as subject and audience, tone, and format, are other things you can look at when evaluating whether the article you're using is valid, reputable, peer-reviewed material. So, let's break that down into various components so you can assess your research to ensure that you're using quality articles and conducting solid research.

Check the Author

Peer-reviewed articles are written by experts or scholars with experience in the field or discipline they're writing about. The research in a peer-reviewed article has to pass a rigorous evaluation process, so it's a foregone conclusion that the author(s) of a peer-reviewed article should have experience or training related to that research.

When evaluating an article, take a look at the author's information. What credentials does the author have to indicate that their research has scholarly weight behind it? Finding out what type of degree the author has—and what that degree is in—can provide insight into what kind of authority the author is on the subject.

Something else that might lend credence to the author's scholarly role is their professional affiliation. A look at what organization or institution they are affiliated with can tell you a lot about their experience or expertise. Where were they trained, and who is verifying their research?

Identify Subject and Audience

The ultimate goal of a study is to answer a question. Scholarly articles are also written for scholarly audiences, especially articles that have gone through the peer review process. This means that the author is trying to reach experts, researchers, academics, and students in the field or topic the research is based on.

Think about the question the author is trying to answer by conducting this research, why, and for whom. What is the subject of the article? What question has it set out to answer? What is the purpose of finding the information? Is the purpose of the article of importance to other scholars? Is it original content?

Research should also be approached analytically. Is the methodology sound? Is the author using an analytical approach to evaluate the data that they have obtained? Are the conclusions they've reached substantiated by their data and analysis? Answering these questions can reveal a lot about the article's validity.

Format Matters

Reliable articles from peer-reviewed sources have certain format elements to be aware of. The first is an abstract. An abstract is a short summary or overview of the article. Does the article have an abstract? It's unlikely that you're reading a peer-reviewed article if it doesn't. Peer-reviewed journals will also have a word count range. If an article seems far too short or incredibly long, that may be reason to doubt it.

Another feature of reliable articles is the sections the information is divided into. Peer-reviewed research articles will have clear, concise sections that appropriately organize the information. This might include a literature review, methodology, results (in the case of research articles), and a conclusion.

One of the most important sections is the references or bibliography. This is where the researcher lists all the sources of their information. A peer-reviewed source will have a comprehensive reference section.

An article that has been written to reach an academic community will have an academic tone. The language that is used, and the way this language is used, is important to consider. If the article is riddled with grammatical errors, confusing syntax, and casual language, it almost definitely didn't make it through the peer review process.

Also consider the use of terminology. Every discipline is going to have standard terminology or jargon that can be used and understood by other academics in the discipline. The language in a peer-reviewed article is going to reflect that.

If the author is going out of their way to explain simple terms, or terms that are standard to the field or discipline, it's unlikely that the article has been peer reviewed, as this is something that the author would be asked to address during the review process.


The source of the article will be a very good indicator of the likelihood that it was peer reviewed. Where was the article published? Was it published alongside other academic articles in the same discipline? Is it a legitimate and reputable scholarly publication?

A trade publication or newspaper might be legitimate or reputable, but it is not a scholarly source, and it will not have been subject to the peer review process. Scholarly journals are the best resource for peer-reviewed articles, but it's important to remember that not all scholarly journals are peer reviewed.

It's helpful to look at a scholarly source's website, as peer-reviewed journals will have a clear indication of the peer review process. University libraries, institutional repositories, and reliable databases (and now you have a list of legit ones) can also help provide insight into whether an article comes from a peer-reviewed journal.

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Common Research Mistakes to Avoid

Research is a lot of work. Even with high standards and good intentions, it's easy to make mistakes. Perhaps you searched for access to scientific journals for free and found the perfect peer-reviewed sources, but you forgot to document everything, and your references are a mess. Or, you only searched for free online articles and missed out on a ground-breaking study that was behind a paywall.

Whether your research is for a degree or to get published or to satisfy your own inquisitive nature, or all of the above, you want all that work to produce quality results. You want your research to be thorough and accurate.

To have any hope of contributing to the literature on your research topic, your results need to be high quality. You might not be able to avoid every potential mistake, but here are some that are both common and easy to avoid.

Sticking to One Source

One of the hallmarks of good research is a healthy reference section. Using a variety of sources gives you a better answer to your question. Even if all of the literature is in agreement, looking at various aspects of the topic may provide you with an entirely different picture than you would have if you looked at your research question from only one angle.

Not Documenting Every Fact

As you conduct your research, do yourself a favor and write everything down. Everything you include in your paper or article that you got from another source is going to need to be added to your references and cited.

It's important, especially if your aim is to conduct ethical, high-quality research, that all of your research has proper attribution. If you don't document as you go, you could end up making a lot of work for yourself if the information you don't write down is something that later, as you write your paper, you really need.

Using Outdated Materials

Academia is an ever-changing landscape. What was true in your academic discipline or area of research ten years ago may have since been disproven. If fifteen studies have come out since the article that you're using was published, it's more than a little likely that you're going to be basing your research on flawed or dated information.

If the information you're basing your research on isn't as up-to-date as possible, your research won't be of quality or able to stand up to any amount of scrutiny. You don't want all of your hard work to be for naught.

Relying Solely on Open Access Journals

OA is a great resource for conducting academic research. There are high-quality journal articles available through OA, and that can be very helpful for your research. But, just because you have access to free articles, that doesn't mean that there's nothing to be found behind a paywall.

Just as dismissing high-quality peer-reviewed articles because they are OA would be limiting, not exploring any paid content at all is equally short-sighted. If you're seeking to conduct thorough and comprehensive research, exploring all of your options for quality sources is going to be to your benefit.

Digging Too Deep or Not Deep Enough

Research is an art form, and it involves a delicate balance of information. If you conduct your research using only broad search terms, you won't be able to answer your research question well, or you'll find that your research provides information that is closely related to your topic but, ultimately, your findings are vague and unsubstantiated.

On the other hand, if you delve deeply into your research topic with specific searches and turn up too many sources, you might have a lot of information that is adjacent to your topic but without focus and perhaps not entirely relevant. It's important to answer your research question concisely but thoroughly.

Different Types of Scholarly Articles

Different types of scholarly articles have different purposes. An original research article, also called an empirical article, is the product of a study or an experiment. This type of article seeks to answer a question or fill a gap in the existing literature.

Research articles will have a methodology, results, and a discussion of the findings of the experiment or research and typically a conclusion.

Review articles overview the current literature and research and provide a summary of what the existing research indicates or has concluded. This type of study will have a section for the literature review, as well as a discussion of the findings of that review. Review articles will have a particularly extensive reference or bibliography section.

Theoretical articles draw on existing literature to create new theories or conclusions, or look at current theories from a different perspective, to contribute to the foundational knowledge of the field of study.

10 Tips for Navigating Journal Databases

Use the right academic journal database for your search, be that interdisciplinary or specific to your field. Or both!

If it's an option, set the search results to return only peer-reviewed sources.

Start by using search terms that are relevant to your topic without being overly specific.

Try synonyms, especially if your keywords aren't returning the desired results.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Even if you've found some good articles, try searching using different terms.

Explore the advanced search features of the database(s).

Learn to use Booleans (AND, OR, NOT) to expand or narrow your results.

Once you've gotten some good results from a more general search, try narrowing your search.

Read through abstracts when trying to find articles relevant to your research.

Keep track of your research and use citation tools. It'll make life easier when it comes time to compile your references.

7 Frequently Asked Questions

1. how do i get articles for free.

Free articles can be found through free online academic journals, OA databases, or other databases that include OA journals and articles. These resources allow you to access free papers online so you can conduct your research without getting stuck behind a paywall.

Academics don't receive payment for the articles they contribute to journals. There are often, in fact, publication fees that scholars pay in order to publish. This is one of the funding structures that allows OA journals to provide free content so that you don't have to pay fees or subscription costs to access journal articles.

2. How Do I Find Journal Articles?

Journal articles can be found in databases and institutional repositories that can be accessed at university libraries. However, online research databases that contain OA articles are the best resource for getting free access to journal articles that are available online.

Peer-reviewed journal articles are the best to use for academic research, and there are a number of databases where you can find peer-reviewed OA journal articles. Once you've found a useful article, you can look through the references for the articles the author used to conduct their research, and you can then search online databases for those articles, too.

3. How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles?

Peer-reviewed articles can be found in reputable scholarly peer-reviewed journals. High-quality journals and journal articles can be found online using academic search engines and free research databases. These resources are excellent for finding OA articles, including peer-reviewed articles.

OA articles are articles that can be accessed for free. While some scholarly search engines and databases include articles that aren't peer reviewed, there are also some that provide only peer-reviewed articles, and databases that include non-peer-reviewed articles often have advanced search features that enable you to select "peer review only." The database will return results that are exclusively peer-reviewed content.

4. What Are Research Databases?

A research database is a list of journals, articles, datasets, and/or abstracts that allows you to easily search for scholarly and academic resources and conduct research online. There are databases that are interdisciplinary and cover a variety of topics.

For example, Paperity might be a great resource for a chemist as well as a linguist, and there are databases that are more specific to a certain field. So, while ERIC might be one of the best educational databases available for OA content, it's not going to be one of the best databases for finding research in the field of microbiology.

5. How Do I Find Scholarly Articles for Specific Fields?

There are interdisciplinary research databases that provide articles in a variety of fields, as well as research databases that provide articles that cater to specific disciplines. Additionally, a journal repository or index can be a helpful resource for finding articles in a specific field.

When searching an interdisciplinary database, there are frequently advanced search features that allow you to narrow the search results down so that they are specific to your field. Selecting "psychology" in the advanced search features will return psychology journal articles in your search results. You can also try databases that are specific to your field.

If you're searching for law journal articles, many law reviews are OA. If you don't know of any databases specific to history, visiting a journal repository or index and searching "history academic journals" can return a list of journals specific to history and provide you with a place to begin your research.

6. Are Peer-Reviewed Articles Really More Legitimate?

The short answer is yes, peer-reviewed articles are more legitimate resources for academic research. The peer review process provides legitimacy, as it is a rigorous review of the content of an article that is performed by scholars and academics who are experts in their field of study. The review provides an evaluation of the quality and credibility of the article.

Non-peer-reviewed articles are not subject to a review process and do not undergo the same level of scrutiny. This means that non-peer-reviewed articles are unlikely, or at least not as likely, to meet the same standards that peer-reviewed articles do.

7. Are Free Article Directories Legitimate?

Yes! As with anything, some databases are going to be better for certain requirements than others. But, a scholarly article database being free is not a reason in itself to question its legitimacy.

Free scholarly article databases can provide access to abstracts, scholarly article websites, journal repositories, and high-quality peer-reviewed journal articles. The internet has a lot of information, and it's often challenging to figure out what information is reliable. 

Research databases and article directories are great resources to help you conduct your research. Our list of the best research paper websites is sure to provide you with sources that are totally legit.

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Best Websites for Accessing Research Papers for Students

Best Websites for Accessing Research Papers for Students

As a college student, you may have heard the phrase “research is important” thrown around by your professors all the time, but you may be wondering exactly why that is?

Not only does it help students better understand their chosen field of study, but it also allows them to develop important skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication.

In this article, we will be highlighting some of the best websites for accessing a wide range of research materials. Whether you’re looking for papers in a specific field or just want a general database of scholarly articles, these websites have got you covered.

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Best Websites for Accessing Research Papers & Journals

The following are the best websites for college students to access research papers & journals:

1. Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a search engine that specifically searches for scholarly literature, including articles, books, theses, conference proceedings, etc. It is a free resource that can be accessed through the website, and it is available to anyone who is interested in finding research papers and other academic materials.

One of the benefits of using Google Scholar is that it searches a wide range of sources, including academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, and universities. This means that you can find a diverse range of materials on a variety of topics.

Google Scholar also allows you to search for specific authors or institutions, and it provides tools to help you track your own research and manage your citations. You can also set up alerts to receive notifications when new research is published on a particular topic.

Pricing: Free

Access Research Papers Now

2. Microsoft Academic

Microsoft Academic is a free, public web search engine that allows users to search for academic papers, conferences, journals, and authors. It was developed by Microsoft and launched in 2012.

One of the key features of Microsoft Academic is its ability to search for papers based on the relationships between them. For example, you can use the website to find documents that have been cited by a particular research paper or research papers that have cited a particular research paper.

This can be a useful tool for researchers looking to discover new papers in their field or for students seeking additional resources for a research project.

Microsoft Academic also includes information about authors, conferences, and journals, and allows users to track their academic activity and achievements. Users can create their own profiles on the website and add their own papers to the database.

3. Science.gov

Science.gov is a website that provides access to over 60 databases, over 2,200 websites, and over 200 million pages of scientific and technical information from U.S. government agencies, including full-text documents, citations, scientific data supporting federally funded research, and multimedia.

It is a collaborative effort between various U.S. government agencies and is maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).

Users can search for information using keywords or browse by topic. Science.gov is a useful resource for researchers, students, and anyone else interested in accessing scientific and technical information from U.S. government agencies.

4. ResearchGate

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. It was founded in 2008 by Ijad Madisch, Sören Hofmayer, and Horst Fickenscher. As of 2022, the website has over 20 million users from 190 countries, and hosts over 17 million research articles.

ResearchGate allows users to search for and access research papers for free, although some papers may be behind a paywall. The site also provides tools for researchers to manage their publications, track their impact, and connect with their peers. In addition to hosting research papers, ResearchGate also has a question and answer forum where users can ask and answer questions on various scientific topics.

Pricing: Free (some articles are behind a paywall)

BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine) is a search engine for scholarly web resources, including research papers and journals. It was developed at Bielefeld University in Germany and is operated by the Bielefeld University Library.

BASE claims to be one of the most voluminous search engines for academic web resources, with over 300 million documents from more than 10,000 content providers. including research papers, theses, conference proceedings, and more.

The search engine is free to use and provides access to a wide range of academic content. In addition to searching for research papers, users can also use BASE to search for other types of academic resources, such as datasets, images, and videos.

Pricing: Free Access Research Papers Now

6. Directory of Open Access Journals

The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a digital library that provides access to free, full-text, peer-reviewed open access journals. Open access journals are scholarly journals that are available online and are free to access and read.

The DOAJ was launched in 2003 with the goal of increasing the visibility and accessibility of open access scientific and scholarly journals. It currently contains over 13,000 journals and more than 3.5 million articles.

The DOAJ is a not-for-profit organization that is supported by a number of organizations and individuals. It is run by a small team of staff and governed by a steering committee made up of representatives from the open access community.

7. Royal Society Open Science

The Royal Society Open Science is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research across the natural and physical sciences. It is published by the Royal Society, which is a fellowship of the world’s most eminent scientists and the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence.

It is an open access journal, which means that all of its articles are available to read and download for free. All articles are subject to rigorous peer review to ensure the highest quality and standards.

The journal was established in 2014 with the goal of increasing transparency and reproducibility in scientific research. It has a broad scope and publishes research articles, reviews, letters, and perspectives. The journal covers a wide range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering.

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library that provides online access to thousands of academic journals, books, and primary sources. It was founded in 1995 by William G. Bowen, then-president of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, as a way to digitize and preserve scholarly literature. JSTOR is a subscription-based service that provides access to its collections to libraries, institutions, and individuals.

JSTOR’s collections include more than 12 million academic journal articles, books, and primary sources in the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It also has a growing selection of ebooks and other resources in science, technology, and medicine.

JSTOR is known for its high-quality content and advanced search and discovery tools, which make it a popular resource for researchers and students.

Pricing: Subscription-based Access Research Papers Now

The websites listed above are just a few of the many options available for accessing research papers and journals. These websites can provide a wealth of knowledge and help you stay up-to-date on the latest research and developments in your field.

Be sure to check out the various options and see which one works best for your needs and budget.



Thirumoorthy serves as a teacher and coach. He obtained a 99 percentile on the CAT. He cleared numerous IT jobs and public sector job interviews, but he still decided to pursue a career in education. He desires to elevate the underprivileged sections of society through education

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How to Write a Research Paper | A Beginner's Guide

A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides analysis, interpretation, and argument based on in-depth independent research.

Research papers are similar to academic essays , but they are usually longer and more detailed assignments, designed to assess not only your writing skills but also your skills in scholarly research. Writing a research paper requires you to demonstrate a strong knowledge of your topic, engage with a variety of sources, and make an original contribution to the debate.

This step-by-step guide takes you through the entire writing process, from understanding your assignment to proofreading your final draft.

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Table of contents

Understand the assignment, choose a research paper topic, conduct preliminary research, develop a thesis statement, create a research paper outline, write a first draft of the research paper, write the introduction, write a compelling body of text, write the conclusion, the second draft, the revision process, research paper checklist, free lecture slides.

Completing a research paper successfully means accomplishing the specific tasks set out for you. Before you start, make sure you thoroughly understanding the assignment task sheet:

  • Read it carefully, looking for anything confusing you might need to clarify with your professor.
  • Identify the assignment goal, deadline, length specifications, formatting, and submission method.
  • Make a bulleted list of the key points, then go back and cross completed items off as you’re writing.

Carefully consider your timeframe and word limit: be realistic, and plan enough time to research, write, and edit.

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There are many ways to generate an idea for a research paper, from brainstorming with pen and paper to talking it through with a fellow student or professor.

You can try free writing, which involves taking a broad topic and writing continuously for two or three minutes to identify absolutely anything relevant that could be interesting.

You can also gain inspiration from other research. The discussion or recommendations sections of research papers often include ideas for other specific topics that require further examination.

Once you have a broad subject area, narrow it down to choose a topic that interests you, m eets the criteria of your assignment, and i s possible to research. Aim for ideas that are both original and specific:

  • A paper following the chronology of World War II would not be original or specific enough.
  • A paper on the experience of Danish citizens living close to the German border during World War II would be specific and could be original enough.

Note any discussions that seem important to the topic, and try to find an issue that you can focus your paper around. Use a variety of sources , including journals, books, and reliable websites, to ensure you do not miss anything glaring.

Do not only verify the ideas you have in mind, but look for sources that contradict your point of view.

  • Is there anything people seem to overlook in the sources you research?
  • Are there any heated debates you can address?
  • Do you have a unique take on your topic?
  • Have there been some recent developments that build on the extant research?

In this stage, you might find it helpful to formulate some research questions to help guide you. To write research questions, try to finish the following sentence: “I want to know how/what/why…”

A thesis statement is a statement of your central argument — it establishes the purpose and position of your paper. If you started with a research question, the thesis statement should answer it. It should also show what evidence and reasoning you’ll use to support that answer.

The thesis statement should be concise, contentious, and coherent. That means it should briefly summarize your argument in a sentence or two, make a claim that requires further evidence or analysis, and make a coherent point that relates to every part of the paper.

You will probably revise and refine the thesis statement as you do more research, but it can serve as a guide throughout the writing process. Every paragraph should aim to support and develop this central claim.

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A research paper outline is essentially a list of the key topics, arguments, and evidence you want to include, divided into sections with headings so that you know roughly what the paper will look like before you start writing.

A structure outline can help make the writing process much more efficient, so it’s worth dedicating some time to create one.

Your first draft won’t be perfect — you can polish later on. Your priorities at this stage are as follows:

  • Maintaining forward momentum — write now, perfect later.
  • Paying attention to clear organization and logical ordering of paragraphs and sentences, which will help when you come to the second draft.
  • Expressing your ideas as clearly as possible, so you know what you were trying to say when you come back to the text.

You do not need to start by writing the introduction. Begin where it feels most natural for you — some prefer to finish the most difficult sections first, while others choose to start with the easiest part. If you created an outline, use it as a map while you work.

Do not delete large sections of text. If you begin to dislike something you have written or find it doesn’t quite fit, move it to a different document, but don’t lose it completely — you never know if it might come in useful later.

Paragraph structure

Paragraphs are the basic building blocks of research papers. Each one should focus on a single claim or idea that helps to establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.

Example paragraph

George Orwell’s 1946 essay “Politics and the English Language” has had an enduring impact on thought about the relationship between politics and language. This impact is particularly obvious in light of the various critical review articles that have recently referenced the essay. For example, consider Mark Falcoff’s 2009 article in The National Review Online, “The Perversion of Language; or, Orwell Revisited,” in which he analyzes several common words (“activist,” “civil-rights leader,” “diversity,” and more). Falcoff’s close analysis of the ambiguity built into political language intentionally mirrors Orwell’s own point-by-point analysis of the political language of his day. Even 63 years after its publication, Orwell’s essay is emulated by contemporary thinkers.

Citing sources

It’s also important to keep track of citations at this stage to avoid accidental plagiarism . Each time you use a source, make sure to take note of where the information came from.

You can use our free citation generators to automatically create citations and save your reference list as you go.

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The research paper introduction should address three questions: What, why, and how? After finishing the introduction, the reader should know what the paper is about, why it is worth reading, and how you’ll build your arguments.

What? Be specific about the topic of the paper, introduce the background, and define key terms or concepts.

Why? This is the most important, but also the most difficult, part of the introduction. Try to provide brief answers to the following questions: What new material or insight are you offering? What important issues does your essay help define or answer?

How? To let the reader know what to expect from the rest of the paper, the introduction should include a “map” of what will be discussed, briefly presenting the key elements of the paper in chronological order.

The major struggle faced by most writers is how to organize the information presented in the paper, which is one reason an outline is so useful. However, remember that the outline is only a guide and, when writing, you can be flexible with the order in which the information and arguments are presented.

One way to stay on track is to use your thesis statement and topic sentences . Check:

  • topic sentences against the thesis statement;
  • topic sentences against each other, for similarities and logical ordering;
  • and each sentence against the topic sentence of that paragraph.

Be aware of paragraphs that seem to cover the same things. If two paragraphs discuss something similar, they must approach that topic in different ways. Aim to create smooth transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections.

The research paper conclusion is designed to help your reader out of the paper’s argument, giving them a sense of finality.

Trace the course of the paper, emphasizing how it all comes together to prove your thesis statement. Give the paper a sense of finality by making sure the reader understands how you’ve settled the issues raised in the introduction.

You might also discuss the more general consequences of the argument, outline what the paper offers to future students of the topic, and suggest any questions the paper’s argument raises but cannot or does not try to answer.

You should not :

  • Offer new arguments or essential information
  • Take up any more space than necessary
  • Begin with stock phrases that signal you are ending the paper (e.g. “In conclusion”)

There are four main considerations when it comes to the second draft.

  • Check how your vision of the paper lines up with the first draft and, more importantly, that your paper still answers the assignment.
  • Identify any assumptions that might require (more substantial) justification, keeping your reader’s perspective foremost in mind. Remove these points if you cannot substantiate them further.
  • Be open to rearranging your ideas. Check whether any sections feel out of place and whether your ideas could be better organized.
  • If you find that old ideas do not fit as well as you anticipated, you should cut them out or condense them. You might also find that new and well-suited ideas occurred to you during the writing of the first draft — now is the time to make them part of the paper.

The goal during the revision and proofreading process is to ensure you have completed all the necessary tasks and that the paper is as well-articulated as possible. You can speed up the proofreading process by using the AI proofreader .

Global concerns

  • Confirm that your paper completes every task specified in your assignment sheet.
  • Check for logical organization and flow of paragraphs.
  • Check paragraphs against the introduction and thesis statement.

Fine-grained details

Check the content of each paragraph, making sure that:

  • each sentence helps support the topic sentence.
  • no unnecessary or irrelevant information is present.
  • all technical terms your audience might not know are identified.

Next, think about sentence structure , grammatical errors, and formatting . Check that you have correctly used transition words and phrases to show the connections between your ideas. Look for typos, cut unnecessary words, and check for consistency in aspects such as heading formatting and spellings .

Finally, you need to make sure your paper is correctly formatted according to the rules of the citation style you are using. For example, you might need to include an MLA heading  or create an APA title page .

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Checklist: Research paper

I have followed all instructions in the assignment sheet.

My introduction presents my topic in an engaging way and provides necessary background information.

My introduction presents a clear, focused research problem and/or thesis statement .

My paper is logically organized using paragraphs and (if relevant) section headings .

Each paragraph is clearly focused on one central idea, expressed in a clear topic sentence .

Each paragraph is relevant to my research problem or thesis statement.

I have used appropriate transitions  to clarify the connections between sections, paragraphs, and sentences.

My conclusion provides a concise answer to the research question or emphasizes how the thesis has been supported.

My conclusion shows how my research has contributed to knowledge or understanding of my topic.

My conclusion does not present any new points or information essential to my argument.

I have provided an in-text citation every time I refer to ideas or information from a source.

I have included a reference list at the end of my paper, consistently formatted according to a specific citation style .

I have thoroughly revised my paper and addressed any feedback from my professor or supervisor.

I have followed all formatting guidelines (page numbers, headers, spacing, etc.).

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The Best Research and Reference Websites

Where to look when you need information

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Research websites come in handy in all kinds of situations, whether you're looking for the average rainfall in the Amazon rainforest, researching Roman history, or just having fun learning to find information.

This list of the best research websites will help greatly, and most of them are updated daily with new information.

I like to pair these sites with free research organizational tools to keep track of everything I gather online.

Best Research Websites

  • Library of Congress : LOC.gov lets you not only ask a librarian for help , but also search catalogs of libraries from all over the world. This is truly a huge resource that should be on your Top 10 best research sites list. Anything from Academia Sinica in Taiwan to Yale University in the U.S. is here and ready to be searched.
  • ReferenceDesk.org : Dubbed "The Internet's Best Reference Source," this extremely useful web directory provides everything from business and finance information to federal government resources, scholarship details, links to newspapers and calendars, search engines, and more.
  • Ask the Space Expert: NASA's source for space and science research help. Use the video links to listen to questions answered by experts. These are from 2013 through 2015.
  • USA.gov : This is where you should start when looking for specific U.S. government information. Learn about the country in general or education, housing, disability services, jobs, taxes, laws, and more.
  • Reference.com : Extremely simple to use with a basic layout, this reference website lets you browse by category or search by keywords to research everything from food and health to history, beauty, education, technology, vehicles, art, and more.
  • Refdesk.com : Billing itself as the internet's fact-checker, this site includes in-depth research links to breaking news, editorials, Today in History, Word of the Day, and other references.
  • Encyclopedia.com : The #1 online encyclopedia that lets you search over 200 reference books and encyclopedias at once. The Picks of the week is a neat section to examine each week.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica : One of the world's oldest encyclopedias online; has featured posts and category listings. The company launched in the 18th century and has been publishing exclusively online since 2011.
  • Purdue University Quick Reference : This site has tons of information that includes resources specific to Purdue University and surrounding areas in Indiana. It also includes an Ask a Librarian service.
  • Prescriber's Digital Reference : A wonderful research tool when gathering detailed medical information. The drug name browser includes summaries (dosage, description, and more) for hundreds of drugs.
  • iTools.com : Serves as a gateway for reference and research links. It uses other websites for its searches, like YouTube and Google.
  • ResearchGate : Scientific knowledge from over 160 million publication pages; browse topics in categories like engineering, biology, climate change, medicine, math, and more.
  • Baseball-Reference.com : Here's everything you ever wanted to know about baseball.
  • FOLDOC : Free Online Dictionary of Computing is a detailed computing dictionary for researching the meaning behind computer-related tools, standards, jargon, languages, and more. The "random" button is a fun way to learn new concepts.

Depending on the type of research you're doing or how you need to reference the information, you may need quick access to books. There are lots of places to find free book downloads , textbooks , and educational movies .

Other Ways to Do Research

Search engines like Google are a great way to perform online research. You can locate books, articles, interviews, and lots more. Learn how to search better to get the most out of your research.

Another top source of expert information is your local librarian— search for libraries near you at WorldCat . Librarians are trained to find answers to obscure questions, they're friendly, and best of all, you can talk with them face to face. They often ask you questions you might not have considered, leading to even better results. You can get help from librarians online, too, through some of the sources above.

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12 Useful Research Websites for College Students

Bookmark these research websites now.

Conducting research for a paper or project is labor intensive and time consuming.  Save time and frustration by bookmarking the websites below for easy reference and retrieval when the time comes to begin your research efforts.  These websites are part search engine, part library collection and will help you quickly gather sources and detailed information about the subject you are researching.  These research sites explore topics ranging the arts to biology to American history and everything in between. 

1. Google Scholar

Google Scholar Home Page

Google Scholar is a comprehensive research tool which allows students to search for scholarly texts such as books, abstracts, peer-reviewed paper and articles from academic publishers and professional organizations.

2. Microsoft Academic

Microsoft Academics Home Page image

Microsoft Academic is another comprehensive research tool featuring a search engine serving up content from over 120 million publications, including scientific papers, conferences and journals. Searches can be conducted by topic or fields of study.

iSEEK Home Page image

iSeek is a scholastic search engine for where you can ask a question or enter in a topic. iSEEK pulls its information from trusted resources from universities, government and established non-commercial sites. Once you enter your question or topic, iSEEK returns results that can be drilled down even more by topic, subject, people, places, organizations and more.

4. Library of Congress

Library of Congress Homepage image

People don't usually think of The Library of Congress when thinking of research resources, but it is considered the largest library in the world with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts.  The website offers research guides, digital collections and an online ask a librarian feature.

5. Internet Public Library

Internet Public Library Screen Shot

The Internet Public Library is a public, web-based library encompassing a variety of resources, organized by subject area. This online library catalog contains essays on a variety of subjects - European History, Genetic Engineering, Marketing & Religion to name a few.  There are even essays on different types of essays - argumentative, personal narrative, persuasive, etc. The website offers additional collections like the POTUS collection on U.S. presidents,  Stately Knowledge about U.S. States, plus as a bonus there is an A+ Research & Writing Guide detailing steps for constructing an organized research effort and papers.

6. Digital History

Digital History Website Screen shot

Digital History is a unique website devoted to U.S. History.  The website breaks down its content into Eras, Topics, Resources and References.  There  are exhibitions, multimedia (historical music collections by era) and a section titled Voices, which contains historical writings and speeches.  You can view an interview with Rosa Parks and the manuscript for the famous "I Have a Dream" speech from Martin Luther King, Jr.

7. Artcyclopedia

Artcyclopedia Screen Shot

Artcyclopedia is a really unusual search engine devoted to artists and works of art.  You can search by artist name, artworks by title or art museums.  The site lists the most popular artists by month and allows you to browse artists by medium, subject and nationality.  There is also a section devoted to art movements, i.e. Art Deco, Neoclassicism, Cubism, etc.

8. BioMedCentral

BioMed Central Website Screen shot

According to the BioMedCentral website, it has an evolving portfolio of some 300 peer-reviewed journals, sharing discoveries from research communities in science, technology, engineering and medicine.  You can search by topic or view many of the science related journals by subject, i.e. biomedicine, earth sciences, psychology, etc. Each journal article will contain an abstract, background, main text, conclusion and references. Some article will contain methodology and results with diagrams and images and downloadable citations.

9. Infoplease

Infoplease Website Screen shot

Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with statistics, facts, and historical records. While it is an open access site, there are professional editors who manage and update the content.  There are sections on World, U.S., Math & Science, People, History and Business.  In addition to its popular country profiles, the website also features an Ask the Editor section.

10. Scholarpedia

Scholarpedia Website Home page image

Scholarpedia is an open access encyclopedia where the information is curated by communities of scholarly experts.  Academic authors have to submit their articles for a scholarly peer review, and if accepted will be published on the site.  Scholarpedia is definitely focused on more STEM related topics. There are in-depth articles devoted to applied mathematics, quantum physics, neuroscience and more.

11. Refseek

Refseek Website Home page image

Refseek resembles a typical Google search except that the results returned are more academic in nature.  According to Refseek, the search engine searches more than five billion documents, including web pages, books, encyclopedias, journals, and newspapers.  While searches do return results containing ads at the top of the page, they are minimal and a quick scroll down offers numerous academic-worthy results.  There is also a feature to search by documents, which will return PDF documents helpful for your research and source citations.

12. Wolfram Alpha

Wolfram Alpha Website  home page image

Wolfram Alpha is much more than a search engine, it is more like an answer engine.  Wolfram Alpha uses algorithms, knowledge base and artificial intelligence technology to serve up detailed answers to questions and topics. Very popular among math students - it will show step-by-step solutions to math, chemistry and physics topics - the site is also useful to research a wide variety of topics related to science and technology, society and culture, and everyday life.

A Good Starting Point for Research

These sites offer a good starting point to begin your research process. For more research-related tips, see our post on citation and bibliography apps.

Photo Credit Head Image:  Dan Dimmock on Unsplash

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Tech Tutorials and Reviews

7 Best Websites for Accessing Online Research Journals and Papers

Last Updated May 17, 2023 By Saket Leave a Comment

Inside the article

In this period of digitization, all we need is to get an insight into the world of academia with just a click. The emergence of online digital libraries has changed the game for many around the world. This has granted liberty for many to read about the research going all over the world. It’s easy to use them both to do homework assignment  and to write a scientific study. These websites provide access to many research papers published in an enormous number of publications. By getting the best intellectual information, we are able to get pure and appropriate information about our topic of research.

Why You Should Use These Websites

Writing a research paper is a quite challenging task even if you are pretty good at your research topic. If you are writing, you must be aware of the fact that research work is the most complex and time-consuming process in the art of writing a research paper. These websites provide all the aids that overcome the needs of a researcher. Some websites also provide many handy tools to guide them in getting the best results.

The availability of multiple articles and research papers leads to a refined search and use. To date, there are a plethora of websites available to suffice this matter, but as they say good, better, best never let it rest. Here are the best-known research access portals available today.

1. Elsevier

It is for sure the best online research journal available on the internet. With thorough peer review and multiple topics, is what make it interesting to explore this website. With competitive features like an effective full-text search option and database, this is truly a website to look out for if you are into hardcore research.

2. Academia.edu

Academia is one of the most trusted websites for research papers in all areas of study. With over four and a half million users, it basically works as a social media platform for researchers just like Facebook. Primarily used to share the papers for free, it is considered one of the most popular websites for publishing them too. Its out-of-the-box features also include the capability of a user to monitor the impact of his published articles or papers and a compatible validation mechanism.

It is an online directory of open-access research journals and papers. DOAJ helps users to search within multiple areas of scientific topics in its overwhelming database. It is one of the most sought-after websites in the world for accessing research papers. By creating an account, you are joining a huge family of researchers and their high-quality R&D papers.

4 CORE.ac.uk

With an enormous population of research papers, this British-origin website is a trusted product for many years. You get to access more than half a million open-source papers at a click. Classified as a fast-growing website, it has a huge collection. Like others on this list, this is also a good option and definitely needs you to check it out at least once. You will surely find it quite relevant for your academic and research papers publishing and accessing requirements.

5.  ScienceOpen

It is like Mecca for scholarly publications. Being a highly professional website, it is expected to have specialization in peer review, article aggregation, Smart search, and indexing. You can publish and share scientific write-ups and information along with reviewing the papers. The sole motto of ScienceOpen is to provide maximum facilities to its users in a safe and legal manner.

6. ERIC (Education Resources Information Center)

Eric is an open-source resource digital library to search papers on a plethora of topics available in its repository. A website of American descent, it is the most sought-after resource due to the availability of grey literature. It provides access to millions of records that make it a leader in the academic and research community.

7. Microsoft Academic

This is a very powerful tool for searching and researching topics of any domain. Previously known as Microsoft Academic Search, it consists of some interesting features like information reading among many others. It uses new technologies like machine learning and knowledge discovery for the search capability that redefines the way you have been doing an academic search. With multiple versions and updates, this is certainly a huge project under the aegis of the tech giant Microsoft.

We really appreciate the fact that we have lots of academic information available on the internet that has defined the path of growth of many online search platforms. These websites make the data available to the people of any country, location, or institute.  These global resources play an important role in the lives of budding researchers. Along with this, if the platform also has popup apps, email pop up, exit pop-ups, pop-up games, and many more then these features will directly interact with more audience. In this context, an expert like “Tada” helps to increase subscribers by 500% and sales by 135% instantly.

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The Best Toilet Paper

Nancy Redd

By Nancy Redd

Nancy Redd is a writer who covers health and grooming. She has tested dozens of hair dryers, toothbrushes, and pairs of period underwear.

The average American uses an astounding 141 rolls of toilet paper a year . If you’re going through that much tissue, we think it’s worth settling on a brand you actively like (you could also consider cutting back, with the help of a bidet ). Over the course of 10 months, we tushy-tested 36 varieties of toilet paper. And we concluded that Unilever’s Seventh Generation 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong Bath Tissue and Procter & Gamble’s Charmin Ultra Strong are the most likely to please the most people. Amazon’s Presto! Ultra-Soft Toilet Paper , our budget pick, is great for folks looking for soft-enough toilet paper that costs less.

Everything we recommend

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Seventh Generation 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong Bath Tissue

The best sustainable toilet paper.

Seventh Generation 100% Recycled toilet paper is a soft, strong, low-lint offering. And it’s economically as well as environmentally friendly.

Buying Options

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Charmin Ultra Strong

The best traditionally produced toilet paper.

One of the plushest of the toilet papers we tested, the strong, soft, low-lint Charmin Ultra Strong left all other traditional toilet papers … behind.

Budget pick

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Amazon Presto Ultra-Soft Toilet Paper

A reliable budget toilet paper.

Amazon Presto! Ultra-Soft Toilet Paper is a tad lintier and almost imperceptibly rougher than our top picks. But our testers liked it best of all the lower-cost toilet papers we tested.

How we picked

We looked for toilet paper that felt cushy on our tushies.

Many toilet papers leave crumbles and dust on bottoms and bathroom floors—yuck.

Toilet paper that maintains its composition during wiping is critical: No one likes rips.

If a toilet paper brand is hard to find, it doesn’t matter if it’s great.

Seventh Generation 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong Bath Tissue is made with 100% recycled materials, but you’d never know it by the look and feel of this soft, sturdy, and lint-free toilet paper. Its price is on a par with that of traditional papers, and it was unanimously liked by testers.

Charmin Ultra Strong is a strong, low-lint, readily available toilet paper that’s slightly plusher than the Seventh Generation paper. But the Charmin paper is usually more expensive than our Seventh Generation pick, and it’s not made from sustainable or recycled materials. Of the traditional toilet papers we tested, this one was judged to be the most durable and comfortable to use.

Amazon Presto! Ultra-Soft Toilet Paper is soft and serviceable, especially for the price. Unlike our Seventh Generation pick, this one is not made from recycled materials, nor is it super-plush or extra-strong like our pick from Charmin. But Amazon’s paper gets the job done well: It’s not scratchy, doesn’t rip too easily, and doesn’t leave much lint behind.

The research

Why you should trust us, how we picked and tested, what is sustainable toilet paper, what about bamboo toilet paper, our pick: seventh generation 100% recycled extra soft & strong bath tissue, flaws but not dealbreakers, our pick: charmin ultra strong, budget pick: amazon’s presto ultra-soft toilet paper, what to look forward to, other good toilet papers, what about bidets, what about “flushable” wipes, the competition.

Wirecutter has been testing toilet paper for nearly a decade. Combined, the previous author of this guide (Kevin Purdy) and I (Nancy Redd) have spent more than 50 hours reading about and researching the paper-manufacturing industry, paper recycling, toilet paper sustainability, and how paper products are produced—and dissolved.

In 2021 and early 2022, I personally compared 36 toilet papers at home, also taking into account feedback from my husband and two kids. After I narrowed the field considerably, I recruited nine additional Wirecutter staffers and their family members. Some of them compared top sustainable brands side by side; others compared only the top-two sustainable options with favorite traditional toilet papers. All testers ranked toilet papers in terms of softness, strength, and lint levels.

I also interviewed two industry experts: Shelley Vinyard , from the Natural Resources Defense Council, a not-for-profit environmental group, and Chris McLaren , chief marketing officer at the US Forest Stewardship Council.

As Wirecutter’s senior staff writer for health, I’m not new to bathroom-related comparison testing, having written guides to tampons , toilet stools , period underwear , and portable pee funnels .

A piled selection of white toilet paper rolls, some showing visible texture, that we tested to find the best toilet papers.

We’ve been recommending toilet papers for nearly a decade. But after the great toilet paper shortage of 2020 —and with more consumer interest and tremendous strides in the number and quality of sustainable toilet papers available—we decided to give this guide a complete overhaul. Beginning in summer 2021, we called in 36 types of toilet paper from all of the major manufacturers. These included our three existing picks (from Charmin and Cottonelle), several smaller brands, and store-brand (generic) options.

Eleven of the 36 toilet papers we tried were made from what the toilet paper industry calls “ sustainable materials ,” like recycled paper. The rest were traditional toilet papers, made from trees cut down specifically to be ground into pulp for making toilet paper. We did test some three-ply toilet papers and one-ply toilet papers. But most of the papers we tested—and all of our eventual picks—were two-ply (two thin layers of paper lightly pressed or glued together).

Our initial testing examined various factors for each entrant:

Comfort: We judged softness subjectively during wiping. Our blind tushy testing had initial testers (my family members and me) rating all 36 toilet papers on a scale of 1 (those that felt like sandpaper or looked transparent like facial tissue) to 10 (opaque toilet papers that felt obscenely plush).

Lint factor: I wiped the sheets on velvet to test how much lint or dust was left behind, dismissing toilet papers that shed large amounts of residue.

Sturdiness: I poked and pulled sheets in multiple directions and with varying levels of pressure to test strength and “rippiness,” noting the ones that held up.

Three strips of red velvet ribbon, each with a crumpled piece of white toilet paper resting above them on a black cloth.

Once the testing pool was whittled down considerably, I sent rolls to nine additional staffers, who judged each toilet paper without knowledge of which had performed best in the first round of testing. Several testers were sent the papers sans packaging, so they were unaware of the brand or whether a roll was made from recycled paper, bamboo, or traditional trees. The staffers (and, in some cases, their families) ranked the contenders in terms of softness, lintiness, and strength. After those results came in, I also considered secondary factors, including:

  • Certification: Toilet papers that bear a certification label from the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been evaluated by the organization and found to be manufactured with responsibly sourced fibers. Though there are other certifications available, such as from the Swiss Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC, which certifies our budget pick), FSC is considered by environmental leaders (such as the World Wildlife Fund ) to have the most rigorous universal standards. Although we didn’t consider FSC certification to be a requirement, we did weigh papers with FSC certification more favorably.
  • Additives: Most toilet papers have “proprietary” formulas of chemicals and conditioners that companies typically won’t disclose. We asked the manufacturers of our top picks whether their toilet paper contained any animal ingredients or byproducts (because some do), and we also asked about what they use to purify and whiten their toilet papers. In 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began requiring most paper mills to limit elemental chlorine from being used in toilet paper production, due to carcinogenic concerns. Today almost all toilet papers are still purified and whitened using chlorine-based disinfectants and other undisclosed chemicals. Our Seventh Generation pick’s manufacturing process is completely free of chlorine. But its toilet paper is made from recycled papers that may have once been bleached, so it can’t be considered totally chlorine-free (which is most ideal ). The use of additives did not make or break our toilet paper picks, but they did inform our evaluation.
  • Availability: I searched stores (online and in person) regularly to check fluctuations in price and availability, noting whether brands were frequently out of stock.

Four rolls of toilet paper, each a slightly different size, lined up on their sides with the center tube showing.

Until our March 2022 update, we recommended only toilet papers made from virgin wood pulp—also referred to as “traditional” toilet paper—because none of the environmentally friendlier toilet papers we’d tested came close in softness and strength. Since our original testing for this guide began, nearly a decade ago, there have been tremendous strides in the area of “sustainable” toilet paper. Sustainable toilet paper is made from either recycled fibers or from more environmentally friendly primary sources, such as responsibly sourced bamboo. We found several of the sustainable toilet papers we tested in 2021 and 2022 to be comparable in comfort and strength to traditional toilet papers, as well as comparatively much less dusty.

With growing concerns about climate change and deforestation , there is an increasing push to eliminate the “tree to toilet pipeline,” which is the cutting down of forests full of trees just to make toilet paper, said Shelley Vinyard, co-author of the Natural Resources Defense Council’s The Issue With Tissue (PDF) report. Since 2019, the NRDC —a not-for-profit environmental group—has evaluated dozens of toilet papers and ranked them, taking into consideration factors such as whether potentially carcinogenic chlorine is used to purify or whiten the fibers and the type of certifications held by the fiber suppliers to demonstrate their commitment to responsible sourcing. The latest report ranked toilet paper made from recycled fibers higher than toilet paper made from other sustainable materials, such as bamboo. “What we want most is circular solutions to avoid sending waste to the landfill, so, with toilet paper, that means post-consumer recycled content is the gold standard,” Vinyard said.

Chris McLaren, chief marketing officer at the US Forest Stewardship Council, agreed with Vinyard’s assessment, with the caveat that it’s not always possible to incorporate circular solutions because there isn’t as much used paper to recycle as there once was. “The digitalization of society (such as online media instead of newspapers and magazines) has caused there to be fewer recycled papers to utilize in the making of sustainable paper products,” he explained. McLaren said this issue of sustainability goes far beyond toilet paper, and that without enough recycled paper to use, some toilet paper will always need to come from new materials “to keep up with demand.” FSC certification is one way to ensure that, as McLaren put it, “forests are well-managed to stay healthy."

The toilet paper you decide to use is obviously a personal choice. Seventh Generation’s 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong is FSC-certified to be made from 100% recycled materials. Charmin Ultra Strong has a lesser type of FSC certification that guarantees at least 70% of materials are from FSC-approved forests; the other 30% of materials are considered acceptable but are not FSC-certified. Amazon Presto! Ultra-Soft is not FSC-certified, but it is PEFC -certified (an industry certification considered to have less-rigorous standards than those of FSC). As of February 2022, the PEFC certification does not appear anywhere on Presto! Ultra-Soft’s new packaging, though an Amazon spokesperson confirmed it was PEFC-certified.

Bamboo has become an increasingly popular alternative source material for toilet paper, and we tested several bamboo brands for this guide, including Betterway , Who Gives A Crap , and No. 2. Toilet paper made from bamboo is often promoted as an eco-friendly solution since bamboo grows so quickly and can be easily replenished, unlike a boreal forest . But bamboo toilet paper isn’t necessarily better for the environment, and it’s generally more expensive and not as soft as other papers.

When bamboo toilet paper is FSC-certified to be sourced responsibly—that is, ecosystems aren’t being wiped out and forests aren’t being clear-cut to plant homogenous swaths of bamboo—it is a great alternative option, McLaren and Vinyard both said. But few bamboo toilet paper companies have pursued certification. Two exceptions are Betterway and Cloud Paper , which are both FSC-certified to source 100% of their bamboo from suppliers committed to responsibly managing their crops and surrounding environments.

Package of Seventh Generation 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong Bath Tissue, our pick for the best sustainable toilet paper.

Seventh Generation 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong Bath Tissue is the cubic zirconia of toilet paper: With close scrutiny, an astute toilet-paper user might notice something’s different. But we think the average person would be hard-pressed to guess that this one is formulated with 100% recycled paper, instead of traditional virgin tree pulp. This soft, supple, nearly lint-free toilet paper is manufactured without bleach or any animal byproducts. And it was a true diamond in the rough among our testing pool of 11 environmentally friendly toilet papers.

Although we found many of the sustainable bath tissues we tested to be scratchy, Seventh Generation’s toilet paper is not. It also held its own against traditional toilet papers in softness and strength—testers found it to be durable and dependable, with no reports of accidental ripping during use. During the velvet rub tests to check for crumbling, pilling, and lint, the paper remained intact and left behind almost no residue.

Like traditional toilet paper (but unlike many of its sustainable competitors), Seventh Generation’s Extra Soft & Strong toilet paper is white in color. Yet this is due only to the color of the recycled papers used to make it; there is no chlorine used in the manufacturing process. This toilet paper is two-ply, and both sides are soft, but only one side features an embossed pattern (which is meant to help with wiping, though its usefulness is debatable). Seventh Generation says this paper is safe for septic systems and low-flush-volume toilets, and that no animal ingredients or byproducts are used in the manufacturing process.

Seventh Generation toilet paper is readily available in stores and online. Its largest offering, a 24-pack (240 sheets per roll), is normally about $22, or 0.38¢ ($0.0038) per sheet. Since it’s often on sale for less, Seventh Generation toilet paper is one of the most economical of the sustainable papers, and it’s similar (or even cheaper) in price to many traditional toilet papers.

A roll of Seventh Generation 100% Recycled Extra Soft & Strong Bath Tissue, showing textured circles on the white paper.

Princess and the Pee types may notice that Seventh Generation is slightly less soft and a tad less strong than Charmin, our traditional toilet paper pick. However, one of our testers of sustainable toilet paper didn’t even realize that it was a recycled option, mistaking the Seventh Generation paper as a “control” traditional roll.

Price: about 0.38¢ ($0.0038) per sheet (depending on pack size and store sales)

Options: four, 12, or 24 rolls (240 sheets per roll)

Manufactured in: USA and Canada

FSC certification: Yes, certified to be 100% recycled.

Chlorine used in processing: No. Only hydrogen peroxide is used for the purification process. However, the recycled office paper and newspaper used may have been initially processed with chlorine, so the toilet paper cannot be called totally chlorine-free.

Ingredients: recycled paper fibers, hydrogen peroxide, “proprietary ingredients to control microbial growth and to aid in the wet strength of the product,” according to a Seventh Generation spokesperson (the company says this paper contains no animal ingredients or byproducts)

A package of Charmin Ultra Strong, our pick for the best traditionally produced toilet paper.

Of the 36 toilet papers we tested, the supple Charmin Ultra Strong stood out as the one with the best combination of strength and softness, with the added bonus of being low-lint and crumble-free. As bathroom tissue goes, our testers found this one to be foolproof—it tackled the toughest of toilet trips with nary a breakthrough finger rip, but it also felt pampering on our most delicate body parts. Our velvet rub tests found that Charmin Ultra Strong left behind very little lint, with no pilling or crumbling.

Charmin Ultra Strong is two-ply, and though only one side features an embossed pattern (like the Seventh Generation toilet paper), our testers confirmed that both sides felt super-soft. A Charmin spokesperson told us that it’s safe for septic systems and low-flush-volume toilets.

This toilet paper is available almost everywhere bathroom tissue is sold, in-store and online, and it has rarely been out of stock.

A single roll of Charmin Ultra Strong toilet paper, showing embossed dashed lines on the white paper.

This traditional toilet paper is formulated from virgin tree pulp, but it is FSC-certified to have the majority of its materials sourced responsibly. It is manufactured using a purification/whitening process that is elemental chlorine-free but not totally chlorine-free.

When not on sale, Charmin Ultra Strong is slightly more expensive per sheet than Seventh Generation’s paper. The largest pack you can buy is a Mega roll 30-pack (264 sheets per roll) for about $31.50, or 0.39¢ ($0.0039) per sheet. That’s more than our other picks cost, but this paper is often on sale, and manufacturer coupons abound.

Charmin could not confirm whether animal ingredients or byproducts are used in the manufacturing process.

Price: about 0.39¢ ($0.0039) per sheet (depending on pack size and store sales)

Options: six, 12, 18, 24, or 30 Mega rolls (264 sheets per roll); eight, 12, or 18 Super Mega rolls (396 sheets per roll)

Manufactured in: USA

FSC certification: Yes, certified to be FSC-Mix, meaning at least 70% of the tree fibers used are responsibly sourced.

Chlorine used in processing: Yes. The purification/whitening process is elemental chlorine-free, but not totally chlorine-free.

Ingredients: wood pulp, water-based adhesive, and proprietary conditioners (a spokesperson for Charmin said it may contain animal ingredients or byproducts)

A package of Amazon's Presto! brand toilet paper, our budget pick for the best toilet paper.

Although it isn’t quite as soft as our top picks from Seventh Generation and Charmin , Amazon’s Presto! Ultra-Soft Toilet Paper is a reliable traditional toilet paper that’s comfortable to use. However, it comes only in a large box of 24 rolls (four packages of six), so this may not work well for people with very limited storage space. At around 0.31¢ ($0.0031) per sheet, Presto! paper costs at least 25% less than our top picks—and using Amazon’s Subscribe & Save service could bring the price down by an additional 5% to 15%.

In our velvet rub test, we found Amazon Presto! left behind more lint than our other picks—but not too much. It also did not pill or rip easily while wiping. Most testers noticed only that it was less soft than our other picks, when they were asked to compare them side by side. The Amazon paper is two-ply, and both sides are soft (though, as with our other picks, only one side features the embossed pattern). Amazon says this tissue is safe for septic systems and low-flow toilets.

Amazon! Presto is rarely out of stock, but you can purchase it only online (on Amazon, of course). And it can be purchased only in a set of 24 Mega rolls (308 sheets per roll). This is a traditional toilet paper that is formulated from virgin tree pulp, and it is not FSC-certified. The pulp used to make the toilet paper is purified/whitened through a process that utilizes chlorine dioxide, making it elemental chlorine-free but not totally chlorine-free. Amazon confirmed that no animal ingredients or byproducts are used in the manufacturing process.

A single roll of Amazon's Presto! toilet paper, showing embossed roses scattered on the white paper.

Price: about 0.31¢ ($0.0031) per sheet (less if you use Amazon’s Subscribe & Save service)

Options: Amazon’s Presto! Ultra-Soft comes in only one size: 24 Mega rolls (308 sheets per roll)

FSC certification: No, though it is certified by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC).

Chlorine used in processing: Yes. The purification/whitening process uses chlorine dioxide and thus is elemental chlorine-free, but it is not totally chlorine-free.

Ingredients: wood pulp and proprietary process chemicals “to help deliver properties like wet strength to the product,” according to an Amazon spokesperson (a spokesperson for Amazon said it contained no animal ingredients or byproducts)

We’re currently testing the premium version of celebrity-backed Cloud Paper, a well-liked, if slightly expensive, 100% FSC-certified bamboo toilet paper bleached using a TCF (totally chlorine free) method.

If you’re looking for a budget toilet paper and prefer to shop in-store: Walmart’s Great Value Ultra Strong and Target’s Up & Up Premium Ultra Soft are both extremely similar to our budget pick, Amazon’s Presto! Ultra-Soft . In fact, until late 2021, all three products had the same manufacturer license from the Sustainable Forestry Initiative on their packaging, as did other toilet paper made by white-label company First Quality Enterprises Inc. Although Presto! Ultra-Soft changed its packaging to omit this license number, the new packaging links to www.prestopaperpatents.com , which discusses First Quality Tissue at length. If you find either of these on sale, they’re both a good inexpensive option. But we found that Amazon’s Presto! Ultra-Soft was generally less expensive.

If you want a super-soft toilet paper and don’t mind a little butt dandruff: Cottonelle Ultra ComfortCare (our previous top pick) and the brand’s Ultra GentleCare (an aloe-infused cult favorite) are the softest toilet papers we’ve tested. However, they are also the dustiest and lintiest of all the papers we’ve tested, shedding tiny little lint bits and other residue everywhere the toilet paper touches, from bathroom cabinets to human bottoms. These are still super-comfy, super-cushy, and super-sturdy choices if you’re okay with tp residue.

If you’d prefer a toilet paper made of bamboo: Testers liked Betterway , which is soft (for bamboo toilet paper) and FSC-certified to have 100% of its fibers sourced responsibly (the best of the certifications available to bamboo papers). It comes at a higher cost than our picks, however, and it feels a lot rougher.

As an alternative to toilet paper, or as a means to reduce the amount of toilet paper you use, consider the bidet . A bidet is, essentially, a powerful water fountain in your toilet that’s meant to spray your bottom clean, hands-free, with only a square or two of toilet paper needed to dry off. (Some bidets even incorporate a bum-drying fan, potentially cutting out the need for toilet paper altogether.) Bidets have been a bathroom-hygiene staple in many parts of the world, such as Japan and Italy, for decades, and they’re gaining popularity in the US. Wirecutter testers have found bidets to be life-changing devices that can be more economical in the long run and cut your toilet paper needs by at least half. “We’re not saying people should throw out their toilet paper,” Shelley Vinyard said. “But bidets take much less water to use than the water required to make a roll of toilet paper, and they save money.”

Don’t buy wipes, unless you’re willing to put used wipes in your bathroom trash can or maintain a separate can for them. By flushing them down your toilet, you’re passing on a huge problem to your sewer system, as evidenced by sewer crises in New York City and London , and recurring problems in Miami , Ottawa , and Lake Charles, Louisiana , among other cities. For those who think they need to use wipes, we suggest they consider a bidet instead.

Sustainable toilet paper

Bamboo No. 2 Toilet Paper rolls come individually wrapped in colorful, Instagram-worthy tissue, and the packaging doesn’t use any plastic. But this toilet paper is not FSC-certified, and it’s also not as soft as our sustainable pick .

​​ Who Gives A Crap Premium Bamboo Toilet Paper also comes individually wrapped in pretty, plastic-free packaging. But it’s not as soft as our sustainable pick, nor is it FSC-certified.

Caboo Bamboo Bath Tissue was polarizing. Some testers thought it was perfectly serviceable, but others found it to be rough and not strong enough.

Tushy’s bamboo toilet paper also comes individually wrapped in pretty, plastic-free packaging, but it is very thin and scratchy.

Reel Tree-Free bamboo toilet paper feels rough compared to other bamboo toilet papers we tried.

PlantPaper bamboo toilet paper is FSC-certified, but it’s also rough and thin, and it ripped too easily.

Who Gives A Crap 100% Recycled Toilet Paper is extremely popular among sustainability-minded butt wipers, and it comes individually wrapped in attractive, plastic-free packaging. But it felt rough to us.

Neither Whole Foods’ 365 Sustainably Soft recycled toilet paper nor its 100% recycled toilet paper felt as strong or as comfortable to use as our picks.

A spokesperson from Seventh Generation told us its Natural Unbleached Bathroom Tissue (also made from recycled paper) had been discontinued.

Traditional toilet paper

Aria Premium Earth Friendly Bath Tissue scored very high in comfort among test tushies, but it’s expensive and dusty.

Neither Amazon’s Presto! Ultra-Strong nor its thicker three-ply option were worth the additional expense over our budget pick , the same brand’s Ultra-Soft.

Costco’s Kirkland Signature was the widest toilet paper in our test pool (the rolls often don’t fit on regular holders). But that was the most impressive feature of this otherwise-mediocre paper. It was neither the softest nor the strongest in our testing pool, and it was rather dusty. This was surprising given the longstanding reputation of this toilet paper; diehard Costco toilet paper users on Reddit theorize that pandemic-related supply-chain issues have caused the company’s bath tissues to devolve.

Charmin Essentials Strong and Charmin Essentials Soft felt scratchy and seemed to require a lot more paper to finish the task than our picks.

When directly compared with our top picks, Charmin Ultra Soft , Quilted Northern Ultra Soft & Strong , and Quilted Northern Ultra Plush were not ultra-soft, ultra-plush, or ultra-anything to our testers.

Charmin Ultra Gentle and Scott ComfortPlus were linty and ripped too easily.

Scott 1000 was translucent and easily ripped.

Great Value’s Soft & Strong , Walmart’s Cascades , Cottonelle Ultra CleanCare , Virtue , and  Angel Soft were not as soft or sturdy as our picks.

Amazon Solimo , Kirkland Signature Ultra Soft , Scott Extra Soft , Scott Naturals Tube-Free, and White Cloud Ultra Strong & Soft were tested (and dismissed) in an earlier round of testing. They have since been discontinued.

—additional reporting by Kevin Purdy

This guide was edited by Ellen Lee and Kalee Thompson.

Emily Flitter, My Tireless Quest for a Tubeless Wipe , The New York Times , February 28, 2020

Olivia Young, Eco-Friendly Toilet Paper: Bamboo vs. Recycled , Treehugger.com , December 6, 2021

Shelley Vinyard, co-author of The Issue With Tissue report (PDF) , phone interview , December 1, 2021

Chris McLaren, chief marketing officer at the US Forest Stewardship Council , phone interview , February 9, 2022

Meet your guide

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Nancy Redd is a senior staff writer covering health and grooming at Wirecutter. She is a GLAAD Award–nominated on-air host and a New York Times best-selling author. Her latest nonfiction book, The Real Body Manual , is a visual health and wellness guide for young adults of all genders. Her other books include Bedtime Bonnet and Pregnancy, OMG!

Further reading

An illustration of a receipt generating calculator, where the receipt paper is a roll of toilet paper.

There’s a Toilet Paper Calculator That Cuts Through ‘Mega’ and ‘Jumbo’ Marketing Claims

by Elissa Sanci

Frustrated by confusing toilet paper marketing language, these amateur deal finders created a calculator to help sort the deals from the duds.

A toilet in a bathroom, with a toilet seat raiser installed.

The Best Toilet Seat Risers

by Anna Wenner

If you or a loved one find it hard to stand up after using the toilet, it may be time to add one of these toilet seat risers to the bathroom.

several rolls of toilet paper in a pile

Out of Toilet Paper? You Have Other Options. Just Don’t Flush Them!

by Doug Mahoney

Here’s how to handle TP scarcity without ruining your local water treatment systems.

A white bidet.

Are Bidets Better for You Than Toilet Paper?

by Shannon Palus

Bidets are often marketed for their so-called medical benefits. They’ll clean your butt, sure. Can they—and should they—really do any more than that?

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What Is Climate Change?

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. Such shifts can be natural, due to changes in the sun’s activity or large volcanic eruptions. But since the 1800s, human activities have been the main driver of climate change , primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas.

Burning fossil fuels generates greenhouse gas emissions that act like a blanket wrapped around the Earth, trapping the sun’s heat and raising temperatures.

The main greenhouse gases that are causing climate change include carbon dioxide and methane. These come from using gasoline for driving a car or coal for heating a building, for example. Clearing land and cutting down forests can also release carbon dioxide. Agriculture, oil and gas operations are major sources of methane emissions. Energy, industry, transport, buildings, agriculture and land use are among the main sectors  causing greenhouse gases.

Illustration reads: $90 Trillion for infrastructure by 2030

Humans are responsible for global warming

Climate scientists have showed that humans are responsible for virtually all global heating over the last 200 years. Human activities like the ones mentioned above are causing greenhouse gases that are warming the world faster than at any time in at least the last two thousand years.

The average temperature of the Earth’s surface is now about 1.2°C warmer than it was in the late 1800s (before the industrial revolution) and warmer than at any time in the last 100,000 years. The last decade (2011-2020) was the warmest on record , and each of the last four decades has been warmer than any previous decade since 1850.

Many people think climate change mainly means warmer temperatures. But temperature rise is only the beginning of the story. Because the Earth is a system, where everything is connected, changes in one area can influence changes in all others.

The consequences of climate change now include, among others, intense droughts, water scarcity, severe fires, rising sea levels, flooding, melting polar ice, catastrophic storms and declining biodiversity.

The Earth is asking for help.

People are experiencing climate change in diverse ways

Climate change can affect our health , ability to grow food, housing, safety and work. Some of us are already more vulnerable to climate impacts, such as people living in small island nations and other developing countries. Conditions like sea-level rise and saltwater intrusion have advanced to the point where whole communities have had to relocate, and protracted droughts are putting people at risk of famine. In the future, the number of people displaced by weather-related events is expected to rise.

Every increase in global warming matters

In a series of UN reports , thousands of scientists and government reviewers agreed that limiting global temperature rise to no more than 1.5°C would help us avoid the worst climate impacts and maintain a livable climate. Yet policies currently in place point to a 3°C temperature rise by the end of the century.

The emissions that cause climate change come from every part of the world and affect everyone, but some countries produce much more than others .The seven biggest emitters alone (China, the United States of America, India, the European Union, Indonesia, the Russian Federation, and Brazil) accounted for about half of all global greenhouse gas emissions in 2020.

Everyone must take climate action, but people and countries creating more of the problem have a greater responsibility to act first.

Photocomposition: an image of the world globe looking worried to a thermometer with raising temperatures

We face a huge challenge but already know many solutions

Many climate change solutions can deliver economic benefits while improving our lives and protecting the environment. We also have global frameworks and agreements to guide progress, such as the Sustainable Development Goals , the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Paris Agreement . Three broad categories of action are: cutting emissions, adapting to climate impacts and financing required adjustments.

Switching energy systems from fossil fuels to renewables like solar or wind will reduce the emissions driving climate change. But we have to act now. While a growing number of countries is committing to net zero emissions by 2050, emissions must be cut in half by 2030 to keep warming below 1.5°C. Achieving this means huge declines in the use of coal, oil and gas: over two-thirds of today’s proven reserves of fossil fuels need to be kept in the ground by 2050 in order to prevent catastrophic levels of climate change.

Growing coalition

Adapting to climate consequences protects people, homes, businesses, livelihoods, infrastructure and natural ecosystems. It covers current impacts and those likely in the future. Adaptation will be required everywhere, but must be prioritized now for the most vulnerable people with the fewest resources to cope with climate hazards. The rate of return can be high. Early warning systems for disasters, for instance, save lives and property, and can deliver benefits up to 10 times the initial cost.

We can pay the bill now, or pay dearly in the future

Climate action requires significant financial investments by governments and businesses. But climate inaction is vastly more expensive. One critical step is for industrialized countries to fulfil their commitment to provide $100 billion a year to developing countries so they can adapt and move towards greener economies.

Climate finance

To get familiar with some of the more technical terms used in connection with climate change, consult the Climate Dictionary .

Learn more about…

photocomposition: two hands, each one holding a megaphone

The facts on climate and energy

Climate change is a hot topic – with myths and falsehoods circulating widely. Find some essential facts here .

The science

The science

See the latest climate reports from the United Nations as well as climate action facts .

Photocomposition: an image showing causes and effects of climate change - a smokestack and a storm

Causes and Effects

Fossil fuels are by far the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change, which poses many risks to all forms of life on Earth. Learn more .

The science

From the Secretary-General

Read the UN Chief’s latest statements on climate action.

Net zero

What is net zero? Why is it important? Our  net-zero page  explains why we need steep emissions cuts now and what efforts are underway.

Sustainable Development Goals

Renewable energy – powering a safer future

What is renewable energy and why does it matter? Learn more about why the shift to renewables is our only hope for a brighter and safer world.


How will the world foot the bill? We explain the issues and the value of financing climate action.


What is climate adaptation? Why is it so important for every country? Find out how we can protect lives and livelihoods as the climate changes.

A butterfly on the tip of a branch

Climate Issues

Learn more about how climate change impacts are felt across different sectors and ecosystems.

A butterfly on the tip of a branch

Why women are key to climate action

Women and girls are on the frontlines of the climate crisis and uniquely situated to drive action. Find out why it’s time to invest in women.

Facts and figures

  • What is climate change?
  • Causes and effects
  • Myth busters

Cutting emissions

  • Explaining net zero
  • High-level expert group on net zero
  • Checklists for credibility of net-zero pledges
  • Greenwashing
  • What you can do

Clean energy

  • Renewable energy – key to a safer future
  • What is renewable energy
  • Five ways to speed up the energy transition
  • Why invest in renewable energy
  • Clean energy stories
  • A just transition

Adapting to climate change

  • Climate adaptation
  • Early warnings for all
  • Youth voices

Financing climate action

  • Finance and justice
  • Loss and damage
  • $100 billion commitment
  • Why finance climate action
  • Biodiversity
  • Human Security

International cooperation

  • What are Nationally Determined Contributions
  • Acceleration Agenda
  • Climate Ambition Summit
  • Climate conferences (COPs)
  • Youth Advisory Group
  • Action initiatives
  • Secretary-General’s speeches
  • Press material
  • Fact sheets
  • Communications tips


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