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Informative on Music Therapy

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Introduction, the history of music therapy, the benefits of music therapy, the role of music therapy in contemporary healthcare.

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The Healing Power of Music

Music therapy is increasingly used to help patients cope with stress and promote healing.

informative essay on music therapy

By Richard Schiffman

“Focus on the sound of the instrument,” Andrew Rossetti, a licensed music therapist and researcher said as he strummed hypnotic chords on a Spanish-style classical guitar. “Close your eyes. Think of a place where you feel safe and comfortable.”

Music therapy was the last thing that Julia Justo, a graphic artist who immigrated to New York from Argentina, expected when she went to Mount Sinai Beth Israel Union Square Clinic for treatment for cancer in 2016. But it quickly calmed her fears about the radiation therapy she needed to go through, which was causing her severe anxiety.

“I felt the difference right away, I was much more relaxed,” she said.

Ms. Justo, who has been free of cancer for over four years, continued to visit the hospital every week before the onset of the pandemic to work with Mr. Rossetti, whose gentle guitar riffs and visualization exercises helped her deal with ongoing challenges, like getting a good night’s sleep. Nowadays they keep in touch mostly by email.

The healing power of music — lauded by philosophers from Aristotle and Pythagoras to Pete Seeger — is now being validated by medical research. It is used in targeted treatments for asthma, autism, depression and more, including brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy and stroke.

Live music has made its way into some surprising venues, including oncology waiting rooms to calm patients as they wait for radiation and chemotherapy. It also greets newborns in some neonatal intensive care units and comforts the dying in hospice.

While musical therapies are rarely stand-alone treatments, they are increasingly used as adjuncts to other forms of medical treatment. They help people cope with their stress and mobilize their body’s own capacity to heal.

“Patients in hospitals are always having things done to them,” Mr. Rossetti explained. “With music therapy, we are giving them resources that they can use to self-regulate, to feel grounded and calmer. We are enabling them to actively participate in their own care.”

Even in the coronavirus pandemic, Mr. Rossetti has continued to perform live music for patients. He says that he’s seen increases in acute anxiety since the onset of the pandemic, making musical interventions, if anything, even more impactful than they were before the crisis.

Mount Sinai has also recently expanded its music therapy program to include work with the medical staff, many of whom are suffering from post-traumatic stress from months of dealing with Covid, with live performances offered during their lunch hour.

It’s not just a mood booster. A growing body of research suggests that music played in a therapeutic setting has measurable medical benefits.

“Those who undergo the therapy seem to need less anxiety medicine, and sometimes surprisingly get along without it,” said Dr. Jerry T. Liu, assistant professor of radiation oncology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.

A review of 400 research papers conducted by Daniel J. Levitin at McGill University in 2013 concluded that “listening to music was more effective than prescription drugs in reducing anxiety prior to surgery.”

“Music takes patients to a familiar home base within themselves. It relaxes them without side effects,” said Dr. Manjeet Chadha, the director of radiation oncology at Mount Sinai Downtown in New York.

It can also help people deal with longstanding phobias. Mr. Rossetti remembers one patient who had been pinned under concrete rubble at Ground Zero on 9/11. The woman, who years later was being treated for breast cancer, was terrified by the thermoplastic restraining device placed over her chest during radiation and which reawakened her feelings of being entrapped.

“Daily music therapy helped her to process the trauma and her huge fear of claustrophobia and successfully complete the treatment,” Mr. Rossetti recalled.

Some hospitals have introduced prerecorded programs that patients can listen to with headphones. At Mount Sinai Beth Israel, the music is generally performed live using a wide array of instruments including drums, pianos and flutes, with the performers being careful to maintain appropriate social distance.

“We modify what we play according to the patient’s breath and heart rate,” said Joanne Loewy, the founding director of the hospital’s Louis Armstrong Center for Music & Medicine. “Our goal is to anchor the person, to keep their mind connected to the body as they go through these challenging treatments.”

Dr. Loewy has pioneered techniques that use several unusual instruments like a Gato Box, which simulates the rhythms of the mother’s heartbeat, and an Ocean Disc, which mimics the whooshing sounds in the womb to help premature babies and their parents relax during their stay in noisy neonatal intensive care units.

Dr. Dave Bosanquet, a vascular surgeon at the Royal Gwent Hospital in Newport, Wales, says that music has become much more common in operating rooms in England in recent years with the spread of bluetooth speakers. Prerecorded music not only helps surgical patients relax, he says, it also helps surgeons focus on their task. He recommends classical music, which “evokes mental vigilance” and lacks distracting lyrics, but cautions that it “should only be played during low or average stress procedures” and not during complex operations, which demand a sharper focus.

Music has also been used successfully to support recovery after surgery. A study published in The Lancet in 2015 reported that music reduced postoperative pain and anxiety and lessened the need for anti-anxiety drugs. Curiously, they also found that music was effective even when patients were under general anesthesia.

None of this surprises Edie Elkan, a 75-year-old harpist who argues there are few places in the health care system that would not benefit from the addition of music. The first time she played her instrument in a hospital was for her husband when he was on life support after undergoing emergency surgery.

“The hospital said that I couldn’t go into the room with my harp, but I insisted,” she said. As she played the harp for him, his vital signs, which had been dangerously low, returned to normal. “The hospital staff swung the door open and said, ‘You need to play for everyone.’”

Ms. Elkan took these instructions to heart. After she searched for two years for a hospital that would pay for the program, the Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital in Hamilton, N.J., signed on, allowing her to set up a music school on their premises and play for patients at all stages in their hospitalization.

Ms. Elkan and her students have played for over a hundred thousand patients in 11 hospitals that have hosted them since her organization, Bedside Harp, was started in 2002.

In the months since the pandemic began, the harp players have been serenading patients at the entrance to the hospital, as well as holding special therapeutic sessions for the staff outdoors. They hope to resume playing indoors later this spring.

For some patients being greeted at the hospital door by ethereal harp music can be a shocking experience.

Recently, one woman in her mid-70s turned back questioningly to the driver when she stepped out of the van to a medley of familiar tunes like “Beauty and the Beast” and “Over the Rainbow” being played by a harpist, Susan Rosenstein. “That’s her job,” the driver responded, “to put a smile on your face.”

While Ms. Elkan says that it is hard to scientifically assess the impact — “How do you put a number on the value of someone smiling who has not smiled in six months?”— studies suggest that harp therapy helps calm stress and put both patients and hospital staff members at ease.

Ms. Elkan is quick to point out that she is not doing music therapy, whose practitioners need to complete a five-year course of study during which they are trained in psychology and aspects of medicine.

“Music therapists have specific clinical objectives,” she said. “We work intuitively — there’s no goal but to calm, soothe and give people hope.”

“When we come onto a unit, we remind people to exhale,” Ms. Elkan said. “Everyone is kind of holding their breath, especially in the E.R. and the I.C.U. When we come in, we dial down the stress level several decibels.”

Ms. Elkan’s harp can do more than just soothe emotions, says Ted Taylor, who directs pastoral care at the hospital. It can offer spiritual comfort to people who are at a uniquely vulnerable moment in their lives.

“There is something mysterious that we can’t quantify,” Mr. Taylor, a Quaker, said. “I call it soul medicine. Her harp can touch that deep place that connects all of us as human beings.”

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Music, mental health, and immunity

Music is a crucial element of everyday life and plays a central role in all human cultures: it is omnipresent and is listened to and played by persons of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds. But music is not simply entertainment: scientific research has shown that it can influence physiological processes that enhance physical and mental wellbeing. Consequently, it can have critical adaptive functions. Studies on patients diagnosed with mental disorders have shown a visible improvement in their mental health after interventions using music as primary tool. Other studies have demonstrated the benefits of music, including improved heart rate, motor skills, brain stimulation, and immune system enhancement. Mental and physical illnesses can be costly in terms of medications and psychological care, and music can offer a less expansive addition to an individual's treatment regimen. Interventions using music offers music-based activities in both a therapeutic environment (Music therapy) with the support of a trained professional, and non-therapeutic setting, providing an atmosphere that is positive, supportive, and proactive while learning non-invasive techniques to treat symptoms associated with various disorders – and possibly modulate the immune system.

1. Introduction

Music can play a crucial role to support people at all stages of life: from helping new-born babies develop healthy bonds with their parents to offering vital, sensitive, and compassionate palliative care at the end of life. Singing to new-borns, a widespread activity practised worldwide, has been demonstrated to have valuable benefits such as improving mother-infant interaction and reducing infant distress ( Vlismas et al., 2013 ; Mualem and Klein, 2013a ). In the same way, music has been reported as an aid in the reduction of anxiety and agitation in older adults with senile dementia ( Sung et al., 2012 ).

The clinical and evidence-informed use of music interventions to accomplish individualised goals within a therapeutic relationship is defined as Music therapy ( Press Release on Mus, 2014 ). Established as a profession after World War II, Music therapy has become an important part of internationally therapeutic and healthcare settings ( Greenberg and Rentfrow, 2017 ). Even long before that, Pythagoras (c.570 – c.495 BC), the Ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician, prescribed various musical scales and modes to cure an array of physical and psychological conditions ( Greenberg and Rentfrow, 2017 ). Music therapy is part of the Creative Arts Therapies ( Mind [Internet]. [cited 2, 2021 ), in which arts-based activities are used in a therapeutic environment, with the support of a trained professional. Creative Arts Therapies are particularly effective for people who face barriers in expressing themselves with spoken languages, such as individuals with communication deficits or people with mental health difficulties who find it difficult to talk about their experiences and feelings in words. These therapies provide a safe and supportive environment to enable and encourage the patients to express themselves in whatever way possible, encouraging self-expression and development supported by the therapeutic relationship ( Ahessy, 2013 ). Music therapy interventions involve a therapeutic process developed between the patient (or client) and therapist through the use of personally tailored music experiences ( de Witte et al., 2019 ).

This distinguishes Music therapy from other music interventions, offered mainly by medical or healthcare professionals ( de Witte et al., 2019 ; Agres et al., 2021 ). In fact, music can be utilized not only through a setting lead by a professional Music therapist, but also with individuals and groups in a variety of settings. A wide range of musical styles and instruments can be used, including the voice, enabling people to create their unique musical language to explore and connect with the world and express themselves. Bringing out emotions and thoughts through methods of verbal and nonverbal expression and exploration - such as dance and body movement, music, art ( Havsteen-Franklin ), and expressive writing ( Pennebaker and Chung, 2007 ; Rebecchini, 2019 ) - may deactivate the avoidance mechanism and enable the elaboration of emotions and distress. As Juslin and Vastfjall (2008) , and Levitin ( British Association for M, 2021 ) have underlined, music has evolved from emotional communication, and the musical components of speech provide honest communication about emotions. Because musical participation and response do not depend solely on the ability to speak, music is particularly effective for people who have difficulty communicating verbally ( British Association for M, 2021 ). Hence, working with music can be life-changing for people affected by disability, injury, or mental disorders.

The potential of music to affect mood, cognition, and behavior has been demonstrated in several studies. On a negative side, some studies have shown that men who were exposed to music with misogynistic lyrics displayed higher levels of aggressive behavior than did those who were exposed to neutral music, especially when the aggressive behavior was directed at a female target person. Men also recalled more negative attributes of women after exposure to misogynistic music ( Barongan, Hall ). And when the music contained men-hating lyrics, women recalled more negative than positive attributes about men ( Fischer and Greitemeyer, 2006 ). Furthermore, playing loud music incessantly to prisoners has been reported as a form of “music torture” designed to cause extreme discomfort. In fact, it's been a practice against which the legal charity Reprieve set up its “zero-dB” campaign ( zero, 2021 ) the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in December 2008.

There is a vast body of evidence demonstrating that Music therapy is beneficial both physically and mentally. Recently the attention has also focused on whether general music activities, not led by therapists, can enhance the mental health and wellbeing of service users ( de Witte et al., 2019 ; Fancourt et al., 2016 ). Studies on patients diagnosed with mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia have shown a visible improvement in their mental health after general music and Music therapy interventions ( Fancourt et al., 2016 ; McCaffrey et al., 2011 ; Mössler et al., 2011 ; Erkkilä et al., 2011 ). Moreover, studies have demonstrated other benefits of music and Music therapy, including improved heart rate, motor skills, stimulation of the brain ( Bradt et al., 2013 ; Magee et al., 2017 ; Norton et al., 2009 ) and enhancement of the immune system ( Taylor, 1997 ; Fancourt et al., 2014 ; Li et al., 2021 ).

Although music might have initially evolved as a pure art expression with entertainment scopes, it is now clear that music can affect physiological processes, improving physical and mental wellbeing. Consequently, it can have critical adaptive functions.

1.1. The role of music since first interactions

The use of the voice through singing is a unique form of interaction and expression. Singing is closely linked to the first forms of interaction between a mother and her infant. The body of research on parent-infant communication has shown that humans' earliest contact has many musical qualities ( Trevarthen and Malloch, 2000 ; Stern, 2010 ). As Dissanayake suggested ( Dissanayake, 2000 ), a mother's use of rhythmical movement appears to be an essential component for the expression communicated while singing with her infant.

Evidence has underlined that a mother's touch and rhythmical movements, co-created with her infant during musical interactions, are central to the infant's feelings of pleasure ( Longhi, 2008 ) and a healthy mother-infant relationship ( Hatch and Maietta, 1991 ). As a mother emotionally engages with her infant, her sensitivity and affection are communicated through her voice ( Fernald, 1989 , 1992 ; Rock et al., 1999 ), touch and facial expressions ( Papoušek and Papoušek, 1987 ; Stack and Muir, 1992 ), and rhythmical movements ( Hatch and Maietta, 1991 ). This co-created communicative interaction has been demonstrating a ‘communicative musicality’ due to its intrinsic music and dance-like qualities of the regularity of pulse and sensitive exchange of gestural narratives ( Malloch and Trevarthen, 2009 ). The positive emotional arousal and synchronisation between a mother and her child could be the root of a positive mother-infant relationship, thus essential for future child development ( Hodges, 1980 ; Mualem and Klein, 2013b ).

A study conducted by Vlismas et al. (2013) on the effect of music and movement on mother-infant interactions showed that maternal engagement in a music and movement programme resulted in changes to both mothers' and infants' behavior. Specifically, it showed that the effect of the programme increased the mothers' self-reported use of music and enjoyment of interactions with their infants; the mothers' self-reported attachment to their infants; the dyadic reciprocity between mother and infant; and the attentional and affective aspects of mothers' speech.

2. Music, music therapy and mental health

Utilising music as a structured intervention in treating mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression and schizophrenia has been reported as beneficial in relieving symptoms ( Mössler et al., 2011 ; Erkkilä et al., 2011 ), while improving mood and social interactions ( Edwards, 2006 ). Some people with mental disorders may be too disturbed to use verbal language alone efficiently as a therapeutic medium. Thus, the musical interaction might support and provide musical resources and competencies very beneficial for patient's everyday life. Music can have unique motivating, relationship-building, and emotionally expressive qualities ( Solli, 2008 ; Rolvsjord, 2001 ).

Numerous studies have focused on the effect of music interventions on individuals in clinical settings. Many of these studies concluded that music interventions positively impact mood and anxious or depressive symptoms in both children ( Kim and Stegemann, 2016 ; Yinger and Gooding, 2015 ; Kemper and Danhauer, 2005 ) and adults ( Carr et al., 2013 ; van der Wal-Huisman et al., 2018 ). Reviews of the evidence have suggested that Music therapy may improve mental health in children and adolescents and communication in children with autistic spectrum disorder ( Gold et al., 2007 ; Whipple, 2004 ). In the same way, clinical reports and pre-experimental studies have suggested that Music therapy may be an effective intervention for adult patients with mental health problems across the world. A recent review which aimed to identify, summarise, and synthesise different experimental studies addressing the effects of Music therapy alone or Music therapy added to standard care on mental health ( Lee and Thyer, 2013 ) has shown the therapy alone or added to standard care to have significantly better effects than psychotherapy ( Castillo-Pérez et al., 2010 ), verbal relaxation ( Lin et al., 2011 ), standard care ( Erkkilä et al., 2011 ; Lin et al., 2011 ; Yang et al., 2009 ) and no treatment ( Mohammadi et al., 2011 ; Siedliecki and Good, 2006 ).

Mental health diseases such as depression and anxiety can have devastating consequences both for patients and their families. Symptoms can be severe and debilitating, leaving individuals alone and isolated. Relationships among family and friends may suffer, and individuals may not receive the support needed to manage their disease. Music can improve symptoms associated with mental illness, but it can also provide an environment for social interaction. As Choi, Lee, and Lim described ( Choi et al., 2008 ), Music therapy helps the individual to express emotions while producing a state of mental relaxation, and consequently it can be beneficial in decreasing symptoms of depression and anxiety, while enhancing interpersonal relationships.

Other music interventions - not lead by a professional music therapist - such as group drumming have been very effective, leading to the enhancement of psychological states, specifically fewer depressive symptoms and greater social resilience ( Fancourt et al., 2016 ): there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the effects of community group on mental health ( Estevao et al., 2021 ; Clift and Morrison, 2011 ; Coulton et al., 2015 ). For example, a study conducted with mothers suffering from postnatal depression found that mothers with moderate-severe depressive symptoms who participated in 10 weeks of music and singing classes with their babies had a significantly faster improvement in symptoms than mothers who participated in usual care groups ( Fancourt and Perkins, 2018 ).

In the same way, using Music therapy to decrease psychological stress during pregnancy has been reported as an appropriate alternative therapy for pregnant women suffering from mental health problems attempting to avoid the side effects associated with medication. A study conducted in 2007 with the aim of examining the effects of Music therapy on reducing psychological stress during pregnancy reported that listening to music for at least 30 minutes daily substantially reduced psychological stress, anxiety, and depression ( Chang et al., 2008 ). Hence, listening to music daily during pregnancy can generate considerable health benefits.

These experimental results indicate that music promotes psychological health both during pregnancy, and the entire lifetime; it can be easily used in many environments, and it can also be tailored to personal preferences to enhance mental health.

2.1. Music and immune system

The immune system, composed by molecular and cellular components, is a complex system of structures and processes that have evolved to protect us from disease. The function of these components is divided up into nonspecific mechanisms, those which are innate to an organism, and responsive responses, which are adaptive to specific pathogens. The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against infection and includes cells and proteins that are nonspecific to particular antigens. The adaptive immune system provides a secondary, antigen-specific response during which cells with a memory for specific pathogens are created. The adaptive immune system has the capacity to recognize and respond to virtually any protein or carbohydrate imaginable; yet, without the innate immune system to instruct it—in effect, telling it whether, when, how, and where to respond—it is powerless ( Clark and Kupper, 2005 ). As the literature shows, the immune system is strongly associated with mood, psychological condition, and hormonal balance ( Segerstrom and Miller, 2004 ). Thus, as a result of negative mood, psychological stress affects the immune system and may cause dysregulation leads to a change in the humoral and cellular immunity and increases health risks.

Psychological stress can have detrimental effects on both immune system responses, leading to a weakening of defenses against new pathogens and increasing in systemic inflammation ( Chanda and Levitin, 2013a ; Maddock and Pariante, 2001 ). While inflammation is a local, protective response to microbial invasion or injury, it must be fine-tuned and regulated precisely, because deficiencies or excesses of the inflammatory response cause morbidity and shorten lifespan ( Tracey, 2002 ; Bassi et al., 2018 ). Because stress can be a predisposing factor to diseases associated with immunologic responses ( Maddock and Pariante, 2001 ), increased exposure to stressful situations expands the risk of mental and physical disorders ( Hazelgrove et al., 2021 ). Acute stress can affect basal sensitivity, increasing or decreasing pain threshold in acute and chronic pain processes. For the fact that acute and chronic pain are potent stressors, they can alter the body homeostasis: pain can be an activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), the major system responsible for stress responses, which may be hypoactive or hyperactive under chronic or persistent stress conditions ( Timmers et al., 2019 ). In turn, the HPA axis modulation directly affects the release levels of glucocorticoids, ‘hormones of stress’, which induce anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects at pharmacological doses, whereas at physiological levels they play an essential regulatory role in the immune system ( Pariante and Miller, 2001 ). Thus, stress can negatively affect the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and immune systems, which, consequently, may impair recovery, increase the risk for adverse effects, and delay hospital discharge ( Biondi and Zannino, 1997 ).

Although psychological stress cannot be eliminated, there are ways in which the perception of stress and ability to adapt to stressors can be altered: music has been adapted as a form of stress management and studies have confirmed the effect of music on the reduction of stress responses in the cardiovascular and endocrine system ( Taylor, 1997 ; Mojtabavi et al., 2020 ). Specifically, music has been shown to modify heart rate, respiration rate, perspiration, and other autonomic systems ( Blood et al., 1999 ), supporting reports that many people use music to achieve physical and psychological balance. Lifestyle choices that reduce stress are thought to be highly protective against diseases ( Dimsdale, 2008 ), and music may be among these ( Dileo et al., 2007 ; Nilsson, 2008 ).

The human's biological stress response is highly adaptive in the short term: it is an elegant choreography ( Chanda and Levitin, 2013b ) of neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic, and immune system activity that involves multiple feedback loops at the level of the central and peripheral nervous systems ( Landgraf and Neumann, 2004 ). Together these systems trigger short term adaptive behaviours, including arousal, vigilance, focused attention, and temporarily inhibit functions that are nonessential during a crisis, such as eating, digestion, growth, and sex drive. At the same time, cardiovascular changes such as elevated heart rate and rapid breathing are helpful to increase oxygenation and glucose supply to the brain and skeletal muscles.

However, as already mentioned, the prolonged activation of these systems has devastating consequences for health. Continuous and elevated circulating levels of glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol) act as neurotoxins, weakening the ability of neurons and other cells to resist injury and making them more vulnerable to the effects of toxins and the normal attrition process ( Landgraf and Neumann, 2004 ). Furthermore, although glucocorticoids act as an immunosuppressant under acute stress conditions, they may promote a state of chronic low-grade inflammation in the long term ( Gouin et al., 2008 ). These neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects of chronic stress have been linked to a host of adverse health outcomes such as susceptibility to infectious diseases, anxiety and depression ( Pitharouli et al., 2021 ), and cardiovascular diseases ( Chrousos, 2009 ; Lupien et al., 2009 ).

As many studies have demonstrated, neuroinflammation is the cause of several mental diseases such as depression and anxiety ( Zheng et al., 2021 ; Troubat et al., 2021 ). Hence, attention has increasingly focused on the effect of music as a possible anti-inflammatory mechanism in these central inflammatory conditions. A recent work conducted by Dasy Fancourt (2014) - the first systematic review that aimed to assess published studies dealing with psychoneuroimmunological effects of music - showed that music can have effects on various neurotransmitters, cytokines, and hormones ( Fancourt et al., 2014 ). Specifically, fifty-six of the sixty-three studies included in the author's systematic review linked psychoneuroimmunological effects of music to the stress response.

Salivary Immunoglobulin A (s-IgA), a first-line in the defence against bacterial and viral infections ( Woof and Kerr, 2006 ) and a reliable marker of the functional status of the entire mucosal immune system ( Hucklebridge et al., 2000 ), has been revealed to be particularly responsive to music, increasing following exposure to a range of styles of music including both relaxing and stimulating music, as well as for both active involvements and simply listening to recorded music ( Fancourt et al., 2014 ). Strong patterns have also been noticed concerning cortisol, which repeatedly decreased in response to relaxing recorded music ( Fancourt et al., 2014 ). There also appeared to be patterns in the response of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which have been shown to decrease in response to relaxing recorded music ( Leardi et al., 2007 ).

Another study conducted to determine if (i) musical activity could produce a significant change in the immune system measured by s-IgA, and if (ii) active participation in musical activity had a different effect on the immune system than passive participation showed that S-IgA levels of the active group (playing music and singing) had more significant increase than those of the passive group (listening only) ( Kuhn, 2002 ). This result suggested that active participation in musical activity produces a more significant effect on the immune system than passive participation.

Overall, changes have been observed across various immune response biomarkers, including leukocytes, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and hormones and neurotransmitters associated with immune response ( Fancourt et al., 2014 ). Music has begun to be taken seriously in healthcare settings as research findings have started to link the beneficial effects of music on stress to a broader impact on health ( Haake, 2011 ). If music can mediate anti-inflammatory effects, evidenced by decreased levels of inflammatory biomarkers (see Table 1 ), there may be biological plausibility for its use in the care of ill patients. The results of these studies provide further confirmation that the immune system can be enhanced by music and, as Daisy Fancourt has underlined, the trend towards positive findings of the effect of music on psychoneuroimmunological response strongly supports further investigation in this field ( Fancourt et al., 2014 ).

Table 1

Markers of inflammation and immune response influenced by music .

2.1.1. Other biological effects

In the last decade, there has been growing interest in music's chemical and biological effects ( Table 1 ) ( Khan et al., 2018 ). Some studies have focused on whether music can affect the same neurochemical reward systems as other reinforcing stimuli. Does music have the earmarks of a rewarding stimulus, including the ability to motivate an individual to learn and engage in goal-directed behavior to obtain a pleasurable feeling ( Chanda and Levitin, 2013b )? As Salimpoor et al. have underlined ( Salimpoor et al., 2015 ), dopamine activity can explain why an individual would be motivated to keep listening to a piece of music, or to seek out that music in the future. However, it cannot alone explain the experience of pleasure when listening to music. Berridge and colleagues described ‘hedonic hotspots’ in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral pallidum that are explicitly linked to the display of pleasure and are triggered by opioid signalling ( Berridge and Kringelbach, 2013 ). Thus, there are crucial interactions between the dopamine and opioid systems. A rapid increase in dopamine release in humans induces euphoria, with the level of euphoria correlating with the level of ventral striatal dopamine release, which also leads to robust increases of endorphin release in the NAc ( Drevets et al., 2001 ). On the other hand, opioid antagonists block the subjective ‘high’ caused by strong dopamine release ( Jayaram-Lindström et al., 2004 ). Consequently, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that a strong induction of dopamine release caused by music can trigger opioid stimulation of so-called hedonic hotspots. In the other direction, the opioid system robustly modulates dopamine release in to the NAc ( Hjelmstad et al., 2013 ). This likely provides a mechanism through which music that is experienced as pleasing can enhance dopamine-mediated positive prediction error signaling and reinforcement learning. Thus, the association of dopamine release and NAc activation during peak musical pleasure may be a direct manifestation of this opioid–dopamine interaction ( Salimpoor et al., 2015 ).

There is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating the functional activation ( Blood and Zatorre, 2001 ; Brown et al., 2004 ; Jeffries et al., 2003 ; Koelsch et al., 2006 ), network connectivity ( Menon and Levitin, 2005 ), and central dopamine release ( Salimpoor et al., 2011 ) during the perception of pleasurable music. A review conducted by Chanda and Levitin (2013b) showed that studies that used positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during experienced musical pleasure ( Blood and Zatorre, 2001 ; Brown et al., 2004 ; Jeffries et al., 2003 ) suggested that music reward involve the activation of the NAc, as well as opioid-rich midbrain nuclei known to regulate morphine analgesia and descending inhibition of pain ( Jeffries et al., 2003 ). NAc activation was also reported during listening to unfamiliar pleasant music compared to rest ( Brown et al., 2004 ) and during singing compared to speech ( Jeffries et al., 2003 ). On the other hand, listening to techno-music induced changes in neurotransmitters, peptides and hormonal reactions, related to mental state and emotional involvement: techno music increased plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and norepinephrine levels ( Gerra et al., 1998 ). The neuroendocrine pattern induced by this fast music (techno music) turned out to be similar to the biological reaction to psychological stress ( Henry, 1992 ).

Other studies that used higher resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of music pleasure ( Koelsch et al., 2006 ; Menon and Levitin, 2005 ; Salimpoor et al., 2011 ; Janata, 2009 ) showed that musical reward is dependent on dopaminergic neurotransmission within a similar neural network as other reinforcing stimuli: pleasant (consonant – positive emotional valence) and unpleasant (dissonant – negative emotional valence) music were contrasted, and the results confirmed activation of the ventral striatum and Rolandi operculum during pleasurable music listening, while strong deactivations were observed in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the temporal poles in response to pleasant music ( Koelsch et al., 2006 ). Activation of the anterior superior insula in response to pleasant music has also been observed: a significant finding because of the insula's connectivity to the NAc and its role in the activation of the emotional circuitry and reward system ( Pavuluri et al., 2017 ) which, in turn, increases the innate and adaptive immune system ( Ben-Shaanan et al., 2016 ). All these structures have previously been implicated in the emotional processing of stimuli with (negative) emotional valence ( Heinzel et al., 2005 ; Siegle et al., 2002 ). The results of the studies mentioned above indicate that these structures respond to auditory information with emotional valence, and that listening to music has the capacity to up-as well as down-regulate neuronal activity in these structures.

3. Conclusion and limitations

The increasing evidence of the benefits of music activities and Music therapy provided by the literature is a driving force for developing music-based therapies services in the health care sector. By promoting physical and psychological health, music can be an effective treatment option suitable for every environment and people of every age, race, and ethnic background.

Since music is a complex topic, there are some aspects that this mini review has not fully addressed, such as the role of the autonomic nervous system involved in musical activities; the involvement of music as a possible component of an “enriched environment” ( Kempermann, 2019 ); and, finally, the beneficial effects of rhythmical movements and physical musical activities, and their contribution to the preference for treatment options.

Figure 1. Lavinia Rebecchini is an Italian psychologist currently doing a Ph.D at the Department of Psychological Medicine at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London. She graduated from Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan and, after completing her Master of Science in Developmental Psychology with full marks, she decided to move to London to broaden her horizons. She started as an intern at the Perinatal Psychiatry section of the Stress, Psychiatry, and Immunology Laboratory (SPI Lab) at the IoPPN and, after being hired as a Research Assistant, she then decided to further cultivate her strong interest in the perinatal mental health field with a PhD. She has always been interested in perinatal psychiatry and the relationship between mothers and their children. Her Ph.D at the SPI Lab is concentrating on mother-infant interaction with mothers suffering from perinatal depression. With her Ph.D project, she focuses on which implications perinatal depression may carry for the developing mother-infant relationship. She looks at whether an intervention of music and singing sessions can help mothers develop compensatory skills to interact with their children appropriately so to better respond to their infants' needs. In addition to her academic experiences, during her free time, she has always volunteered to help children and families in need. She is determined and enthusiastic, and her eight years' experience in alpine skiing competitions has allowed her to build strong determination in achieving her goals.

Declaration of competing interest

The author Lavinia Rebecchini declares that there are no conflicts of interest.


Dr Rebecchini is supported by a kind gift from Michael Samuel through King's College London & King's Health Partners, by the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, and by the Wellcome Trust SHAPER programme (Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme to scale up arts intervention; award reference 219425/Z/19/Z).

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Dr. Lavinia Rebecchini.

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Informative Essay On Music Therapy

What is music? Music is a composition, from the vantage point of a musician is the amalgamation, or combination of tone, rhythm, harmony, and melody are all combined to make one uniform sound and also to convey a message to the intended audience along with many other beneficial things such as alleviating stress. What is music therapy? According to an article titled Music Therapy, from World of Health, “music therapy is the use of music, along with other therapies, by a trained and credentialed professional in order to achieve therapeutic goals for a patient. Therapeutic uses and benefits came about in the United States are dated as far back as the eighteenth century. Music has greatly evolved from the 1930s to the current year of 2016. Back in the 30s the music had a different feel and provided listeners with a different atmosphere than the music that is present now. Brave New World, a novel by Aldous Huxley, originally published in 1932 shows how music therapy connects to the present and how it is more likely to be in the near future.

Music therapy has references that dated as far back as the late 1790s in a periodical titled Columbian Magazine. This form of therapy became popular in the 20th century after WWII as well as WWII. Therapists would assist the veterans when they returned home from battle. “The more formal approach to music therapy began during WWII when the Veterans Administration hospitals began using music to help treat soldiers suffering from shell shock (Courbat). ” Due to this the VA (Veteran Administration) was formed.

The mission of the VA simplified is to care for those who fought the many fights as well as taking care of the family members of a veteran. From an article titled “Music Therapy” music therapy research is described in this fashion : “Research supports the effectiveness of music therapy in improving communication, facilitating movement along with overall physical rehabilitation, providing emotional support for clients and their families, motivating people to cope with treatment, and providing an outlet for the expression of feelings. There are many benefits that come along with music therapy. In an article titled “Music Therapy Benefits” by Cindi Courbat, a music therapist named Petra Flick-Trevino describes how “music has many benefits, both mental and physical,” and that whenever she plays her harp “patients listen intently and allow the sound of each note to resonate with them. ” Music is an effective tool in alleviating the healing process.

Unfortunately, there are many individuals who have certain diseases that limit accessibility and ability to do everyday things on their own without any assistance. This form of therapy is said to help “lower depression symptoms and improves breathing better than traditional treatment alone does for patients with chronic breathing conditions (Robeznieks). ” Aldous Huxley makes a connection to music along with the presence of hypnosis. In Brave New World a there is an affiliation with music.

Lenina and Henry were heading to the Westminster Abbey Cabaret, which was across the street from Henry’s 40 story apartment complex because there was a group that was going to be performing called “Calvin Stopes and the Sixteen Sexophonists”. The lettering of this in the book is described as “the electric skysigns effectively shut off the outer darkness (75). ” While Lenina and Henry were at the cabaret they danced to the music of Calvin Stopes and the Sixteen Sexophonists, which was described as synthetic.

From the vantage point of a musician, a synthetic chord is one that is not able to be analyzed in the fashion that traditional harmonic structures. A synthetic chord can also be called a triad, a chord which contains the root (the main note of the chord), the third, and the fifth. For example to make a C chord the following notes are needed: C, E, and G. These three notes are played simultaneously to produce a singular sound containing those pitches. There are many forms of triads, which are major, minor, diminished, and augmented.

The explanation of these are very hard to put into simple terms and go into much depth. Aldous Huxley’s depiction of music therapy is different than what most people expected it to be. Most people look to music therapy as a source to alleviate stress and to get the mind to think about music instead of focusing on something like a disease. Music is something that is meant to soothe the mind. The therapeutic benefits of music greatly affect the mind in a positive manner.

The definition of music varies among people, but Sharon Shear, a music therapist defines this as “a universal relaxant (Courbat). ” Music therapy is something that is accessible to everybody, and it is not limited to those who have mental or physical ailments. The main objective of this form of therapy is used to soothe and relax the mind and body. When an individual listens to or hears music it triggers a part of the brain called the auditory cortex, which is affiliated with hearing; therefore, the main function of this piece of the brain is to process the sounds that the individual hears.

The use of tone, rhythm, melody, and harmony to convey a message to the intended audience along with many other beneficial things such as alleviating stress. What is music therapy? According to an article titled Music Therapy, from World of Health, “music therapy is the use of music, along with other therapies, by a trained and credentialed professional in order to achieve therapeutic goals for a patient. ” Therapeutic uses and benefits came about in the United States are dated as far back as the eighteenth century.

Music has greatly evolved from the 1930s to the current year of 2016. Back in the 30s the music had a different feel and provided listeners with a different atmosphere than the music that is present now. Brave New World, a novel by Aldous Huxley, originally published in 1932 shows how music therapy connects to the present and how it is more likely to be in the near future. In order to become a music therapist there are multiple compulsory, or mandatory prerequisites that are to be accomplished in order to be considered or classified as a music therapist.

One of the main requirements is to have a bachelor’s degree in music therapy from one of approximately 70 AMTA (American Music Therapy Associations) accepted college programs. Another prerequisite for this position is to put in clinical training for 1200 hours along with a supervised internship. After the requirements are met the individual(s) can be titles as Music Therapists. Working with patients can either be nearly flawless or very difficult, which will depend on the patient’s intensity (of anxiety, anger, etc,) will determine how treatment will most likely turn out to be.

According to an article titled “Music Therapy”, there is a four step procedure that music therapists perform when they are making preparations for incoming clients. First, the therapist is to figure out the problem of the client. Next, multiple activities affiliated with music are chosen to help achieve the intended goal. These activities must be compliant with the patient’s physical and mental capabilities. The last thing that is done is the physical treatment. Research is a key component when one decides to specialize in the area of music therapy.

From an article titled “Music Therapy” the research that is performed under this field is described in the following fashion : “Research supports the effectiveness of music therapy in improving communication, facilitating movement along with overall physical rehabilitation, providing emotional support for clients and their families, motivating people to cope with treatment, and providing an outlet for the expression of feelings. ” The preceding statement describes a few of the benefits that come along with music therapy.

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informative essay on music therapy

80 Music Therapy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best music therapy topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 good research topics about music therapy, 🔍 interesting topics to write about music therapy, ❓ music therapy research questions.

  • Music Therapy as a Social Work Intervention One of such interventions is music therapy which is aimed at helping people in a sensitive way accurately adjusting the possibilities this therapy may offer to the requirements of a particular client of a group […]
  • Music Therapy for Schizophrenic Patients’ Quality of Life Consequently, the purpose of the project will be to review the existing literature and prepare a document with recommendations regarding MT in the discussed population, including psychiatric nurses’ acceptable role in delivering such interventions.
  • Art and Music Therapy Coverage by Health Insurance However, I do believe that creative sessions should be available for all patients, and I am going to prove to you that music and art are highly beneficial for human health.
  • Music Therapy in Healthcare Therefore, the article suggests that music can be used for relaxation, as well as managing the health issues that may arise due to the lack of relaxation.
  • Music Therapy for Children With Learning Disabilities This review includes the evidence supporting music therapy as an effective strategy for promoting auditory, communication, and socio-emotional progression in children with ASD.
  • Music Therapy as a Related Service for Students With Disabilities From a neuroscientific perspective, how would music intervention improve classroom behaviors and academic outcomes of students with ADHD as a way to inform policy-makers of the importance of music therapy as a related service?
  • Substance Use Disorder: Possibility of Using Music Therapy In their study, Bourdaghs and Silverman address the possibility of using music therapy as the tool for promoting the socialization of people with a substance use disorder.
  • Music Therapy: The Impact on Older Adults There is therefore the need to focus more energy to aid more understating on the role of music therapy on older residents.”The recent qualitative review of literature in the area of music and music therapy […]
  • Music Therapy: Alternative to Traditional Pain Medicine The sources underline that therapists should pay attention to the subjects of music and their impact on the health of clients.
  • The Role of Music Therapy as Alternative Treatment Music therapy is the use of music interventions to achieve individualized goals of healing the body, mind, and spirit. Thereafter, several developments occurred in the field of music therapy, and the ringleaders founded the American […]
  • Music Therapy Effectiveness In addition to this, research has shown that stroke patients become more involved in therapy sessions once music is incorporated in the treatment program; this is the motivational aspect of music.
  • Sound as an Element of Music Therapy This is one of the reasons why in the Abrams study the participants explained that they preferred the sound of rain, ocean waves and the soft strumming of a guitar as compared to the work […]
  • Music Therapy Throughout the Soloist Globally, classical music in its sense has always been known to adjoin the listener to some transcendent understanding of the world order, the feeling of integrity with the Universe and enormous delight rising up from […]
  • Music Therapy: Where Words Cease In spite of the fact that, as a rule, one indulges into art to find the shelter from the reality, the author of the book called The Soloist explores quite a different issue of the […]
  • Active Music Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease
  • Effectiveness of Music Therapy for Survivors of Abuse
  • Music Therapy Effectiveness of Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • The Link Between Ancestral Hormones and Music Therapy
  • Analysis of the Effectiveness of Art and Music Therapy
  • Music Therapy Usefulness for Cancer Patients
  • Music Therapy Impact on Students With Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
  • How Music Therapy Can Be Used to Reduce Pre-Operative Anxiety
  • Healing Chronic Pain With Music Therapy
  • Music Therapy Effect on the Wellness and Mood of Adolescents
  • Comparing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Music Therapy
  • Constructing Optimal Experience for the Hospitalized Newborn Through Neuro-Based Music Therapy
  • Music Therapy: Considerations for the Clinical Environment
  • “Dementia and the Power of Music Therapy” by Steve Matthews Analysis
  • Music Therapy for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Discussing Music Therapy Reducing Stress Health and Social Care
  • Does Music Therapy Help Children With Special Needs?
  • Music Therapy for Delinquency Involved Juveniles Through Tripartite Collaboration
  • Heidelberg Neuro-Music Therapy Enhances Task-Negative Activity in Tinnitus Patients
  • Music Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • How Does Music Therapy Promote Positive Mental Health?
  • Music Therapy and Its Positive Effects on the Brain
  • The Relationships Between Learning and Music Therapy
  • Music Therapy for Sexually Abused Children
  • Managing Sickle Cell Pain With Music Therapy
  • Music Therapy: How Does Music Impact Our Emotions
  • Dealing With Depression With the Help of Music Therapy
  • Effectiveness of Music Therapy and Drug Therapy for Children With Autism
  • Music Therapy and Its Effect on the Levels of Anxiety
  • The Link Between Music Therapy and Personality Theory Psychology
  • How Music Therapy Improves Depression Among Older Adults
  • Music Therapy: The Best Way to Help Children With Mental Illness
  • Interventions of Music Therapy for Stress Reduction
  • The Real Science Behind the Theory of Music Therapy
  • Music Therapy Should Not Be Considered a Therapy
  • Neurologic Music Therapy Training for Mobility and Stability Rehabilitation
  • Nursing Theory for Music Therapy Quality Improvement Program
  • The Help of Music Therapy in Pain Management
  • Relationship Between Hypertension and Music Therapy
  • Yoga and Music Therapy as Effective Methods of Stress Management
  • What Is Music Therapy Used For?
  • What Are Some Examples of Music Therapy?
  • What Kind of Music Is Used in Music Therapy?
  • What Are the Side Effects of Music Therapy?
  • What Mental Illnesses Does Music Therapy Help?
  • Can Music Therapy Help With Anxiety?
  • What Type of Music Therapy Helps Depression?
  • Does Music Therapy Actually Work?
  • Do Psychiatrists Use Music Therapy?
  • Do Doctors Recommend Music Therapy?
  • How Long Does Music Therapy Last?
  • Why Is Music Therapy Not Used?
  • What Is a Typical Music Therapy Session Like?
  • What Are the Two Main Benefits of Music Therapy?
  • How Can Music Therapy Be Done at Home?
  • What Does Music Therapy Do to the Brain?
  • Is Music Therapy Good for Stress?
  • Can Music Therapy Help With Trauma?
  • What Ages Benefit From Music Therapy?
  • What Is the First Step of Music Therapy?
  • Does Music Therapy Include Talking?
  • What Instruments Are Used for Music Therapy?
  • What Is the Difference Between Sound Therapy and Music Therapy?
  • Can You Do Music Therapy Without a Degree?
  • Why Is Music Therapy Better Than Medicine?
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The Role of Art and Music Therapies in Mental Health and Beyond

musical notes and earphones

Prescribing art therapy , yoga, and music lessons is truly a breakthrough for mental health treatment . I want to be completely clear here, this is a breakthrough, but not a breakthrough therapy per se. It is a huge step forward, on the level of readjusting our mental health system, it is really a systems course correction at the root of it. Art therapy, music, etc., all are tested modalities for improving mental health conditions; almost all of them. For chronic, highly disordered and severely dysfunctional patients, this is not a miracle cure. These are, at best, supplementary, tandem, and co-functioning treatment methods to mitigate the severity and intensity of symptoms.

I am not knocking or trying to minimise the importance of this breakthrough. These are not only important modalities in and of themselves, but also support the creativity , independence, and freedom of patients to not only choose their own method of care but also nourish their capacity to carry on treatment more autonomously without being under direct supervision . 

Even more importantly, the system is broken, in total if not complete disarray, and needs to be revised urgently if we are to advance treatment at the speed it requires to meet the mental health crisis where it’s at. These new prescribed modalities will not only serve to add ‘person-centredness’ to the paradigm but also new flexibility within the limits of the system.

Even highly disordered patients are extremely creative during their darkest hour. Art therapy, music, and all of these modalities which draw upon creativity and promote purposeful free-flowing ideas are as self-soothing as they are productive in reducing the negative impact of active symptoms.

I can tell you that I have benefited from a music or art group on an inpatient unit in the hospital many times. Some of my fondest memories from experiencing first-episode psychosis in the hospital were singing and dancing to Stevie Nicks , at my request, when I could barely speak from word salad symptoms and was just a few moments away from being transferred to a higher level of inpatient care for unresolved psychosis. But I danced and laughed like the floor was on fire.

Art, music, yoga, all of these modalities are terribly inaccessible to most patients living off state benefits, who are consigned to a life shut-in and isolated in their homes. Aside from ‘getting out more’, these patients simply don’t have the resources to pay for and maintain a connection to art therapists and other more non-traditional treatment in the community. Unless you are connected to a special service or have the best insurance, these modalities simply aren’t an option for most service users and people with a severe mental health condition.

I truly applaud this shift in the systems paradigm that for so long was all about medication and traditional psychotherapy. We really need more of this in countries supposedly promoting better mental health treatment.

I also want to suggest that therapists who practice traditional talk therapy , straight CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) can continue to add new self-soothing and proven techniques to their toolkit. I am always encouraging my student therapists to do artwork, let their children dance in therapy. Yes, you read this right, just dance, when the time is right and fits the course of treatment.

We need to get out of this traditional black and white thinking of what therapy is and is not . Therapy is what people need in the moment, to feel and behave in a manner that better suits their goals, chosen lifestyle, and needs. So with this said, why not let a child who is struggling to adjust to a new foster parent, dance in session when he can’t play at home. Sure, not for every session and for the duration of every patient contact, but sometimes, when it will benefit the patient, you just have to do it. 

Yes, this is truly a breakthrough in thinking among us practitioners and the higher-ups in our discipline who say what’s what in mental health treatment. It signals that we need to be dynamic, and shift our thinking as practitioners, peers, and anyone charged with providing therapeutic intervention . It is high time we see more of it, from government-sponsored care and any system which is charged with the care of people with a psychiatric disability, or who needs therapeutic intervention to find relief from whatever problem in their life is causing them distress.

Max E. Guttman, LCSW  is a psychotherapist and owner of Recovery Now, a mental health private practice in New York City.


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Breast cancer and side effect management through art and music therapy

Art and Music Therapy – how they can help you reduce stress and provide emotional support

When people think of therapy the most common therapy session that comes to mind probably includes a person sitting across from or lying down beside a therapist and talking about their feelings. But what if you can never quite find the right words to say to express yourself or talking through what you are feeling doesn’t seem to be helping? The truth is therapy comes in all shapes and sizes. People are looking for and creating new ways to help cope with the stresses in their lives.

For breast cancer, more and more people are finding that art and music can be healing and effective ways to cope with their diagnosis and reduce the stress that comes with it. 

What is art therapy and how do I do it?

Art therapy can be an effective way to treat anxiety, depression and fatigue, three common side effects of breast cancer treatment. It can allow you to express your feelings without having to talk it out with a stranger. It can also be a much more affordable form of therapy if you lack private insurance coverage for traditional therapy.

Therapy can be expressed through different types of art. You can choose to draw, paint, or work with clay – whatever medium feels most comfortable and natural for you. People may find that working with their hands is more relaxing and because you are not obligated to explain yourself, it can build self-esteem and self-exploration. The best thing is, you don’t need consider yourself a creative or artistic person to benefit from art therapy!

To learn more about art therapy and to find a therapist in your community, visit the Canadian Art Therapy Association .

What about music therapy?

Similar to art therapy, music therapy offers an alternative way to connect with your emotions and help improve your quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis. It has also been known to help manage pain symptoms.

Also, like art therapy, you don’t need to have any skills playing instruments or creating music. Music therapy can take on many different forms including listening to music, playing music, songwriting, or singing. Music therapy can be done in a group or private setting.

To learn more about the benefits of music therapy and to find a therapist near you visit the Canadian Association of Music Therapists .

It’s important to remember that you do not have to have any artistic or musical skills to benefit from these forms of therapy. Simply the act of participating and allowing yourself to express your inner thoughts in an alternative way can benefit you more than you know.

Photo by  Debby Hudson  on  Unsplash

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    Music Therapy There is a clinical and evidence-based use of music therapy offering a low-risk, inexpensive, non-pharmacological addition to standard care in pain management. Music therapy assists the patient in helping regain self-control and to become actively involved in the management of pain (Gutgsell et al, 2013).

  13. Informative Essay On Music Therapy

    Decent Essays. 153 Words. 1 Page. Open Document. In many cases it is clear that music therapy has the ability to supersede prescription drugs. These cases include: children, the elderly, those who are antidepressant-resistant, those who do not have sever depressive disorder, and those who are not fond of medication and want to try something ...

  14. Informative Speech On Music Therapy

    Music therapy can be a big part of a drug addiction recovery. According to Your First Step, "Music therapy itself is not enough to help individuals recover from substance abuse on its own but it can be a useful supplement to other types of addiction treatment.". Although it is not 'enough' for recovering addicts, I believe that one day ...

  15. Informative Essay: Music Therapy

    Informative Essay: Music Therapy. There are 7.125 billion people on the face of this beautiful Earth. Not everyone is the happiest with what is going on in their life. They may be having family problems, financial problems, or one of their loved ones has passed, but everyone has that one thing they can resort to for help with their emotions.

  16. 80 Music Therapy Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    Music Therapy as Experiential Activity. For this reason, a technique was applied to the 10-year-old child with developmental delays to transform the lyrics of the favorite sad melody into a more positively inspiring and uplifting one. We will write. a custom essay specifically for you by our professional experts.

  17. The Role of Art and Music Therapies in Mental Health and Beyond

    1.1K Reading Time: 3 minutes. Prescribing art therapy, yoga, and music lessons is truly a breakthrough for mental health treatment.I want to be completely clear here, this is a breakthrough, but not a breakthrough therapy per se. It is a huge step forward, on the level of readjusting our mental health system, it is really a systems course correction at the root of it.

  18. Music Therapy Essay

    Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program (Gram, 2005). Music therapy can reach out to anyone, age. 2135 Words. 9 Pages. Decent Essays.

  19. Informative Essay On Music Therapy

    Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals. (2016, 1998) Many people use music therapy in their homes or surroundings without even knowing, eg. playing upbeat music in the morning…. 415 Words.

  20. Music Informative Speech Essay

    Informative Speech Outline On Music Therapy 626 Words | 3 Pages. Audience analysis: Some of you or your friends might use music therapy to cope with stress or diseases, or as an alternative treatment in order to overcome sickness or negative emotions. Therefore, I feel that this information might be relevant and valuable to you.

  21. Art and Music Therapy

    Music therapy can take on many different forms including listening to music, playing music, songwriting, or singing. Music therapy can be done in a group or private setting. To learn more about the benefits of music therapy and to find a therapist near you visit the Canadian Association of Music Therapists.