Karnataka Culture - All About Tradition, Dress and Festivals of Karnataka

Art and culture of karnataka.

Mysore Painting in Karnataka Art and Culture

Earlier, painting involved not only the act itself but the entire process, from making one's colours to watching as they come to life. Paper, wood, cloth, etc. were some of the materials artists used as a base for their paintings. Brushes weren't made from synthetic materials but were made from the original hair of animals like camels, goat, and squirrel. The Mysuru style of paintings usually are representations of legends, mythical scenes, and the royal family. This style of painting from Karnataka is known for its simplicity and intricate detailing across the country. The artists used a particular gesso paste, consisting of zinc oxide and gum, which formed a protective layer on the painting, which has kept them undamaged even after 150 years. Karnataka is home to 50 different tribes, each having their traditions and customs. Tribal art is another indigenous art form. Hase Chitra mud painting is an art form emerging from the Shimoga and Karwar  districts and is currently being revived. 

Heritage of Karnataka

karnataka culture, culture of karnataka

Languages of Karnataka

The diversity of Karnataka isn't just in its art and history but also in religious and linguistic ethnicity. Combined with their long histories, the cultural heritage of the state lies in its language. The Kannadigas envelope most of the state that comprises 30 districts, while Karnataka is also home to Kodavas, Tuluvas, and Konkanis.  Kannada Kannada is spoken as a native language by about 74% of the people of Karnataka. Kannadigas are the native speakers of Karnataka who form a dominant ethnic group. Being the administrative language of Karnataka, Kannada is considered as a classical language by the recommendations of linguistics experts and the government of India.  Tulu The native speakers of Tulu called Tuluvas also form a dominant ethnic community of Karnataka. Tuluvas cover most of Dakshina Karnataka, Udupi, Kasargod of Kerala which is often termed as Tulu Nadu. The Tuluvas form 2.38% of the total population of Karnataka.  Konkani The people who speak Konkani language are widely spread across Uttara Karnataka, Dakshina Karnataka and Udupi. In the region of Karwar taluk, Konkani speaker covers up to 78% of the population where a significant number of people are settled in Sirsi and Belgaum. According to the census of 1991, Konkani speakers are 1.78% of the population of Karnataka.  Kodava  Kodava language is probably one of the unheard languages of Karnataka with just 0.25% of native speakers. The Kodava people are settled in the Kodagu district of Karnataka. Apart from Kodavas, according to the Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy, there are 18 other ethnic groups who speak Kodava which includes Iri, Heggade, Banna, Koyava, Kembatti, Kudiya and Meda.  Urdu The second-largest ethnic group with 9.72% of the total population with a majority of speakers from the Muslim community. Although the Urdu speakers are unevenly distributed in Karnataka, about 43.5 % are bilingual who prefer speaking Kannada rather than Urdu.  Beary or Byari Beary or Byari is spoken by the Muslim communities of Dakshina Kannada and Udipi districts. This language has influences of Malayalam, Arabic and Kannada. 

Music of Karnataka 

The only state that flourishes with both Hindusthani music from North and Carnatic music from the south is Karnataka.  Hindusthani The Hindustani musicians of Karnataka have won several awards like the Kalidas Sanman, Padma Vibhusan and Padma Bhusan. Hence, Karnataka has achieved a prominent place in Hindusthani Music. Basavaraj Rajguru, Puttaraj Gawai, Sawai Gandharva are some famous performers to name a few.  Carnatic  Purandara Dasa is one of the prominent composers in Karnataka who composed close to 75,000- 745,000 songs in Kannada and Sanskrit. Owing to his contribution, he is considered as the Father of Carnatic Music. He became a source of inspiration to composers like Tyagaraja. Purandaradasa later laid down a framework to impart the knowledge of Carnatic music.

Dances in Karnataka Culture

karnataka culture, culture of karnataka

Festivals of Karnataka

karnataka culture, culture of karnataka

Wedding Customs in Karnataka

Wedding Customs in Karnataka

Dressing Culture of Karnataka

karnataka culture, karnataka culture dress

Food Culture of Karnataka

karnataka culture, culture of karnataka

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Karnataka – Culture and Tradition

Karnataka – Culture and Tradition

Karnataka is a southwestern state of India. It is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the West, Goa in Northwest, Maharashtra to the north and Telangana to the Northeast. Andra Pradesh to the East, Tamil Nadu to the Southeast and Kerala to the South.

It was originally known as the state of Mysore but was renamed in 1973 as Karnataka.  Bangalore or Bengaluru is the capital and a big IT hub or silicon valley of India. It is the 4th largest technology cluster in the world and ranks 1st Digital city in the world. The state is also called the knowledge, research and innovation hub of Asia.

Know more about capital city Bangalore

Karnataka is known for its tradition and scenic beauty with places like Mysore, Hampi, and Pattadakallu to see. When we talk of tourism in South India, Karnataka is often overlooked in favor of the beaches of Goa, Temples in Tamil Naidu and backwaters of Kerala. But Karnataka is a beautiful land blessed with timeless monuments, world heritage sites, luscious green forest, marvelous wildlife, romantic hill stations, stunning beaches, and vibrant cultures.

Ash mounds

Karnataka history can be traced back to the Pre-historic period. Karnataka is said to be one of the four Dravidian states associated with Indus-Valley civilization. Aryans from central Asia invaded the Dravidic city-state and civilized and colonized it.


Archaeologists have discovered artifacts dating back to 5000 B.C.E. It has many sites of Pre-historic period and most of them are found scattered on the river valleys of Krishna, Bhima, Malaprabha, Ghataprabha, Cauvery, Hemavathi, Shimsha, Tungabhadra, Manjra, Pennar, Netravati, etc and their tributaries.

Pre-historic studies in India started with the discovery of ash mounds at Kupgal and Kudatini in 1836 by a British Officer in the Bellary region, which then formed part of Madras presidency. Subsequent discoveries have revealed the existence of a stone-age man with innumerable Pre-historic sites in Karnataka.

The Pre-historic culture of Karnataka viz. the hand-ax culture, compares favorably with the one that existed in Africa and is quite distinct from the Pre-historic culture of North India.

The ragi grain is found commonly in pre-historic sites of Africa and Karnataka. The early inhabitants of Karnataka knew the use of iron weapons dating back to circa 1500 B.C. has been found.

Before joining the Emperor Ashoka’s Mauryan Empire in the third century B.C.E., much of Karnataka was part of the Nanda Empire.

The Satavahana Dynasty ruled the area for four centuries. After the fall of Satavahana, Western Ganga Empire emerged and established their independent political identity.

They were the first empire to use the Kannada language in government management. After these empires, the imperial Kannada empire such as Badami Chalukyas, Rashtrakuta Dynasty and Western Chalukya Empire ruled over the vast part of Deccan and made Karnataka their capital.

Western Chalukya preserved the unique art and architecture and Kannada literature, which began to be known as Hoysala Arts in the 12th century.

Most of the present southern Karnataka was occupied by the Chola Empire in the 11th century. Prior to the arrival of the Hoysala Empire in the 12th Century. Chola and Hoysala were fighting to occupy the area among themselves.

After the first millennium, Hoysala got strength in the field. At this time the literature was flourishing, which led to the emergence of special Kannada literature and statues and temples were built.

With the expansion of the Hoysala Empire, some part of the present Andra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu was also included. In the early 14th century, the Vijayanagara Empire rose to successfully challenge the Muslim invasion into the south.

In 1565, the Vijayanagara Empire fell in front of the Islamic Sultanate in the battle at Talikota. The Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb gave the order to besiege Bijapur. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo Islamic architecture. Gol Gumbaz at that time has become the major part of his architecture.

Parts of Karnataka were conquered by Marathas under Chhatrapati Shivaji. Subsequently, Nizam, Maratha Empire, British, Mysore Kingdoms of Hyderabad ruled northern Karnataka. After the death of Wodeyar II, Haider Ali the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army assumed control over the region.


After his death, his son Tipu Sultan also known as Tiger of Mysore ruled the area. After the death of Tipu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war Mysore was incorporated into the British Raj.

After Indian independence, the Wodeyar Maharaja approved his empire to be included in India. Mysore was made Indian state in 1950 and be the year 1975 the former Maharaja was made the head of the state. Parts of Coorg, Madras, Hyderabad, and Bombay states were incorporated into the state of Mysore due to the Eki Karana movement. The Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973.

Karnataka Culture

Karnataka has a rich cultural heritage, which has been continuously moving forward with the contribution of various empires. Karnataka literature, architecture, folklore, music, painting, and other art forms have a lot of impact on the people. You can see various ancient buildings and monuments, Mauryan Empire special architecture can also be found here.

The statue of the 10th-century Jain saint Bahubali stone statue can be seen here. The influence of Chalukyas and the Pallava Empire can also be seen.

A varied mixture of ethnicity, culture, and race comprises the people of Karnataka. While the maximum number of people residing here are Kannadigas. They live in perfect harmony and mutual contacts with their neighbors and intimidates ( namely the Marathas, the Andras, the Tamils, and the Malayalis ).

The people of Karnataka are great hosts, their lifestyle is simple they abide by their unique customs, enchanting culture, and beliefs.

Suggested Read:  Karnataka – Culture and Tradition

The official language of the state of Karnataka is Kannada. However other languages like Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Marathi, Tulu, Konkan, and Hindi are also spoken. Most educated people use English and Hindi languages too.

Karnataka is a mixture of various religions and the most popular religion is Hinduism. During the first millennium, the Buddha religion was one of the most famous religions in some parts of Karnataka such as Gulbarga and Banvasi. The Tibetian refugee camp is also in Karnataka. Jainism is also followed by many communities while Christianity and Islam are also followed in Karnataka.

The culture of Karnataka revolves around its dance, music folk art and drama, and literature. Karnataka is a treasure house of ritualistic dances. Karnataka is a treasure house to various dance forms, the word Kunitha is used for all folk dances or ritual dances.

One such dance is the Dollu Kunitha in which singing is accompanied by the beating of drums. Among the classical dances, the Mysore style of Bharatanatyam is the oldest and most popular form of classical dance in India. Other Mainstream Classical dances of Karnataka are Kuchipudi and Kathak.

Yaksha Gana

Yakshagana is one of the most difficult dance forms. It has no script and its performance depends solely on artist ability. Another amazing Karnataka traditional dance form is Damman dance of Siddi community.

Indian classical music has a special place for Karnataka as both Karnatak (Carnatic) and Hindustani styles find a place in the state. It is the only state where Hindustani music from the north and Carnatic music from the south can be found together.

Karnataka has produced great music artists like Bhimsen Joshi, Mallikarjuna Mansur, Kumar Gandharva, Basavaraj, and Puttaraj Gowai, some of them have been a recipient of Kalidas Samman, Padma Bhushan, and Padma Vibhushan awards.

Karnataka is marked by some of the most colorful festivals. Mysore Dussehra is organized as Nada Habba and this is the main festival of Mysore.

Mysore Dasara

The second important festival of Karnataka is Ugadi ( Kannada New Year ), while other festivals celebrated are Makara Sankranti ( the Harvest Festival ), Ganesh Chaturthi, Nagapanchami, Basava Jayanti, Deepavali, and Ramzan.

Kambala is an epic buffalo race which is an annual two-day festival, kambala season generally starts in November and lasts until March.

Karnataka Costume

The dressing of Karnataka people varies from district to district. The main Kannadiga male costume is Panchey or Lungi, Angi and Peta. Panchey or Lungi is tied below the waist while Angi is a traditional shirt and Peta is a turban worn in Mysuru style or Dharwad style. Shyla is a piece of long cloth used to carry on the shoulder.

Female costume includes Sari among which IIkal saris are woven using a special technique called Tope Teni. Mysore silk saree is also famous. Salwar Kameez is widely popular in urban areas.

Mysore silk

Young women traditionally wear Langa Davani. Kasuti is a form of embroidery work which is very popular sought after art on dress and costumes. Jeans are popular among the youth while new age khadi/silk printed with various art are also found.

Suggested Read:  Traditional Dresses Of Indian States

Karnataka food is extremely rich in variety. From strict vegetarian delicacies of Udipi to non-vegetarian gourmets of Kodava, food in Karnataka have something which brings water in your mouth.

Karnataka cuisine

Karnataka is famous for the variety of dosa and sambhar it serves. Rice is the staple of Karnataka food. A typical Kannadiga Oota (meal) consists of rice, sambhar, pickle, ghee, dessert and other curry-based dishes served on a banana leaf.

Popular dishes to try are Bisi Bele Bhaat, Neer dosa, Mangalorean fish curry and Kori Gassi ( chicken curry ). Rotis made of wheat, jowar and ragi are consumed. Chikkadikai (Kannada), ballar (Hindi) is a famous vegetable consumed in Karnataka.

In dessert, they use milk, vermicelli, sugar, coconuts, jaggery, and dry fruits. Payasas Pedas of a different type, Kesari Bhath, and chiroti are some popular desserts of Karnataka.

Suggested Read:  Famous Food Of Indian States

Art and Crafts

Karnataka is famous for its crafts in wood carving, ivory carving, stone carving, and sandalwood crafts and doll making.

The works of wood especially the rosewood and the sandalwood are in huge demand. Ivory art is typical in the state. Mysore painting is popular all over the world. Silk weaving is also a unique art of Karnataka.

The Mysore silk weaving art is a traditional occupation of the people. One of the rare handicrafts of Karnataka is the Bidriware made on metal plates.

A Kannada wedding is pretty much similar to that of a typical Hindu wedding. Nandi Pooja is done pre-wedding to ensure the ceremony goes smoothly without any glitches. You will find Kannada wedding as a place of God chanting mantras and a place where peace brew from within.


Karnataka has many tourist locations and each location speaks in volume and uniqueness. The coastal coast of Karnataka is not very large, but it is home to India’s most beautiful seaside. The state between the west coast and the Deccan Plateau is located in the forest, pavilion, temple, cave, beach, riverbank, lake, coffee plantations, waterfalls, ruins, and other places.

The state is known for its historical places, hills, wildlife sanctuary, world heritage sites, and the City Bangalore is at the forefront of the rapid economic and Technological Development. Mysore, Aihole, Bijapur, Badami, Hampi, Hassan, Mangalore and Pattadakal are some of the Historical destinations in Karnataka.

Hampi was the ancient capital city of the powerful Vijayanagar Empire. The Mysore palace is the second most visited tourist destination in India after the Taj Mahal. Many other palaces in Karnataka such as the Bangalore Palace, Mysore Palace (Ambvillas Palace), Tipu Sultan Mahal, Nalkonad Mahal, Rajendra Vilas, Jagan Mohan Mahal, Jayalakshmi Vilas Mansion, Lalita Mahal, Rajendra Vilas, Chewuwaba Mansion, Shivappa Naika Palace and Darya Daulat Tiger Mahal Etc. are also seen.

We also see the famous Islamic heritage of Bijapur, Bidar, Gulbarga, Raichur and other parts of the state. Round dome, Bijapur is the world’s second largest pre-modern dome. Karnataka has two World Heritage Sites called Hampi and Pattadakal. We can also see Bellary fort built for protection by Tipu Sultan.

Karnataka is also famous for Shimoga district’s waterfalls, where Asia’s second-largest waterfall is found. There are many famous beaches in Karnataka’s Malpe, Kup, Mervendhe, Karwar, Gokarn, Mudeswar, and Surendalk. For the climbers, Karnataka is no less than a paradise. Yana in Uttar Kannada, the fort in Chitradurga, Ramnagar in Bengaluru district, Shivgange in Tumkur district and tekal in Kolar district are similar to Paradise for climbers.

Agumbe and Kodachadri in the main hill areas of the state, Baba Budgari, Kemmanguandi in Shimoga district, Kudremukh in Chikkamagaluru district, etc. Mullanagiri, Pushpagiri, Nandi hill, Kundadari, Tadi and Amol, Talakavari, Mahaswara hill, Himavad Gopalaswamy Island, Amberguda, etc. are the other hill cities of the state and area.

Many wildlife sanctuaries and national parks such as Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Dariji lazy bear sanctuary, peacock sanctuary in Banakpura, Ranbenur Black Deer Sanctuary, Haveri District; Deorai Wildlife Sanctuary, Hampi; Attivari Bird Sanctuary, Shirahatti; Biliirigiranga Swamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary, Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaveri Wildlife Sanctuary, Melukote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, Mandya District; Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary, Nuhu Wildlife Sanctuary, Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary, Sharawathi Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary, Someshwar Wildlife Sanctuary, Talavavari Wildlife Sanctuary, Gudvi Bird Sanctuary, Mandagade Bird Sanctuary, Kaggaldu Belur Sanctuary, Gudvi Bird Sanctuary, and Bonal Bird Sanctuary, etc.

Gol Gumbaz

Some of the famous sea basins include Karwar, Gokarn, Murudeshwar, Malpe Ullal and Mangalore. The main events to see are Lighting at Mysore Palace during Dussehra, Jumbo Savari or elephant march during the Hampi festival and buffalo race during Kambala festival.

Mysore - Karnataka

The top tourist destination is:

  • Mysore Palace
  • Chikmagalur
  • Coorg hill station
  • Shravanabelagola Gommateshwara statue
  • Shivanasamudra Falls
  • Jog Falls, Gerosoppa Falls
  • Dharmasthala
  • Agumbe “The Cherrapunji of the South”
  • Udupi Krishna Temple
  • Gokak Falls
  • Hampi a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Kudremukh mountain range
  • Bijapur – Gol Gumbaz

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Culture of karnataka.


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Short Essay

Essay on Karnataka – 100, 500, 1000 Words, 10 Lines

Essay on Karnataka in English: Embark on a comprehensive exploration of Karnataka through this enlightening essay , uncovering the state’s rich cultural tapestry, historical significance, natural wonders, economic vitality, and the unique amalgamation of tradition and modernity that defines this vibrant region in Southern India.

Short Essay on Karnataka in 100 Words

Table of Contents

Essay on Karnataka in 10 Lines in English

Discover Karnataka’s cultural richness, historical significance, and natural beauty in this concise 10-line Essay on Karnataka , capturing the essence of this diverse state in Southern India.

  • Karnataka, situated in Southern India, boasts a rich cultural heritage and historical significance.
  • Home to ancient dynasties like the Vijayanagara Empire, the state is a treasure trove of historical monuments.
  • The capital, Bengaluru, is a dynamic IT hub, reflecting Karnataka’s modern economic prowess.
  • Karnataka’s diverse landscapes include the lush Western Ghats, serene beaches, and the Deccan Plateau.
  • The state is a melting pot of traditions, with festivals like Dasara and Ugadi celebrated with grandeur.
  • Hampi, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, showcases Karnataka’s architectural marvels from the Vijayanagara era.
  • Karnataka is a pioneer in education and research, hosting prestigious institutions like the Indian Institute of Science.
  • The Kannada language, with a rich literary heritage, is the state’s official language.
  • Karnataka’s cuisine, with dishes like Bisi Bele Bath and Dharwad Peda, reflects its culinary diversity.
  • The state’s commitment to preserving its heritage while embracing modernity makes Karnataka a captivating destination.

Also See – Essay on Jammu and Kashmir- 10 Lines, 100, 500, 1000 Words

Short Essay on Karnataka in 100 Words

Explore the cultural vibrancy, historical legacy, economic dynamism, and natural beauty of Karnataka in this concise and insightful short Essay on Karnataka.

Karnataka, a Southern Indian state, is a tapestry of culture, history, and modernity. With a rich past marked by empires like Vijayanagara, it boasts architectural wonders like Hampi. Bengaluru, the capital, stands as a technological powerhouse, symbolizing the state’s economic prowess.

Karnataka’s diverse landscapes encompass the Western Ghats’ greenery, tranquil beaches, and the vast Deccan Plateau. Festivals like Dasara and Ugadi showcase its cultural richness.

The state prioritizes education with institutions like the Indian Institute of Science. Karnataka’s culinary delights, literary heritage, and a blend of tradition and progress make it a captivating and multifaceted destination.

Essay on Karnataka in English in 500 Words

Embark on a comprehensive journey through Karnataka, exploring its rich cultural heritage, historical significance, economic vibrancy, natural beauty, and the harmonious coexistence of tradition and modernity in this insightful 500-word Essay on Karnataka.

Karnataka, a diverse state in Southern India, unfolds as a tapestry woven with cultural richness, historical significance, economic dynamism, and natural wonders. Nestled between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, Karnataka’s varied landscapes showcase the lush Western Ghats, pristine beaches, and the expansive Deccan Plateau.

The historical legacy of Karnataka is deeply rooted, with illustrious empires like the Vijayanagara leaving an indelible mark. Hampi, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, stands as a testament to the architectural marvels of this bygone era. The state’s capital, Bengaluru, is a bustling metropolis and a global IT hub, exemplifying Karnataka’s modern economic prowess.

Culturally, Karnataka is a melting pot where tradition and modernity coalesce seamlessly. The state celebrates festivals with grandeur, and Dasara in Mysuru is a spectacular showcase of Karnataka’s cultural vibrancy. The Kannada language, with its rich literary heritage, is the linguistic heartbeat of the state.

Beyond its cultural tapestry, Karnataka is at the forefront of education and research. Institutions like the Indian Institute of Science in Bengaluru contribute significantly to the intellectual landscape of the nation. Karnataka’s commitment to education aligns with its vision for a progressive future.

Karnataka’s culinary heritage is a sensory delight. From the iconic Bisi Bele Bath to the delectable Dharwad Peda, the state’s cuisine reflects its diverse culinary traditions. The gastronomic journey through Karnataka is a fusion of flavors, showcasing the regional diversity in every bite.

The state’s natural beauty is a treasure trove for nature enthusiasts. Coorg, known as the “Scotland of India,” captivates with its misty hills and coffee plantations. The beaches of Gokarna offer tranquility, while the lush forests of the Western Ghats harbor diverse flora and fauna.

Karnataka’s economic landscape is robust and diverse. Bengaluru’s Silicon Valley is a global technology hub, attracting talent and investments from around the world. The state’s economy extends beyond technology to sectors like agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism.

In essence, Karnataka is a symphony of tradition and progress, where ancient heritage harmonizes with modern ambitions. The state’s ability to preserve its cultural roots while embracing innovation is a testament to its dynamic spirit. As Karnataka strides confidently into the future, it remains a captivating destination that beckons exploration and celebration of its multifaceted identity.

Essay on Karnataka in 1000 Words

Embark on a comprehensive exploration of Karnataka’s rich cultural heritage, historical legacy, economic vitality, natural beauty, and modern development in this insightful 1000-word essay.

Karnataka: A Tapestry of Culture, Heritage, and Progress

Introduction: The Essence of Karnataka

Karnataka, situated in the southern part of India, unfolds as a vibrant canvas depicting the amalgamation of cultural heritage, historical richness, economic vitality, and natural beauty. In this comprehensive essay, we will delve into the various facets that make Karnataka a unique and multifaceted state, tracing its journey from historical empires to the modern technological hub.

Historical Legacy of Karnataka

The historical roots of Karnataka run deep, with the state being home to ancient empires such as the Vijayanagara Empire and the Chalukyas. This section will explore the archaeological wonders of Karnataka, with a focus on Hampi—a UNESCO World Heritage Site that stands as a testament to the architectural brilliance of the Vijayanagara era

Karnataka’s Cultural Tapestry

Karnataka is a melting pot of cultures, languages, and traditions. Here, we will explore the linguistic diversity, with Kannada being the official language, and delve into the state’s rich literary heritage. Festivals like Dasara and Ugadi showcase Karnataka’s cultural vibrancy, and we will highlight how these celebrations bring people together in joyous unity.

Bengaluru – Karnataka’s IT Hub

Bengaluru, the capital city, has emerged as a global IT hub, earning Karnataka recognition on the international stage. This section will delve into the evolution of Bengaluru, exploring how it transformed from the ‘Garden City’ to the ‘Silicon Valley of India.’ We will also discuss the impact of technology on Karnataka’s economic landscape.

Educational Prowess of Karnataka

Karnataka places a significant emphasis on education and research, housing prestigious institutions like the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). This segment will discuss how Karnataka’s commitment to education contributes to the intellectual capital of the nation and positions the state as a leader in research and innovation.

Karnataka’s Culinary Heritage

Karnataka’s culinary delights are a testament to its diverse cultural influences. From the aromatic Bisi Bele Bath to the sweet delicacies of Dharwad Peda, this section will explore the state’s gastronomic journey, highlighting the unique flavors that define Karnataka’s cuisine.

Natural Beauty of Karnataka

The landscapes of Karnataka are diverse and captivating. Coorg’s misty hills, Gokarna’s tranquil beaches, and the biodiversity of the Western Ghats offer a visual feast for nature enthusiasts. This part of the essay will showcase Karnataka’s natural beauty, emphasizing the state’s commitment to environmental conservation.

Economic Diversity Beyond IT

While Karnataka is renowned for its IT prowess, its economic landscape extends beyond technology. This section will delve into the state’s contributions to agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism, showcasing Karnataka’s economic diversity.

Balancing Tradition and Progress

Karnataka’s ability to preserve its cultural roots while embracing modernity is a unique aspect. This final section will discuss how Karnataka successfully balances tradition and progress, fostering a dynamic environment where ancient heritage coexists harmoniously with contemporary ambitions.

Conclusion: Karnataka – A Dynamic Identity

In conclusion, Karnataka emerges as a state with a dynamic identity, weaving together cultural richness, historical depth, economic vibrancy, and natural splendor. From the echoes of ancient empires to the hum of modern technology, Karnataka stands as a testament to the harmonious coexistence of tradition and progress, making it a captivating destination that invites exploration and appreciation.

Essay on Karnataka, with its rich cultural tapestry, historical grandeur, economic dynamism, and natural wonders, stands as a testament to the harmonious coexistence of tradition and progress.

From the architectural marvels of Hampi to the bustling IT corridors of Bengaluru, the state paints a vivid picture of diversity and resilience. As Karnataka strides confidently into the future, it remains a captivating destination that encapsulates the essence of a dynamic and multifaceted identity, inviting admiration and exploration.

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Karnataka Culture – A Directory Of Rich Tradition, Art, Music, Food And Festivals

Prarthana Asija

  • Culture of Indian States
  • Indian Culture

Table of contents

Karnataka culture & heritage:, architecture of karnataka:, languages of karnataka:, karnataka food culture:, traditional dresses of karnataka:, art and craft of karnataka:, music, dance and literature of karnataka:, cultural festivals of karnataka:, occupation in karnataka:.


A state that defines the rich culture in its traditional attire of art, craft , music, dance, festivals and literature, to its modernity that the capital city Bengaluru breathes, Karnataka is a directory of rich culture. One of the premier choice of both domestic and international tourists alike, the state embeds a city for everyone – Bengaluru to enjoy its nightlife, the lesser known Bagalkot for its spiritual travel trail , Hampi for the historians and archaeologists and Sirsi for its thick cover of flora and fauna. Karnataka lists three sites under World Heritage Sites, five national parks and a coastline extending up to 320 kms with a mystical journey that is promised throughout. Lets take a look at some important aspects of Karnataka Culture .


Karnataka, formerly known as Karunadu , was ruled by several dynasties from Mauryan Empire, Nanda Empire to Kadamba Dynasty, Western Ganga Dynasty and Chalukya Dynasty. The ancient ruins at Badami speak about the rise and fall of dynasties that the state has witnessed. Hampi, the city of ruins has a narrative to share in its destroyed interiors. Some of the popular visitations in Hampi are received by Krishna Temple, Virupaksha Temple, Elephant stables and Garuda Shrine in the form of a stone chariot. Mysore Palace is yet another popular site to visit which was the formal palace of the royal family of Mysore . The architectural blend of Hindu, Rajput, Muslim and Gothic styles is more secular than the entire nation presently.

Key Points to Remember:

  • Mauryan Empire
  • Nanda Empire
  • Kadamba Dynasty
  • Western Ganga Dynasty
  • Chalukya Dynasty 


There are sharp contrasting features in the architecture of Karnataka in its ancient form and its modern form. As mentioned in the last section, the secularism that the architecture of Karnataka possesses is incomparable which can be found in its magnificent temples, monuments and structures and their immersive Hindu, Islamic, Christian, Jain, and colonial imprints. Some of the best architectural buildings that are sheer examples of brilliance are Sudi monuments known for their rare stone carvings, Badami Cave Temple, Mahakuta Temples of Hampi and Gol Gumbaz. The vernacular architecture of Karnataka is a contemporary architecture method adopted by the The Gutthu Houses of the South Karnataka, highlighting the linguistic and literary significance.

  • Sudi monuments
  • Badami Cave Temple
  • Mahakuta Temples
  • Mysore Palace
  • Gutthu Houses


The effortless flow of communication is ensured by the language of a particular community. Another important aspect of Karnataka’s culture is its languages. Karnataka Culture is made up of several communities. Besides the communities, the state is a world of many ethnicities which is reiterated time and again in the literature of the state. The administrative language of the Karnataka used by the natives is Kannada . The Tuluvas or the natives of Tulu Nadu speak Tulu . The Muslim community is unevenly distributed all around Karnataka and speak Urdu and Beary, which is spoken by selective communities. Another language which has the smallest acknowledgment is Kodava language which is spoken by some selective  ethnic groups.

  • Kodava language


Karnataka is intra-geographically popular for its dosas and sambar. However what most people don’t know is that Kannadigas savour heavily on their food habits. A regular Kannadiga thali consists of rice, sambar, ghee, pickle, and a vegetarian curry like Vegetable Sagu and a non-vegetarian curry like Korri Gassi. Coconut paste is used in almost all dishes. Since Karnataka is a coastal region , seafood is a staple curry special such as the Mangalorean fish curry and Kane Rava Fry. Where there is a heavy meal, there has to be desserts to relish on. Karnataka offers Payasa, Mysore Pak, Haalbai, Rava Kesari, Pori Unde and Chiroti as a sweet closure. Here are the best dishes from Karnataka traditional food.

  • Idli Sambar
  • Kara bath, Kesari bath
  • Kannadiga thali
  • Puri, Vegetable Sagu
  • Korri Gassi
  • Mangalorean fish curry
  • Kane Rava Fry
  • Rava Kesari
  • Mudde Bassaru


Karnataka is known as the silk hub of India. Where modernity is taking over the entire country, Karnataka retains the harmony in its outfit and culture. The traditional dress of Karnataka women is saree. The variety of silk sarees worn by them include Arani silks, Raw Silk saris, Kora silks, Crepe silk sarees, Mysore Silk sarees including many more types. Handwoven sarees are in great demand during festivals and weddings. Where women have an undying love for these dyed silk yarns, men are seen sporting Lungi regularly, either below a shirt and even a t-shirt. The Angavastram covers their shoulders. During the festive season or weddings, men wear a Panche which resembles a Dhoti. For covering the head, Mysore Peta is conventionally worn. 

  • Silk hub of India
  • Arani silks
  • Raw Silk saris
  • Crepe silk sarees
  • Mysore Silk sarees
  • Angavastram 
  • Mysore Peta


Karnataka’s art forms are an integration of passion and creativity. The more we dive into them, the more we understand its culture and heritage that have been passed on from generations to generations. The Mysore Paintings are popular paintings of South India that need no introduction. These paintings have the backdrop of many festivals and traditional occasions as they depict Lord Shrinath and Lord Ganesha. Chitrakathi scroll paintings are a style of painting that is narrated as a story by a community of storytellers found in Karnataka. These are just like our modern day comic strips. Besides the artistic endeavours of the state, several crafts like Stone Carving, Doll Making, Ivory Carving, Wood Carving, Metal Ware are widely and inevitably practiced.

  • Mysore Paintings
  • Chitrakathi scroll paintings
  • Stone Carving 
  • Channapatna Toys
  • Ivory Carving
  • Wood Carving

Folk dance of Karnataka

The cultural diversity of Karnataka is mostly witnessed in its performing arts. The diversity, the vividity and the enthrallingly beautiful portrayal in Karnataka’s music, dance and drama is worth knowing and watching. Dollu Kunitha which is a drum dance attracts a lot of attention because of its high decibel and incomparable energy. The dance form accompanies heavy drums and are played at various festivals and cultural events . It is largely associated with Lord Shiva. Huli Vesha is yet another popular dance form recreating the fable of Goddess Durga and her accompanying animal Lion.


Karnataka Sangeetha, also known as Carnatic music is an amalgamation of Sruti, Swara, Raga and Taala. Another unique artform named Yakshagana is an integration of every artform – it has dance, singing, two forms of drums and conversations that foster action. Another art form is called Gombe Aata that portrays the scenic puppet drama found only in Karnataka.

  • Carnatic music
  • Yakshagana 
  • Dollu Kunitha


A wholesome state like Karnataka is made up of its festivals , cultural meetups and utsavs. The opportunities to witness the celebration of these festivities are many. Coastal Karnataka hosts a wild, unapologetic Buffalo race called Kambala . This festival receives loads of cheers and uproars but recently, it has received concerns and backlashes from animal welfare organisations for its animal cruelty and severe behaviour. Other traditional festivals such as Ugadi which celebrates prosperous beginnings, Hampi festival or Vijaya Utsav, Gowri festival, Pattadakal Dance Festival and Mysore Dasara are celebrated with great joy and fervour. 

  • Mysore Dasara
  • Hampi festival 
  • Gowri festival
  • Pattadakal Dance Festival


The capital city Bangalore is popularly miniaturised as the Silicon Valley of India for its booming IT sector. While the majority of the state engages in the primary sector of the agriculture sector, the others engage in public sector, private sector and artistic professions. Karnataka does fairly well when it comes to the public health services garnering a better record of health care facilities for both children and females in India. 

  • Silicon Valley of India
  • Agriculture sector
  • Public sector
  • Private sector
  • Artistic professions.

Karnataka with its embracing culture welcomes you to explore and find tranquility in its directory of art, food, music, dance and heritage.

— Cover Photo –  Peter Lepping via Flickr

Image credits: The copyright for the images used in this article belong to their respective owners. Best known credits are given under the image. For changing the image credit or to get the image removed from Caleidoscope, please contact us.


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Karnataka: History, Traditions, Heritage, Tourism, Cuisine, Art & Culture

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Pumpkin Seeds

Karnataka: Exploring the Rich Heritage, Stunning Landscapes, and Vibrant Culture

  • Prehistoric Period : The earliest evidence of human habitation in Karnataka dates back to the Neolithic period, around 4000 BCE. The state is home to several important prehistoric sites, such as the rock art sites of Kupgal and Hire Benakal.
  • Ancient Period : The first major kingdom in Karnataka was the Mauryan Empire, which ruled the region from the 3rd century BCE to the 2nd century BCE. This was followed by the Satavahanas, who ruled from the 2nd century BCE to the 2nd century CE. The region was also ruled by the Kadambas, who was the first indigenous dynasty of Karnataka, from the 4th century CE to the 6th century CE.
  • Medieval Period : The most prominent dynasty of medieval Karnataka was the Rashtrakutas, who ruled the region from the 8th century CE to the 10th century CE. The Rashtrakutas were followed by the Western Chalukyas, who ruled from the 10th century CE to the 12th century CE. During this period, Karnataka saw the rise of important centers of culture and learning, such as the cities of Kalyani and Manyakheta.
  • Vijayanagara Empire : The Vijayanagara Empire was a powerful empire that ruled over South India from the 14th century CE to the 16th century CE. The empire was founded by Harihara I and Bukka Raya I, and it was centered around the city of Vijayanagara (now known as Hampi). The empire was known for its patronage of the arts, literature, and architecture, and it left behind several impressive monuments, such as the Hampi temple complex and the Vitthala Temple.
  • Colonial Period : Karnataka came under British rule in the 18th century CE, after the defeat of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore. The state became a part of independent India in 1947, and it was initially known as the Mysore State. It was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
  • Mysuru Dasara : Mysuru Dasara is a 10-day festival that takes place in the city of Mysore every year. The festival features a grand procession of decorated elephants, cultural performances, and a variety of other events and activities.
  • Doll Festival : Doll Festival or Gombe Habba is a tradition of Karnataka, celebrated during the Navaratri festival. It is a tradition where families decorate their homes with dolls of gods and goddesses, animals, and everyday objects. Women exchange recipes and gifts, and young girls visit their neighbors' homes to view their doll collections.
  • Kambala : Kambala is a traditional buffalo race that is popular in coastal Karnataka. The race is held in slushy fields, and the buffaloes are ridden by farmers. The event is usually accompanied by music and attracts large crowds.
  • Handicrafts : Karnataka is known for its intricate handicrafts, which include silk sarees, sandalwood carvings, Showpiece For Home Decor , and rosewood furniture. The state is also known for its traditional paintings, such as the Mysore style of painting.
  • Religion : Karnataka is a land of diverse religions, and people of different faiths live in harmony. Hinduism is the predominant religion in the state, followed by Islam and Christianity. Karnataka is also home to several important religious sites, such as the Mookambika Temple, the Sharadamba Temple, and Sri Manjunatha Temple.
  • Hampi : Hampi is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire. The site is known for its stunning architecture, including the famous Virupaksha Temple and the Vittala Temple complex.
  • Mysore Palace : The Mysore Palace is a magnificent palace located in the city of Mysore. The palace was the residence of the Wadiyar dynasty, who ruled the region for several centuries. The palace is known for its stunning architecture and is a popular tourist attraction.
  • Badami : Badami is a historic town located in northern Karnataka and was the capital of the Chalukya dynasty. The town is known for its stunning cave temples, which are carved out of sandstone cliffs.
  • Belur and Halebid : Belur and Halebid are historic towns located in southern Karnataka and are known for their stunning temples. The Chennakesava Temple in Belur and the Hoysaleswara Temple in Halebid are famous for their intricate carvings and sculptures.
  • Pattadakal : Pattadakal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and was the coronation site of the Chalukya dynasty. The site is known for its stunning temples, including the Virupaksha Temple and the Sangameshwara Temple.
  • Bangalore : Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka, is a bustling metropolis that is known for its vibrant culture, shopping, and nightlife. Some famous attractions in Bangalore include the Bangalore Palace, Lalbagh Botanical Garden, and Cubbon Park.
  • Coorg : Coorg, also known as Kodagu, is a beautiful hill station located in the Western Ghats. The region is known for its coffee plantations, scenic landscapes, and adventure activities such as trekking and white-water rafting.
  • Chikmagalur : Chikmagalur is a beautiful hill station in Karnataka, known for its coffee plantations, picturesque landscapes, and breathtaking views. It is also home to the Mullayanagiri Peak, the highest peak in Karnataka.
  • Jog Falls : Jog Falls is one of the highest waterfalls in India and is located in the Shimoga district of Karnataka. The waterfall is surrounded by lush green forests and is a popular destination for nature lovers and adventure enthusiasts.
  • Gokarna : Gokarna is a popular beach destination located in northern Karnataka. The region is known for its beautiful beaches, such as Om Beach and Kudle Beach, as well as its laid-back vibe and spiritual significance.
  • Bandipur National Park : Bandipur National Park is a protected area located in southern Karnataka and is known for its rich biodiversity. Visitors can enjoy safaris and wildlife sightings, including tigers, elephants, and leopards.
  • Bisi bele bath : Bisi bele bath is a popular dish that is a combination of rice, lentils, and vegetables, flavored with spices and tamarind. It is a staple dish in many households and is often served with raita or papad.
  • Mysore masala dosa : Mysore masala dosa is a popular breakfast item that is made with fermented rice and lentil batter. The dosa is filled with a spicy potato filling and is served with chutney and sambar.
  • Ragi mudde : Ragi mudde is a traditional dish that is made with finger millet flour and is a popular staple food in rural Karnataka. The flour is cooked with water to form a thick dough, which is then rolled into balls and served with sambar or a spicy curry.
  • Kundapura chicken : Kundapura chicken is a popular dish from the coastal region of Karnataka and is made with tender chicken cooked in a spicy coconut-based gravy. It is often served with neer dosa or steamed rice.
  • Mysore Pak : Mysore pak is a sweet dish that originated in the city of Mysore. It is made with gram flour, sugar, and ghee and has a crumbly texture and a rich, buttery flavor.
  • Udupi sambar : Udupi sambar is a popular dish that is served in many restaurants across India. It is made with a variety of vegetables, lentils, and tamarind, and is flavored with a unique spice blend that includes fenugreek, coriander, and cumin.
  • Yakshagana : Yakshagana is a traditional folk theater form that originated in Karnataka. It combines dance, music, and drama and is performed by artists dressed in elaborate costumes and makeup.
  • Mysore painting : Mysore painting is a traditional style of painting that originated in the city of Mysore. The paintings are known for their intricate details, use of gold leaf, and bright colors.
  • Carnatic music : Carnatic music is a classical music form that originated in South India and has its roots in Karnataka. The music is based on a system of ragas and talas and is known for its complex rhythms and melodies.
  • Kambala : Kambala is a traditional buffalo race that takes place in coastal Karnataka. The event is held during the monsoon season and is a popular cultural tradition in the region.
  • Chitrakala Parishath : Chitrakala Parishath is an art institution in Bangalore that was established in 1960. The institution is dedicated to promoting and preserving various art forms, including painting, sculpture, and printmaking.
  • Janapada Loka : Janapada Loka is a folk museum located in the Ramanagara district, which showcases the rich cultural heritage of Karnataka's rural communities. The museum features exhibits of traditional art, craft, music, and dance, and is a great place to learn more about the state's diverse cultural traditions.
  • Channapatna toys : Channapatna, a small town in Karnataka, is known for its wooden toys that are made using traditional techniques. The toys are brightly colored and are made from natural materials such as lacquer and vegetable dyes.


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diversity of karnataka essay in english

Cultural Symbols || Rituals || Social Culture || Personal Culture



Essay on Karnataka in English

Essay on Karnataka in English , India has many states. There are 4 parts of India, northern, southern, western, and eastern. One of the most beautiful states in India is Karnataka. It is located in the southwest part of India. In this essay, we are going to get important information about Karnataka in detail. So, start reading:

Karnataka was formed on 1st November 1956. Initially, it was given the name of the state of Mysore. It was formed with the passage of the States Reorganization Act. In 1973, it was renamed Karnataka, which is surrounded by the state of Maharashtra to the North-West and the state of Goa to the West. The name of the capital city of Karnataka is Bangalore.

Britishers utilized the word Carnatic at that time and sometimes Karnatak to describe both sides of peninsular parts of the country. It is the place, where 2 major river systems of the country such as Kaveri and Krishna flow out to the Bay of Bengal.

The most important rivers of Karnataka are Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, Sharavati, and Malay Prabha. There is the highest peak located in Karnataka, Mullayan Giri Mountain which is situated in the Chikmagalur district.

essay on karnataka in english

About Karnataka in English

The word ‘Karnataka’ is taken from two Kannada words Karu and Naru which means ‘Elevated Land.’ The land area of this state is 191,791 sq. km.

This state is known for its many tourist places and other things like industries, temples, etc. Karnataka is one of the largest states in the southern part of the country. It has different neighboring states, which are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu. It is also surrounded by the Arabian Sea to its west.

It is the sixth-largest state in India from the area point of view and the 8th largest state in the country according to the population. This state has 31 districts. Karnataka is also known as the City of Gardens. There are many travel attractions in the state of Karnataka, people enjoy visiting there.

The natural landscape of this state adds beauty to the travel spots. It has a captivating land, which is rich in scenic beauty, fauna, and flora. The title of the City of Gardens was given to it because of its lush green patches and vibrant blossoms all over the state.

This state also has forests, which are packed with 25 percent of elephants and 10 percent of the tiger population of the country. There is a state animal of Karnataka, which is the Indian elephant. When it comes to the state flower and tree, these are Lotus and sandalwood respectively.

There are 25 wildlife sanctuaries in this state, out of which 7 are bird sanctuaries. Gersoppa is one of the most popular and attractive waterfalls in Karnataka, which is formed by the river Sharavati.

Talking about the people living in the state of Karnataka, they are distinct in their dressing style, language, and practices. All people including men and women are tall, good-looking, and well-built. Women like to wear sari in the state of Karnataka. Married females wear a headband tied in a knot under the head and like to hang down the ankles.

This state holds a special place in the world of Indian classical music. Many talents such as Swami Gandharva, Mallikajun Mansur, Bhimsen Joshi, etc. belong to the state of Karnataka. Both Hindustani and Carnatic styles have their places in this state. There was a Haridasa movement in the 16th century, which devoted to the development of Carnatic music in the form of a performing art form.

Few Lines About Karnataka

Speaking of the connectivity of Karnataka, it is well-connected in different modes. There are roadways, airways, and railways, which are popular modes of transportation in Karnataka. We can find some domestic airports in this state, which include Mangalore, Bangalore, Belgaum, Hubli, and a lot more.

There are different festivals celebrated in Karnataka, similar to other different states in India. People living in different parts of this state take pleasure in their festivals happiness and pleasure. Festivals like Basava Jayanthi, Ganesh Chaturthi, Deepavali , Ramzan , Ugadi , etc., are celebrated in the state of Karnataka.

Nadahabha is one of the major festivals celebrated in this place. People in Karnataka dedicate this festival to Goddess Durga, who is also called the Goddess Chamundi. In the entire state, this festival is celebrated with great pomp and glory.

There are many sports famous in the state of Karnataka. Cricket is one of the most famous sports played by the people of Karnataka. Apart from cricket, some other sports like kho-kho and kabaddi are also played by people. In the Bijapur district of this state, many well-known cyclists have secured their place and attained recognition at a national level.

Karnataka has many worldwide renowned colleges and universities, which tend to bring top-notch education to children at different levels. The most popular educational center of Karnataka is the Indian Institute of Science, which is located in the capital city, Bangalore. This state is home to most of the excellent research and educational centers in the country. Some of the names are the Indian Institute of Management and the National Institute of Technology.

The most interesting thing about the state of Karnataka is that the first family planning clinic was built in this place, which is one of the first ones in the whole nation. Talking about the tourism industry of Karnataka, there is a lot to explore. It is one of the excellent places where people from different places both national and international come and enjoy the scenic view of nature.

It is one of the famous 4th states in India, where you can find many places to visit such as Mysore Palace, Gol Gumbaz, Korg Hill Station, Cave Temple, and Mahabaleshwar Temple. The official language of this state is Kannada, which is used by almost all people in the entire state.

In the end, it can be said that Karnataka is a beautiful and developing state of the country, which attracts most of the IT students because Bangalore is a hub for many IT companies and other organizations.

This is an essay on karnataka in english, from this entire article, we cover information regarding an few lines about karnataka. If found anything missing let us know by commenting below. For more info kindly visit us at wikiliv.com

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Biodiversity of karnataka at a glan

Ben Sudarsanan

The document provides an overview of biodiversity in the state of Karnataka, India. It is divided into 3 key regions: 1) The coastal zone, which contains mangrove forests, coral reefs, and marine life. 2) The Western Ghats, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots containing over 4,500 plant and hundreds of animal species. 3) The eastern plains with rivers like the Krishna and Cauvery that flow into the Bay of Bengal. The state has a high level of endemism and variety across its ecosystems. Read less

diversity of karnataka essay in english


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  • 1. - 1 - GOVERNMENT OF KARNATAKA “BIODIVERSITY OF KARNATAKA” At a Glance KARNATAKA BIODIVERSITY BOARD (Forest, Ecology and Environment Department)) Dr. R.C.Prajapati, I.F.S APCCF & Member Secretary KARNATA K A BIODIVERS ITY BOARD Ground Floor, “Vanavikas”, 18th Cross, Malleshwaram, Bangalore-560 003 Ph : 080- 23448783, Fax : 080-23440535 E-mail : [email protected] Website :www.kbb.kar.nic.in 2010 Lion fish
  • 2. - 2 - INDEX Sl No Contents Page No 1 Biodiversity of Karnataka ………Introduction 1 2 Coastal Zone…………………………………….. 2 3 Mangroves in Karnataka……………………….. 3 4 The Western Ghats……………………………… 4 5 Highlights……………………………………….. 6 6 Wildlife of Karnataka…………………………… 7 7 The Eastern Plains Biodiversity……………….. 10 8 Fishes – Biodiversity……………………………. 10 9 Freshwater fishes……………………………….. 12 10 Marine fishes of Karnataka……………………. 12 11 Threatened fishes of Karnataka………………. 13 12 Medicinal Plants Biodiversity……………….. 15 13 Birds Biodiversity……………………………… 20 14 Orchids………………………………………….. 22 15 Butterflies………………………………….……. 25 16 Current status and threat to Biodiversity……. 29 17 Impacts of Pollutants…………………………… 31 18 Biodiversity …………………….… Goals 33 19 Horticulture Biodiversity………………….……. 34 20 Agro Biodiversity……………………………….. 47 21 Domestic Animal Diversity………………..……. 60 22 Coral reef Ecosystem ………………………..….. 66 23 Agro Biodiversity of Karnataka…………..……. 73
  • 3. - 3 - BIODIVERSITY OF KARNATAKA    Introduction    Karnataka,  one  of  the  Southern  states  of  India has 3.83 Million ha of recorded forest  area  which  is  around  20  percent  of  its  geographical  area.  Karnataka  is  endowed  with most magnificent forests in the country  ranging  from  majestic  evergreen  forests  of  the Western Ghats to the scrub jungles of the  plains. The Western Ghats of Karnataka are  one  of  the  25  global  priority  hotspots  for  conservation  and  one  of  the  two  on  the  Indian  subcontinent.  Several  economically  important  species  such  as  Sandalwood,  Rosewood, Teak, White cedar grow naturally  in these forests. Karnataka forest is endowed  with rich wildlife, harbors 25 percent of the  elephant  population  of  India,  10%  of  the  Tiger  population.  The  state  has  5  National  parks  and  21  sanctuaries  comprising  about  17.3% of total forest area as protected area  for wildlife and biodiversity. The state ranks  4th among all the state and union territories  in respect of area under tree cover.                                                     forest Western Ghat    Karnataka Forest                                                    Evergreen Forest­Western ghats            The  State  of  Karnataka  is  a  part  of  highly  biodiversity rich regions of India. The Western  Ghats  of  Karnataka  is  one  of  the  mega  biodiversities  of  the  world.  The  State  is  endowed  with  great  diversity  of  climate,  topography  and  soil.    Karnataka  has  great  diversity of species, including the human being  which  has  co  evolved  since  centuries.  Geographically  the  State  can  be  divided  into  three  major  zones.  With  the  Western  Ghats  (Sahyadri) forming a major water divide, there  are short and swift flowing rivers in the west  draining  into  the  Arabian  sea.  Notable  among  them  are  Sharavati,  Kali,  Netravati,  Bedthi/Gangavalli,  Aghanashini,  Varahi  and  Chakra.  To  the  east  of  the  major  divide,  flow  the river Krishna and Cauvery. A major part of  the  upstream  of  river  Krishna  and  its  tributaries  Tungabhadra,  Ghataprabha,  Malaprabha, Bhima and Vedavati flow through  northern  Karnataka,  pass  through  Andhra  Pradesh before joining the Bay of Bengal. The  Cauvery  river  in  the  south  flows  down  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  ghats,  passes  through  Tamil  Nadu  before  joining  the  Bay  of  Bengal.  The  main  tributaries  are  Hemavathi,  Kabini,  Arkavati, Shimsha, Palar, Uttara and Dakshina  Pinakini,  Manjira  and  Karanja  are  the  only 
  • 4. - 4 - tributaries of river Godavary found within the  State  boundary.  Karnataka consists of 3 regions­ 1. Coastal Zone, 2. The Western Ghats, 3. The Eastern  Plains.    1. Coastal Zone      Karnataka coastline extends over a length  of  320  kilometers  with  numerous  river  mouths,  lagoons,  bays,  creeks,  cliffs,  sand  dunes and long beaches. Karnataka has no  major  delta  formations.  The  shelf  off  Karnataka  has  an  average  width  of  80  kilometers and the depth of shelf break is  between 90 and 120 meters. There are 26  estuaries with more than 70000 ha water  spread area and 8000 ha of brackish water  area,  making  the  3  coastal  districts  of  Karnataka  very  rich  in  marine,  estuarine  and  riverine  biodiversity.  14  rivers  which  originate in Western ghats run westwards  and join the Arabian sea. Karnataka Costal  soil is a mixture of laterite rock and clay.                               Brahminy Kite                               Mangrove Forests                                The Walking trees – Rhizophora                 Mucronan still roots    There are few islands of the coast such as  St.Mary’s island, 4 kilometers from Malpe.  Coastal  areas  are  some  of  the  most  productive  and  important  habitat  of  the  biosphere  including  estuaries,  backwaters  and  coastal  wetlands.  There  are  14  coral  species and 4 sponge species found in this  region  such  as  Dendrophyllion  Sp.  Turbinana  Sp,  Goniastrea  pectinatu  che.  Small  gaint  clams  (Tridacna  maxiona)  are  protected  under  the  Indian  wildlife  protection  Act.  There  are  about  62  phytoplankton;  78  species  of  sea  weeds  (sangassam  ilicifolium),  2  species  of  sea  grass,  115  zooplankton  such  as  Acartia  clausii,  Acrocalanus  gibber,  Euphausia  diomedeae,  Stylocheiron  armatum  etc  are  observed along the Karnataka coasts apart  from  these  234  species  of  Mollusce  out  of  which  3  are  threatened  such  as  Tridacna  maxima,  Lambis  chiragra  and  placenta.  placenta. 33 species of shrimps were first  recorded  from  Karnataka  coasts  recently.  103 species of crabs, 5 species of star fish,  2 species of sea urchius, one species of sea  cucumber  have  been  observed  along  the  coasts. 390 marine fish species, 3 species of  sea turtles, 4 species of whales, 4 species of  dolphins  are  commonly  seen  along  the 
  • 5. - 5 - coasts. Existence of rich fringing coral reef  ecosystem surrounding the Nethrani Island  can be observed. 
  • 6. - 6 - The  coast  has  14  species  of  mangroves  belonging  to  8  families.  The  Mangroves  species  available  in  the  Coastal  Zone  of  Karnataka  are  Rhizophora  mucronata,  Acanthus  elicifolius,  Acrostichum  aureum,  Aegiceras  corniculatum,  Avicennia  marina,  Avicennia  officinalis,  Bruguiera  cylindrical.  Humanizenra,  Racemosa,  Excoecaria,  Agallocha,  Protersia,  Coaretata,  Bruguiera, gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia alba etc.     Mangroves in Karnataka    Karnataka has a coastline of over 320 kilometers. Fourteen rivers and several small rivulets,  which originate in the Western Ghats cut across the Coast to join the Arabian Sea. Towards  the coast, the salt water tides from the sea travel several Kilometers interior through the river  mouths providing congenial habitats for mangroves. Most Mangroves are of the fringing type  in  linear  formations  along  the  river  or  estuarine  banks.  Where  the  estuaries  are  wider,  especially in Swarna Sita‐Kodi, Gangoli, (towards the mouth of Haladi‐Chakra‐Kollur rivers),  Aghanashini and Kali there are several remarkable locations for mangroves.                                                       Acanthus ilicifolius                                              Bruguiera gymnorrhiza in flowers    Mangrove  swamps  develop  only  where  coastal  physiography  and  energy  conditions  are  favorable.  Mangroves  develop  best  in  the  region,  experiencing  abundant  rainfall,  evenly  distributed  throughout  the  year  and  when  the  climate  is  very  much  regular.  The  Coastal  Karnataka is a region of high humidity. The rainfall here varies from 2500mm to slightly over  3000mm, most of it is seasonal during June‐September. Karnataka Coast soil is a mixture of  laterite rock and clay.  Mangroves Species of Karnataka    Sl. No.  Family  Species  1  Acanthaceae  Acanthus ilicifolius  2  Combretaceae  Lumnitzera racemosa  3  Euphorbiaceae  Excoecaria agallocha  4  Myrsinaceae  Aegiceras corniculatum  5  Poaceae  Porteresia coarctata  6  Rhizophoraceae  ♦Bruguiera cylindrica  ♦Bruguiera gymnorrhiza  ♦Kandelia candel  ♦Rhizophora apiculata  ♦Rhizophora mucronata  7  Sonneratiaceae  ♦ Sonneratia alba  ♦ Sonneratia caseolaris  8  Verbenaceae  ♦ Avicennia marina  ♦ Avicennia officinalis 
  • 7. - 7 -   2. The Western Ghats                                     The  Western  Ghats  one  of  the  34   biodiversity  hotspots  of  the  world  is  a  chain of mountain ranges stretching North‐ South  along  the  western  peninsular  India  for about 1600 Kms. Western Ghats are the  habitats for the elephants and endangered  lion  tailed  macaque.  Western  Ghats  are  also  known  as  Sahyadri  mountain  ranges  in Karnataka. It runs North to South along  the Western edge of Deccan Plateau. 60%  of Western Ghats are located in Karnataka.  The  average  elevation  is  about  1200  meters MSL and receives rainfall between  3000  and  4000mm.  the  average  annual  temperature is around 15°C. The monsoon  season runs between June and September.  Tropical Evergreen Forests in Western Ghats    Forest  types  found  are  tropical  evergreen,  moist  and  dry  deciduous,  high  altitude  sholas,  savannas and scrubs. There are over 4500 species of flowering plants (38% endemic) 330  butterflies (11% endemic), 156 reptiles (62% endemics) 508 species birds (4% endemics)  150 mammals (12% endemics) 289 fishes (41% endemics) 135 amphibians (75% endemics)  are among the known biodiversity of Western Ghats.    The rich biodiversity coupled with higher endemism can be attributed to the humid tropical  climate,  topographical  and  geographical  characters.  Western  Ghats  form  an  important  watershed for the entire peninsular India, and is a source of west flowing rivers and three  major east flowing rivers. The Western Ghats belong to one of the oldest mountain ranges of  the planet; harbor numerous elements of flora and fauna having linage to the Gondavana land.    The important endemic tree species of the region are Dipterocarpus indicus, Hopea parivflora,  Myristica  fauna,  Gymnacranthera  canarica,  Vateria  indica,  Pinanga  dicksonal  Semi  carpus  Kathalekanensis is one of the lofty evergreen trees which have been discovered for the first  time in the Myristica swamps of Western Ghats.     BIODIVERSITY OF KARNATAKA  Number of Species………………………..1.2 lakhs  Flowering plants……………………….…4500 species  Birds……………………………………..…508 species  Mammals……………………………….....150 species  Reptiles…………………………………….156 species  Amphibians………………………………..135 species  Fishes (marine & brackish water)………...405 species  Fishes (fresh water)……………………….289 species  Butterflies……………………………….....330 speices  Medicinal plants………………………....1493 species which                                                       Includes 300 species in commercial use. 
  • 8. - 8 -                                             In  Western  Ghat  of  Karnataka  important  mountain  peak  are  Mullayanagiri,  Kudremukh,  Pushpagiri, Kemmangundi, Bababudangiri etc. The region has at least 325 globally threatened  species available in Western Ghats of Karnataka.    Western Ghats have some of the important protected areas such as Nagarahole, Bandipura,  Kuduremukh,  National  Parks,  Dandeli,  Bhadra,  Pushpagiri,  Brahmagiri  and  Talakaveri  Wildlife Sanctuaries.    Several economically important species such as Santalam album, Dalbergia Latifolia, Tectona  grandis,  Dysoxylon  malabaricum  are  naturally  grown  in  the  forests  of  Karnataka.  The  indiscriminate harvesting of NTFP such as Machilus macarantha and Halmaddi has resulted in  signification reduction in its population to a level which poses threat of extinction.     Sholas Forests    Sholas  are  usually  confined  to  sheltered  valleys,  hollows  and  depressions  where  there  is  adequate moisture and good drainage. The trees in shoals are evergreen and mostly short  boled. There is a marked difference in canopy layers. The main tree species growing in these  forests are Alseodapline semecarpifolia, cryptocarya beddonei, Gomphandra Cariacea, Gordina  abtusa, etc.    Adjoining shola forests the patches of grass lands are found on the higher evaluations of the  mountain where the wind velocity is very high. Phoenix loureirii and Hypericum mysurense are  common shrubs found scattered in the region   Biological Diversity Act 2002: The Biological Diversity Act, which came into force in  February 2003, aims to promote conservation, sustainable use and equitable sharing  of  benefits  arising  from  biodiversity  resources.  National  Biodiversity  Authority  established  at  Chennai  as  headquarters is the  apex  body. The  National  Biodiversity  Authority  plays  a  regulatory  role  with  regard to  access  to  biological  resources  by  foreign  citizens  and  grant  of  Intellectual  Property  Rights.  It  has  advisory  role  in  matters  relating  to  the  conservation,  sustainable  use  and  equitable  distribution  of  biological resources.     Karnataka Biodiversity Board was established during August 2003. The act provides  for  the  establishment  of  Biodiversity  Management  Committees  at  Grampanchayat,  Taluk Panchayat, Zilla Panchayat and Municipalities and other local bodies    The  State  Biodiversity  Board  advises  the  state  Government  on  matters  relating  to  conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components, also regulates access  of biological resources by Indian Citizens. The act also provides for the documentation  of biological diversity and knowledge related to biological diversity at the local body  levels. 
  • 9. - 9 -   The Western Ghats some highlights:      • One of the biologically richest regions of the world.  • Of  the  13,000  species  of  flowering  plants  found  in  India,  some  4,500  are  found  in  the  Western Ghats. Of these, some 1,500 are unique to the region.    • Wild  relatives  of  many  economically  valuable  plants,  like  pepper,  cardamom  ginger,  mango, jackfruit, millets, rice, etc. originate in the Western Ghats.     • The Western Ghats is the ‘hotspot’ of natural evolution.    • The evergreen forest dominated by trees of Cullenia, persea, Dipterocarpus, Diosphyros,  Holigarna and Memcylon found only in the Western Ghats.    • The deciduous forests – dominated by Terminalia, Largerstroemia, preterocarpus, Xylia,  Tectona  and  Anogeissus  species  are  some  of  the  most  valuable  commercial  timber  on  earth.    • The Western Ghats is a valuable source of bamboo/cane.    • It is home of wildlife in the sub‐continent–the last remnant habitat of major animals such  as the tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, lion tailed macaque etc.    • The region is rich in species of birds, amphibians and reptiles.           Semi EverGreen Forest 
  • 10. - 10 -   Richness and uniqueness of Western ghat of Karnataka    ♦ The Western Ghats comprises the mountain range that runs along the west coast of  India  from  the  Vindhya‐Satpura  ranges  in  the  north  to  the  southern  tip.  The  ecosystems  of  the  Western  Ghats  include  the  tropical  wet  evergreen  forests,  the  montane evergreen forests, moist deciduous force etc. The Shola grassland ecosystems  found in the higher reaches of Western Ghats are unique to this region and harbour a  number of endemic species.  ♦ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) has identified Western Ghats region  as one of the important areas of biodiversity.  ♦ The  varied  topographic,  climatic  and  geological  factors  have  made  significant  contribution to biodiversity. Almost one‐third of all the flowering plant species in India  are found in this region.  ♦ The Nilgiri BR spread over three states in Western Ghats was the first BR to be set up  in the country.  Threat status  ♦ In the past, the forests of the Western Ghats had been selectively logged. Large tracts  of forests were also converted to agricultural land for monoculture plantations of tea,  coffee, rubber, oil palm teak, eucalyptus, building reservoirs, roads and railways.  ♦ Over 20% of the original forest cover remains more or less in pristine condition and  the remaining is subject to varying degrees of human pressure including large scale  collection of fuel wood and NTFPs, Mass tourism, Grazing and forest fires are other  concerns.   ♦ The poverty is rife and economic development is poor in regions adjacent to forests  including the PAs. The competing needs of the people residing in the forest fringes lead  to frequent human wildlife conflicts.  ♦ Of the total known fauna, 102 species fall under different categories of threat and of  these,  mammals  (30  species,  21.9%)  and  amphibians  (52  species;  33.3%)  are  the  prominent groups.     Wildlife   The  State  of  Karnataka  located  in  South  India  has  a  rich  diversity  of  flora  and  fauna.  The  forests  support  25%  of  the  elephant  population  and  10%  of  the  tiger  population  of  India.  Many regions are yet unexplored and new species of flora and fauna are found periodically.               Lion Tailed Macaque  The  Niligiri  biosphere  was  established  reserve  in  1986,  The  Bandipur  and  Nagarhole National parks were included in  the reserve.     In  Karnataka  there  are  5  National  Parks  and 21 wildlife sanctuaries.      
  • 11. - 11 - The  faunal  species  found  in  various  forests  in  Western  Ghats  region  of  Karnataka  among  others includes. Elephant, Gaur, Sambar, Chital Bonnet, Common giant, Tiger, Leopard, Sloth  bear,  Striped  hyena,  Indian  Pangolin,  Indian  Chameleon,  Geckos,  Russell’s  viper,  Common  Krait and Indian Python.    The  animals  in  the  forest  of  dry  districts  include  Wolf,  Leopard  and  Pangolin  etc.  The  Blackbucks are found in Ranebennur. Peacocks are being protected in Bankapur Sanctuary  and Daroji Wild life sanctuary is famous for Sloth Bears.     Wildlife population in Karnataka    Tiger  Elephant  Panther  Bear  Wild bear  Deer  Bison  Sambar  Fox  395  6185  817  2324  15760  25850  8484  4998  957    National parks (5)    Name of the National parks  Area  (sq.km)  Season to   Visit  Anshi National park  250.00  Nov‐jun  Bandipur National Park  874.20  Jun‐oct  Bannergatta National Park   104.27  All seasons  Kudremukha National Park  600.32  Dec‐May  Nagarahole National Park  643.39  Sept.‐Mar    Sanctuaries (21)    Name of the Sanctuary    Area  (sq.km)  Season toVisit  Adichuchanagiri Peacock  Sanctuary  0.84 All seasons  Arabithittu Wildlife Sanctuary   13.50 Dec‐Feb  Attiveri Bird Sanctuary  2.23 Oct.‐Dec  BRT Wildlife Sanctuary  539.58 Oct.‐May  Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary  492.46 Sept.‐Mar  Brahmagiri Wildlife Sanctuary  181.80 Jan‐Mar  Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary  102.59 May‐Nov  Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary  475.02 Sept.‐May  Doraji  Bear  Sanctuary  55.87 Sept.‐jan  Ghataprabha Wildlife Sanctuary  20.78 Oct.‐Dec  Gudavi Bird Sanctuary  0.73 Jun‐Nov  Melukote Wildlife Sanctuary  45.82 Oct‐Apr.  Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary  247.00 Nov‐Apr  Nugu Wildlife Sanctuary  30.32 Oct‐Apr  Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary  102.59 Jan.‐Mar  Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary  0.67 All seasons  Ranibennur Blackbuck  Sanctuary  119.0 May‐Jan  Sharavathi Wildlife Sanctuary  431.23 Nov‐may  Shettihalla Wildlife Sanctuary  395.60 Nov‐May  Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary  88.40 Nov‐May  Thalakaveri Wildlife Sanctuary  105.00 May‐Jun  Oct‐Jan 
  • 12. - 12 -   Tiger Reserves    Name of the Tiger  Reserve  Area (Sq.  kms)  Year of   Establishment  Bandipur   874  1973  Bhadra  492  1998    Biosphere Reserve    Name of the Reserve  Area (Sq. kms)  Year of Establishment  Nilgiri  5520  1986    Recently discovered species    Many areas of Karnataka, especially in the forests of Malnad region are unexplored and new  species of flora and fauna are discovered from time to time. Some of the new species of flora  recently  discovered  in  Karnataka  include  Paracautleya  bhatii  (  a  ginger)  and  Isachne  veldampii  (a  grass),  both  of  which  were  discovered  near  Manipal  in  Udupi  district.  Two  species  of  algae,  Cosmarium  bourrellyi  and  Cosmarium  desikacharyi  were  discovered  in  a  paddy field in Belgaum. Other new species of flora discovered in Karnataka include Isoetes  Udupiensis (a flowering plant) and Pisolithus indicus (a fungus).    Some  of  the  new  species  of  fauna  discovered  include  two  species  of  ants,  Dilobocondyla  bangalorica which was discovered on the campus of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore  and Discothyrea sringerensis which was discovered near Sringeri. Three new species of frogs;  Philautus  luteolus,  Philautus  tuberohumerus  and  Nyctibatrachus  petraeus  have  been  discovered in Karnataka. Explorations in the Sharavathi river have yielded new fish species  like  Batasio  sharavatiensis  (a  bagrid  catfish),  Schistura  nagodiensis  and  Schinstura  Sharavathiensis.  Another  fish  species,  puntius  coorgensis  has  been  discovered  near  Bhagamandala  in  the  Kaveri  river.  Some  other  species  of  fauna  discovered  in  Karnataka  include  two  species  of  whiteflies  Distinctaleyrodes  setosus  and  Aleurocanthus  arecae  and  a  caecilian, Gegeneophis madhavai. Explorations in the soil around the Linganamakki reservoir  have revealed eleven new species of earthworms.     Endangered species                       Frog “Indirana gundia”  Karnataka  is  the  home  of  few  critically  endangered  species  of  flora  that  include  evergreen  trees  like  Dipterocarpus  bourdilloni,  Hopea  erosa  and  Hopea  jacobi  Croton  lawianus  (a  small  tree)  and  Pinnatella limbata (a type of moss). Some  of  the  critically  endangered  species  of  fauna  found  in  Karnataka  include  Gyps  indicus  (the  Indian  vulture)  and  two  species  of  frogs,  Indirana  gundia  (found  only  in  Gundia  range,  Sakleshpur)  and  Micrixalus Kottigeharensis (found only near  Kottigehara,  Chikkamagaluru  district).  
  • 13. - 13 - Some of the endangered species of flora include evergreen trees like Cynometra bourdillonii,  Cynometra  travancorica,  Hopea  glabra,  Hopea  parviflora,  Hopea  ponga,  Hopea  racophloea,  Hopea  wightinana,  shored  roxburghii  and  Tarenna  agumbensis  and  flowering  plants  like  Glochidion  pauciflorum,  Glochidion  tomentosum,  Ixora  lawsoni  and  Syszgium  stocksii.  Other  endangered  trees  found  in  Karnataka  include  Isonandra  stocksii,  Kingiodendron  Pinnatum,  Maesa velutina, Myristica magnifica, Rapanea striata and xylosma latifolium.    Endangered  species  of  fauna  found  in  Karnataka  include  the  tiger,  Indian  Elephant,  Lion‐ tailed  macaque,  turtle  and  dhole,  the  Indian  wild  dog.  Many  endangered  species  of  amphibians  are  found  here  including  frogs,  Indirana  brachytarsus,  Microhyla  sholigari,  Minervarya  sahyadris,  Nyctibatrachus  aliciae,  Nyctibatrachus  hussaini,  Nyctibatrachus  sanctipalustris,  philautus  charius,  philautus  wyaadensis,  Ramanells  mormorata  and  Rhycophorus laterals and a toad, Bufo Beddomii. Other endangered species of fauna include  Hipposideros hypophyllus ( the Kolar leaf­nosed bat) and Pseudomulleria dalyi (a molluse)    3. The Eastern Plains    The  Deccan  plateau  forms  the  eastern  plains  of  Karnataka.  This  forms  2/3  part  of  geographical  area  of  Karnataka.  This  area  receives  low  and  scanty  rainfall  and  the  temperature  is  very  high.  Therefore,  the  vegetation  is  thorny  scrub.  The  topography  is  generally rocky. The total forest area in this region accounts only 7% of the geographical area.                       The forests are scattered all over and in small pockets, open and stimulated but are known to  possess great variety in terms of plant and animal species. The hardiness of various species to  withstand the vagaries of nature in the form of extreme heat and drought conditions provides  good habitat for unique biodiversity in this area.     The Northern Plateau is generally flat with an average altitude 300‐600 meters above MSL.  The southern part consists of higher plateau upto 700 meters MSL. The soil types ranging  from laterites, red, red mixed yellow gray and black. The vegetation types of the region fall  into southern tropical dry deciduous and southern tropical thorn forests. The species occur  here are mostly Acacias, Hardwikicia, Neem, Pongamia, Somida, Santalam albam, Ficus etc. The  region has 1421 species of angiosperms belong to 696 genera under 140 families.  Out of 140  families 38 families are represented by 1 genus and 1 species only, 11 families have 1 genus  represented by 2 species. 5 families contain 1 genus and 3 species. 3 families have one genus  represented by 4 taxa. A total of 59 families (45%) are represented by a solitary genus only.  107  species  are  listed  as  medicinal  plants  but  due  to  scarce  occurrence  many  cannot  be  harvested.  There  are  some  endemic  species  in  the  region  such  as  Brachystelma  ciliatum,  Brachystelma  Kolarensis  from  Kolar  districts,  Brachystelma  elenaduensis  from  Tumkur  district, Schizachyrium sudhanshuii from Raichur district.    Fishes ­ Biodiversity    Fish  is  a  rich  source  of  proteins,  polyunsaturated  fatty  acids,  calcium,  iodine  and  important  vitamins  A,  D  etc.  Fish  yield  varieties  of  valuable  bye‐ products  such  as  fish  meal,  oil,  gelatin,  insulin  etc.  Fish,  being  an  important  commercial  commodity,  is  continuously  exploited  from  both  inland  and  marine  waters.                                                        Betta spendens Siamese Fighter Fish 
  • 14. - 14 - In India 2500 fish species have been recorded of which 930 are from fresh water habitats and  1570 from marine waters. The study reveals that fish fauna of Karnataka is represented by  300 freshwater and 405 marine species. These have been grouped under 23 Orders, ‐ 106  families and 241 genera.    Fish  as  food  has  been  harvested  for  several  decades  but  during  the  past  3‐4  decades  the  exploitations have been on an intensive scale resulting in diminished populations. Constantly  few efforts have been made to replenish fish stock. Pollution of marine waters through oil  spills, release of industrial wastes, radioactive residues, and untreated sewage entering from  coastal cities have adversely affected fish growth and size of fish population. In fresh water  habitats,  the  main  causes  for  the  decline  of  indigenous  fish  and  fisheries  resources  are  siltation, mining activities, land use activities etc. Added to this, water bodies are treated as  dumping grounds for garbage, sewage, industrial effluents etc. As a result these are becoming  increasingly polluted. Constructions of dams, weirs and barrages have resulted in stagnant  water bodies which helps to the growth of obnoxious weeds. Harmful fishing practices like  poisoning and dynamiting fish congregations in shallow water areas and pools have lead to  the decrease/destruction of their populations.     Increased  fishing  activities  in  marine  waters  through  trawling,  purse‐seining  and  fishing  during  the  breeding  seasons  have  adversely  affected  the  fish  populations.  Trawling  operations are mostly responsible for depletion of bottom dwelling fish species like perches  and prawns. Purse‐seining activities have brought down the catches of shoaling fishes like  mackerel and sardines and are responsible for large scale capture of young and immature,  gravid and brood fish as well. The most affected groups are clupeids, perches, polynemids,  sole (flat) fishes and elasmobranches (sharks, rays and skates). Amongst clupeids, oil sardine  and anchovies have shown wide fluctuations in the landings and a declining trend is evident.  Members belonging to Order Perciforme, notably seer fishes, mackerels, sciaenids, lactarius  (white fish), pomfrets and polynemids are caught in small numbers over the last two decades.  The sole fishery has also declined considerably. Similarly, increased long line fishing round  the year have brought down the population of sharks, rays and skates.    In inland waters, more thrust has been laid to increase fish production with the help of Indian  and  exotic  major  carps  alone.  The  native  species  such  as  indigenous  carps,  clupeids  and  murrels well attuned to ecological conditions have been neglected.  Among carps, Tor spp.  Labeo spp. Cirrhina spp and Puntis spp are the threatened groups further Silonia childreni,  Mystus  krishnensis  and  Bagarius  yarrelli  have  almost  disappeared  totally  from  their  freshwater habitats. The most economically important clupeid Hilsa ilisha has disappeared  totally  from  the  Krishna  and  Cauvery  riverine  systems  due  to  construction  of  dams  and  anicuts. Similarly abrupt decline in murrel fisheries is noticed for the past 2‐3 decades. In  majority  of  these  instances  the  prime  reason  for  reduction  in  fish  population  has  been  indiscriminate fishing, killing of the brood stock and young ones etc.                Long Finned Albino         
  • 15. - 15 - FRESHWATER FISHES                                                        The  annual  fish  production  in  the  state  from  the  freshwater  sector  is  about  1.2  lakh  metric  tones  and  the  production  of  marine  fishes  has  remained  at  1.70  lakh  metric  tones  level  for  many  years.  The  Department  of  Fisheries  in  the  state,  in  order  to  boost  inland  fish  production  to  meet the growing demand, laid more stress  on the culture of fast‐growing Indian major  carps  like  Catla  catla,  Labeo  rohita  and  Cirrhinus  mrigala,  as  also  exotic  fish  such  as – Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys  molitrix  and  Ctenopharyngodon  idella.  These  introduced  fish  species  have  adopted  well  in  freshwater.  Since  few  years,  the  introduced  Cyprinus  carpio  (Common carp) and inadvertently entered  Oreochromis  mossambica  (Tilapia)  have  dominated  in  the  inland  water  fishery,  as  they  breed  and  multiply  fast  in  a  short  span of time. The introduction of all these  fish species, has resulted in the decline of  the    population  of  indigenous  fish  species  including Labeo, Cirrhinus, Puntis, Catfish,  Murrels, etc. MARINE FISHES OF KARNATAKA    Karnataka state is endowed with vast marine and fresh water resources. The state has 300  km of coastline, 27,000 sq.km continental shelf and 87,000 sq. km of exclusive economic zone  besides 8,000 ha of brackish water area. The marine fish production potential is estimated at  around 4.25 lakh M.T. per annum. Prior to introduction of mechanized fishing crafts and gear,  the  marine  fish  landings  were  around  0.18  lakh  M.T.  per  annum.  With  the  introduction  of  mechanized  trawlers  for  harvesting  bottom  dwelling  fishes,  and  purse  seines  for  pelagic  fishes and gill netters for mid water species, the fish landing has recorded a high of 2.23 lakh  M.T per annum.      In Karnataka, mackerels, sardines, anchovics and other elupeids form the dominant pelagic  fishing while catfishes, Sciaenids, Perches, sharks and etc. constitute the deep sea fishing.    
  • 16. - 16 -   The  experience  has  shown  that  the  landings of some fish species have shown  significantly  declining  trend  and  keeping  these  facts  in  mind,  certain  conservation  measures  are  being  enforced.  Declaration  of  a  closed  season  for  fishing  during  monsoon  (June  to  August)  under  Karnataka Marine Fisheries Regulation Act  is  a  welcome  measure.  Similarly  banning  the  operation  of  mechanized  fishing  vessels in a 10 km radius of foreshore has  set apart a 3,000 sq. km area for traditional  fishing and thus prevent over exploitation  in foreshore water. The ban on exploiting  brood  fishes  during  spawning  season  (Monsoon)  and  prevent  catching  of  juveniles  using  small  meshed  fishing  nets  are  measures  aimed  to  improve  fish  production in years to come.                                                           Tiger­barbes   Decrease  in  fish  production  is  mainly  attributed  to  discharge  of  domestic  and  untreated  industrial effluents, detergents, oil spillage, indiscriminate fishing by foreign fishing vessels in  E Z area etc.       THREATENED FISHES OF KARNATAKA                                                           Bony fish          Though  there  are  14  locations  identified  for  declaration  as  fish  sanctuaries  in  Karnataka, five of them have been declared  as  fish  sanctuaries  by  the  Government  under  Karnataka  Inland  Fisheries  (Conservation, Development & Regulation)  Act  1996,  one  is  located  in  the  Forest  Sanctuary  (Muttatti  area)  which  is  under  the  supervision  of  Jungle  Lodges  and  Resorts Organization. The remaining seven  are  in  protected  state  to  some  extent  as  they are under the jurisdiction of religious  organizations  like  temples  and  ashrams  (mutts).                
  • 17. - 17 - In  these  sanctuaries  some  of  the  threatened  species  are  sheltered  but  not  managed  on  scientific lines. These fish also face the threat of destruction due to habitat alteration, over  exploitation,  pollution,  siltation,  weed  infestation,  poisoning,  dynamiting,  introduction  of  prolific breeding exotic fish, as such, there is reduction in their numbers.    Sporadic  efforts  have  been  made  to  stock  the  sport  fish  “Mahseer”  in  certain  stretches  of  rivers Cauvery and Sharavati. One of these is located in the forest sanctuary (Muttati Area).  This stretch of river is leased to M/s.Jungle Lodges and Resorts, Government of Karnataka.  Nisargadhama near Kushalnagar, Madikeri district is also a protected place and is under the  supervision of Forest Department. As a step towards artificial propagation of “Mahseer”, a  hatchery at Harangi is established.    In recent years it is observed that marine waters are also getting polluted due to discharge of  industrial/domestic  effluents,  oil  spills,  dumping  of  radio  active  waste,  over  exploitation,  fishing  during  monsoon,  operation  of  mechanized  vessels  in  demarcated  10  km  zone  for  traditional fishing. Clandestine fishing by foreign vessels in EEZ area has resulted in decline of  marine  fish  landings  consequently  affecting  certain  fish  species.Thus  it  is  imperative  that  immediate steps be taken to rehabilitate the threatened fish species.    The following fish species are reported to be on the verge of extinction –     1. Labeo fimbriatus (Bloch)  2. Labeo kontius (Jerdon)  3. Labeo porcellus (Heckel)  4. Labeo potail (Sykes)  5. Labeo calbasu (Hamilton Buchanan)  6. Labeo nigrescens (Day)  7. Gonoproktopterus  curmuca  (Hamilton  –  Buchanan)  8. Gonoproktopterus dubius (Day)  9. Gonoproktopterus micropogon  (Valenciennes)  10. Gonoproktopterus thomassi (Day)  11. Puntius carnaticus (Jerdon)  12. Puntius dorsalis (Jerdon)  13. Puntis narayani (Hora)  14. Puntis puckelli (Day)  15. Neolissochilus hexagonolepis (McClelland)  16. Thynnichthys sandkhol (Sykes)  17. Mystus krishnensis Ramakrishnaiah  18. Mystus punctatus (Jerdon)  19. Neotropius khavalchor kulkarni  20. Bagarius yarrelli (Sykes)                          Labeo fimbriatus                 Labidochromis caeruleus
  • 18. - 18 - Medicinal Plants                    Saraca ashoka    Forests  of  Karnataka  harbours  1493  medicinal  plants  belonging  to  808  genera  and  108  families.  They  occur  in  different  vegetation types across the Western Ghats.  Medicinal plants are most valuable natural  resources. Rapid  urbanization  and  habitat  loss  is  resulting  in  the  loss  of  many  important  medicinal  plants.  Medicinal  plants  find  application  in  pharmaceutical,  cosmetic,  agriculture,  animal  husbandry  and food industries. Some of the medicinal  plants are on the verge of extinction due to  unsustainable  harvest  and  lack  of  knowledge,  some  of  the  medicinal  plants  on  the  verge  of  extinction  are  Rauvolfia  serpentine,  saraco  asoca,  Glorisa  superba  etc.  Medicinal Plants are the main ingredients of local medicines and are of vital importance in  traditional healthcare. People use medicinal plant species for sustenance of their traditional  healthcare  system  both  logistically  as  well  as  economically.  But  an  inclination  towards  modern technology and over extraction of many of these plants have resulted in considerable  depletion of the population of such species and some have become extinct.  In Karnataka according to a study of the Botanical Survey of India there are 3924 species  belonging  to  1323  genera  and  199  families  in  the  forests,  of  which  1493  species  are  of  medicinal  value.  These  belong  to  808  genera  and  108  families.  They  occur  in  different  vegetation  types  across  the  Western  Ghats.  It  is  estimated  that  90%  of  the  industrial  requirement of plant material is coming from the forests. In the direction of conservation the  Species recovery programme by conserving the habitat of threatened medicinal plants and  steps to enhance production seem to be the only solution to stop further degradation. The  Karnataka  Forest  Department  has  initiated  various  programmes  for  the  conservation  of  medicinal  herbs,  shrubs  and  trees  associated  with  traditional  methods  of  medicine.  The  traditional knowledge ‐ based Indian ethnic medicine system can help in improving general  wellness.                           Rauvolfia serpentina (Serpentwood)                                          Cinchona Succirubra (Cinchona) 
  • 19. - 19 - Atharvaveda is the oldest world literature on plant use against diseases. Many diseases are  mentioned  in  Atharvaveda.  To  combat these  diseases  many  plants  were  prescribed  in  the  process  of  treatment.  Charaka  samhitha  and  Sushrutha  samhitha  are  the  two  major  post‐ Vedic codified literature in Ayurveda. In Ayurveda and other systems of medicine  different  parts of the same plant in different seasons and for different therapeutics are used.   These medicinal plants are most valuable natural resources. Rapid urbanization is resulting in  the loss of many important medicinal plants. Scientific documentation of medicinal plants has  proved  a  helpful  resource  for  Ayurvedic  healthcare  system.  Only  a  quarter  of  the  world  population  knows  the  helpfulness  of  different  Indian  medicinal  plants.  With  the  help  of  modern scientific knowledge and research we can develop a healthcare system without side  effects.The literature on medicinal plants is written in Sanskrit. This knowledge is used in  synthesis  of  life  saving  drugs.  According  to  World  Health  Organization  almost  33%  of  the  world population living in Asia and Africa is not able to buy essential drugs. This problem can  be solved by replacing the high‐priced drugs with traditional medicines which is effective,  cheaper ones derived from naturally occurring resources.  Importance of Medicinal plants:  Medicinal  plants  find  application  in  pharmaceutical,  cosmetic,  agricultural  and  food  industries. The use of medicinal herbs for curing diseases has been documented in the history  of all civilizations. Man in the pre‐historic era was probably not aware of the health hazards  associated with irrational therapy. With the onset of research in medicine, it was concluded  that  plants contain  active  ingredients,  which  are  responsible  for  the  curative  action  of  the  herbs.  Before the onset of the synthetic era, man was completely dependent on medicinal herbs for  the prevention and treatment of diseases. With the introduction of scientific procedures the  researchers  were  able  to  understand  the  toxic  ingredients  present  in  the  green  flora.  The  scientists  isolated  active  constituents  of  the  medicinal  herbs  and  after  testing  some  were  found to be therapeutically active. Aconitine, atisine, lobeline, nicotine, strychnine, digoxin,  atropine, morphine are some common examples.  Recent research has substantiated the biological activities of some medicinal herbs. Cancer is  one  such segment  where  researchers  are  expecting  new  molecules  from  herbs  that  can  provide us with tools for fighting this dreaded disease. Diabetes is another area where a lot of  research is going on.  Medicinal plants Conservation  Medicinal Plants are the main ingredients of local medicines and are of vital importance in  traditional health care. People use medicinal plants species for sustenance of their traditional  health care system both logistically as well economically. But due to more inclination towards  modern Technology and over extraction of many of these plants has resulted in considerable  depletion of the population of such species and some have become extinct.   In  Karnataka  with  the  help  of  Foundation  for  Revitalization  of  Local  Health  Traditions  (FRLHT)  Bangalore,  13  Medicinal  Plant  Conservation  Areas  (MPCA)  and  Medicinal  Plant  Development Areas (MPDA) have been established and are being managed with the help of 
  • 20. - 20 - local people. Details of Medicinal Plants Conservation Areas (MPCA) in Karnataka are given  below:  Location of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) in Karnataka     Sl.  No.   Name of the MPCA  Height about  MSL (m)   Forest type sub­group   1.   BRT Hills   790‐1050   Southern dry mixed deciduous forest   2.   Sandur   550‐773   Southern dry mixed deciduous forest   3.   Savanadurga   800‐970   Dry Deciduous scrub   4.   Karpakapalli   600‐750   Dry Deciduous Scrub   5.   Talacauvery   1000‐1355   West coast semi‐evergreen forest   6.   Subramanya  Temple   250‐800   West coast semi‐evergreen forest   7.   Charmadi   300‐1250   West coast semi‐evergreen forest   8.   Devimane   50‐500   West coast semi‐evergreen forest   9.   Kudremukh   760‐820   Southern hill top tropical evergreen forest   10.  Kemmanagundi   1300‐1700   Southern hill top tropical evergreen forest   11.  Devarayanadurga   850‐1040   Southern thorn forests   12.  Agumbe   600‐700   West coast tropical evergreen forest   13.  Kollur      West coast tropical evergreen forest.    Medicinal plants are important component of natural resources and are currently recognized  throughout the world. An estimated 30,000 species fall into this group. Around 90% of the  species are used by eco system people and 10% of the world‐known medicinal plants are in  national  and  global  trade.  Around  70%  of  worlds  known  plants  occur  in  tropical  forests.  Remaining 30% occur in temperate, alphine and high altitude vegetation.   Major diversity of medicinal plant species exist in the forest, hence it is necessary to promote  in  situ  conservation  of  these  medicinal  plants  in  natural  resources.  Further,  it  is  also  necessary that these plants are made available for people to meet their needs of medicinal  plants. Hence, Insitu and exsitu conservation strategies are required.  Indian Medicinal plants in Trade Shrubs, 20% Trees, 24% Herbs , 56% Shrubs Trees Herbs Use of Medicinal Plants by parts Whole plant, 16.3% Rhizomes, 4.4% Bark, 13.5% Wood, 2.8% Stem, 5.5% Seeds, 6.6% Fruits, 10.3% Flow er , 5.2% Leaves, 5.8% Roots, 29.6% Whole plant Rhizomes Bark Wood Stem Seeds Fruits Flow er Leaves Roots   The  following  are  some  of  the  strategies  to  be  considered  for  the  sustainable utilization of medicinal plant wealth: 
  • 21. - 21 - (a) Sustainable harvesting from the wild.  (b) Collection of critically endangered species should be strictly banned from the trade  for certain period  c. Assessment  of  the  threat  status  of  different  enlisted  medicinal  plants  in  order  to  prioritize the plants to be selected for immediate care. People’s participatory program  can  be  included  for  this  type  of  study  as  the  local  people  are  the  real  information  source for getting the clear idea of the present and past distribution of a particular  species at a particular locality.   d. Medicinal  plant  under  high  demand  but  under  the  threat  category  has  to  be  given  prime importance for future research studies.  e. Wherever possible, integration should be practiced between food crops and medicinal  plant cultivation.  f. Adoption  of  a  net  working  system  involving  public  and  private  institutions  so  that  there is complete linkage in Large‐scale cultivation projects funded by industries on  marginal  lands  with  the  available  agro‐techniques  so  as  to  stabilize  the  supply,  regularize trade and quality of material.  g. Research program for those species whose regeneration capacity with the available  material is very poor and  knowledge about their biology and life cycle is limited    Important Bio-resources used by Bio-industries in Karnataka Sl No Trade Name/ Local Name/English Name Botanical Name Total Qty. in Kgs Total No. of Companies 1 Satawari Asparagus racemosa 51442.3 65 2 Ashwaganda Withania Sominifera 48552.4 98 3 Amla Emblica officinalis 42361.8 68 4 Alale/ Alalekaisippe Terminalia Chebula 40855.1 64 5 Bevu / Neem Azadiracha indica 31800.6 39 6 Amrutha balli Tinospora cordifolia 21472.1 32 7 Hippali sanna Piper Longum 19373.9 76 8 Tulsi Occimum sanctum 19195.8 34 9 Adusoge Adathoda Vasaka 18090.8 55 10 Tarekai sippe Terminalia belarica 17915.3 43 11 Shunti / Ginger Ginger Oil 17629.3 38 12 Drakshi Vitis Vinifera 17533.1 41 13 Bala Sida-Cardifolia 17350.32 30 14 Kumari Aloe barbadensis 15808 29 15 Kachu / Khadira Acacia Catechu 15776.8 43 16 Bhringamalakadi Taila Eclipta alba 13078 37 17 Menasu Piper nigrum 11406.2 56 18 Athimadhura Glycyrrhiza glabra 11031.8 51 19 Ginger Zingiber Officinale 10946.52 49
  • 22. - 22 - 20 Guggulu Cuminium cyminum / Commiphora wighti 10303.8 61 21 Brahmi Bacopa monneri 10298.6 29 22 Neggilu Tribulus Terrestirs 9387.3 45 23 Ahoka Saraca Indica 9096.1 45 24 Arishina curcumalonga 8960.9 67 25 Kantakari Solanum zanthocarpum 8625.5 46 26 Komme beru Boerehavia diffusa 8225.1 48 27 Lodhrasava Scyzizium Aromatic 6843.2 57 28 Brhati Solanum indicum 6428.76 25 29 Konnari gadde Cyprus rotundus 6232.2 37 30 Billvapathre Aegle Marmelos 6182.8 38 31 Elakhi Elattaria cardamomum 5869.5 47 32 Pushkaramoola Inuala Racemosa 5766.8 30 33 Kotambari Coriadrum sativum 5495.1 34 34 Jirige Bili Cummininum cyminum 5291 40 35 Dalchini Cinnamomum zeylancium 5124.6 50 36 Baje Acorus calamus 4726.8 41 37 Lakkisoppu Vitex negundo 4401.8 25 38 Ajamoda Apium leptophyllum 4322.5 31 39 Arjuna Terminalia Arjuna 4285.32 28 40 Devadaru Cedrus deodara 3887 38 41 Jayi pathre Myristica Fragrns 3568.5 44 42 Ananthamoola Hemedesmus indicus 3456.96 28 43 Kudachal Hoarrhena antidysenterica 3372.2 25 44 Jatamanasi Nardostachys jatamansi 2971.8 39 45 Daruhaldi Berberis Aristata 2296.32 35 46 Kutki Picorothiza kurroa 1801.8 26 47 Shyonaka Oroxylum indicum 1315.132 32
  • 23. - 23 -   Birds Biodiversity    Birds  can  live  in  different  habitats  depending  upon  the  living  conditions,  different  species  live  in  different  geographical  zones  such  as  sea  birds  like  terns  and  gulls  etc,  and  the  spectacular  white  bellied  sea  eagle  can  be  seen  in  coastal region.    Western  ghats  are  the  most  important  habitat  for  birds  like  Nilgiri  Wood‐pegion  (Columba  elphinstonii),  Bluewinged  or  Malabar parakeet (Psittacula columboides),  Whitebellied  treepie  (Dendrocitta  leucogastra),  Gray  headed  Bulbul  (Pycnonotus priocephalus), Rufous Babbler  (Turdoides  subrufus),  Rufousvented/Wayanad  laughing  thrush  (Garrulax  delesserti),  Whitebreasted/Grey‐ breasted  laughing  Thrush  (Garrulax  jerdoni),  Black  and  orange/black  and  rufous  flycatcher  (Muscicapa  nigrorufa),  White‐bellied  Blue  flycatcher  (Muscicapa  pallipes),  Niligiri  flycatcher  (Muscicapa  albicaudata),  Broad‐tailed  Grasswarbier/grassbird  (Schoenicola  platyura),  Rufous‐bellied/white  bellied  shorwing  (Brachypteryx  major),  Nilgiri  Pipit (Anthus nilghiriensis)                                        Red Munia        Spotted Dove            Yellow Throated Bulbul          
  • 24. - 24 - The bird species varies considerably according to the different regions.  a) Coastal Karnataka: Offers good opportunities to sight sea birds like terns and gulls and  many other water birds, particularly in winter. The beaches of Uttara Kannada district offer  spectacular views of the Whitebellied Sea Eagle.   b) Western Ghats: The lifeline of a majority of south India's flora and fauna. An action zone for  bird life and also importantly some of the largest and most beautiful butterflies of the Indian  sub‐continent. Good birding can be done around streams and waterholes. Forest species like  Fairy blue bird, Malabar Trogan [and butterflies like southern birdwing, Paris peacock, Red  Helen] can be sighted in the high altitude shola‐grassland ecosystem of Kudremukh National  Park (Chickmagalur / Udupi districts) and Baba Budaingiris (south & south–eastern portions  of  Bhadra  WLS),  Rainforests  of  Bisle  (Sakleshpura  taluk),  Pushpagiri  WLS,  Brahmagiris  (Brahmagiri WLS, South Kodagu dist.) and also some parts of Billigiri Ranganatha hills (B.R.T.  WLS, Chamrajnagar dist.)  c) Deccan Plateau / Eastern Plains: Virtually all the districts of east Karnataka are in the rain  shadow area. They have good scrub forests and also some very good grasslands. Important  birding  areas  are  the  grasslands  of    Ranibennur  (Haveri  dist.),  grasslands  of  Maidenahalli  (Madhugiri  taluk),  dry  deciduous  forests  of  Sandur  (Bellary),  Devarayanadurga  hills  (near  Tumkur),  Savanadurga  state  forest  (Magadi  Taluk,  Bangalore  rural  district),  Cauvery  WLS  (Mandya dist.)  Endemic birds:   The maximum number of endemic birds in Karnataka are found along the Western Ghats. The  following is the list of birds endemic to Western Ghats of  Karnataka:    1.    Nilgiri Wood‐Pigeon (Columba elphinstonii)     2.    Bluewinged or Malabar parakeet (Psittacula columboides)    3.   Whitebellied treepie (Dendrocitta leucogastra)    4.   Grey‐headed Bulbul (Pycnonotus priocephalus)    5.   Rufous Babbler (Turdoides subrufus)    6.   Rufousvented / Wayanad laughing thrush (Garrulax delesserti)    7.   Whitebreasted / Grey‐breasted Laughing Thrush (Garrulax jerdoni)    8.   Black and orange / Black and rufous flycatcher (Muscicapa nigrorufa)    9.   White‐bellied Blue flycatcher (Muscicapa pallipes)   10.   Nilgiri flycatcher (Muscicapa albicaudata)   11.   Broad‐tailed Grasswarbler / Grassbird (Schoenicola platyura)   12.   Rufous‐bellied / White‐bellied Shortwing (Brachypteryx major)   Coppersmith   13.   Nilgiri Pipit (Anthus nilghiriensis)   14.   Small / Crimson‐backed sunbird (Nectarinia minima)  Ø  Yellow‐throated  bulbul  is  a  rare  bulbul  patchily  distributed  in  the  rocky  hills  of  southeastern Karnataka, B.R.T. sanctuary are good places to watch these birds.  Ø Grassland birds like Great Indian Bustard, Indian courser, sandgrouses and other ground  birds can be sighted at Ranibennur (Haveri dist.) and Jayamangali Blackbuck  Conservation  Reserve near Maidenahalli village in Tumkur district.     
  • 25. - 25 - Orchids      A typical orchid in Western Ghats        Orchids  are  highly  evolved  and  specialized  group  of  plants.  They  are  special  types  of  plants,  very  sensitive  found in Western Ghats as epiphytes on  tree trunks also as terrestrial or marshy  soils.  Karnataka  has  176  species  of  orchids  from  49  genera;  most  of  them  are endangered and are brought under  wildlife protection act.    Some  of  the  orchids  found  in  Western  ghats  are  Aerides  erispa,  calautne  sylvatica,  Derdrbium aquem, eria albiflora, oberonia bieormis etc.    Orchid  species  survive  in  a  narrow  range  of  ecological  and  micro‐site  conditions.  Orchids number over 17,000 wild species worldwide. In India, some 924 species are  listed  of  which  287  species  (31%)  are  endemic.  In  the  Western  Ghats  46%  of  the  species are endemic.    Orchids are a unique group of flowering plants occurring in abundance in humid tropics and  also in temperate areas. In India about 1200 species occurs of which the Western Ghats has  275 species and Karnataka in particular has 175 species.    Orchids  are  either  epiphytes  or  terrestrial.  Among  the  terrestrial  a  few  are  sapophytes  growing on decaying materials found in the soil. Such ground orchids have tubers with well  developed  roots,  which  are  infested  with  mycorrhiza,  a  benevolent  partner  to  absorb  nutrition from the soil. As a contrast, epiphytic orchids are tree dwellers without any organic  connection  with  their  hosts.    They  develop  aerial  roots  which  have  a  capacity  to  absorb  moisture  from  the  atmosphere  and  swollen  fleshy  stems  at  the  bottom  which  constitute  pseudobulbs.Orchids  have  herb  like  growth  rarely  shrub  like  growth  forms  with  simple  leaves in pairs or in clusters. A few orchids have variegated colors or patterns, externally.       Vanda roxburghii
  • 26. - 26 - The most unique features of flowers are their shape, size and odour. They   are symmetrical  or asymmetrical in floral parts unlike the other flowers of plant kingdom. They exhibit an  infinite variations in having dissimilar sepals and petals, with a varied lips, and a columns  with fused style, stigma and stamen (Gynospemium).Another distinct features of the flowers  are spurs and pollen grains aggregated together to form a pollinium with sticky base.    Flowers show a mimicry which is an indication of a deceitful pollination mechanisms in the  form  of  insects,  spiders  and  animals.    Another  distinct  feature  in  orchid  flower  is  resupination,  a  phenomenon  of  twisting  180  to  bring  the  lip  into  a  position  favorable  for  insect to land safely and bring about pollination.    Commercially  a  few  orchids  and  their  hybrids  in  cut  flower  trade  are  important  in  flower  industry. Among the Indian orchids Dendrobium, Vanda, Cymbidium have been much used in  producing hybrids.    Orchids grow in nature by means of tiny seeds or by developing additional fresh seedlings  (kekii). Commercially, they are grown in test tubes in special base in ascptic conditions or by  means of detached growing portion of leaves for large scale commercial production.    The high endemism in orchids is perhaps because of certain physiological adaptive syndrome  of the family bringing greater constraints on their existences, spread and replenishment in  any particular area, viz..,    • Their existences in specific niches within the fragile ecosystem.  • Insect  pollination  in  most  of  the  species,  particularly  needing  specific  vectors  to  visit  different specifies.  • Inability to achieve fertilization in maximum number of ovules for viable seeds due to the  fact that each ovary of the orchid possesses millions of ovules.  • Presence of an unorganized embryo in the seed, also without any food storage and hence  needing  infection  of  a  specific  strain/race  of  mycorrhiza  as  a  food  supplier  before  germination.  • Absence  of  corridors  for  orchid  seedlings/propagules  to  pass  similar  niches  for  establishment and dispersal.          Orchid ­    Sonia    As the south‐west monsoon clouds the entire area with its insistent rain, most of the hilly  slopes once dry is soon draped in the graceful velvet of green grassy blanks with dappled  sprouting of terrestrial orchids such as the Habenaria grandifloriflormis, H.longicorniculatat, 
  • 27. - 27 - H.heyneana etc. among the epiphytic orchids magnificent blooms of Aerides sp., rhynchostlis  retusa, hangs out in the drizzling rain from their arboreal abodes of tree branches.                     Many  smaller  orchids  such  as  Eria  dalzellli  bloom  late  in  the  rainy  season  from  trees  and  bigger shrubs such as Phyllanthus emblica, Careya arborea, Randia dumetorum etc. As the rain  calms  down  and  the  cold  wind  starts  prevailing  through  valleys  and  hills,  orchids  such  as  Dendrobium barbatulum, Oberonia brunoniana, Bulbophyluum neilgherrense etc., blooms from  their perched corners of the trees in their myriads of colors. Many small creatures including  the  scorpions  safely  make  their  homes  in  these  highly  colonized  orchids.  With  the  winter  coming to a close and the valleys becoming more hotter, it is summer time and epiphytes like  Acampe  praemorsa,  Dendrobium  lawnianum,  D.  macrostachyum,  D.crepidatum,  Cymbidium  aloifolium etc., starts flowering, becoming a cynosure to the eyes of the onlooker.    The “Hotspots” of orchids in Western Ghats of Karnataka are:        1. Tadianamol in Kodagu (61 species, 6 endemic)  2. Bababudan in Chickmagalore (41 species, 18 endemic)  3. Dandeli in Uttara Kannada district (37 species, 23 endemic)           
  • 28. - 28 - Butterflies      Butterflies  are  biological  indicators  of  the  habitats.  They  are  very  sensitive  to  their  environment, their very presence or absence indicates the health of the environment.  There are over 300 species of Butterflies in Karnataka, Some of them are endangered  such as Crimson rose, Danaid Eggfly etc.                         Plain Tiger            Brown Demon           Grass  Yellow                                     The forests provide the ideal habitat for a  wide variety of rare and endemic butterfly  and moth species. These evergreen forests  with  tall  canopy  trees  provide  filtered  sunlight  that  is  beneficial  to  butterflies.  Different  species  of  butterflies  and  moths  require different host species of plants for  laying  eggs  and  carrying  out  their  respective  life  cycle.  Coffee  forests  accommodate a wide variety of herbs and  shrubs  which  act  as  ideal  hosts  for  the  caterpillars to feed on. Other wild species  of  grasses  and  plants  which  form  the  undergrowth act as larval host plants. The  valleys  with  small  waterfalls  and  rivulets  provide  diverse  micro‐  habitats  for  the  proliferation of butterflies               Blue Wonderer    Malbar Banded Swallotail     
  • 29. - 29 -                                  Common Leopard                  Butterflies  are  depicted  as  symbols  in  art  since  the  times  immemorial.  They  are  among  the  most  fascinating  and  beautiful  insects.  Butterflies  undoubtedly  are  the  most  attractive  among  all  insects.  Vivid  colours,  shapes,  sizes  and  patterns  have  fascinated  man  from  Bronze  Age.  Most  butterflies  are  diurnal  and  hence,  easy  to  observe. Butterflies are the subject for the  study  for  both  biologists  and  the  layman.  Butterflies  are  primary  consumers  and  so  are  important  in  any  ecosystem.  The  life  cycle  of  butterflies  are  closely  related  to  plants.  Relationship  between  any  species  of  plants  and  butterfly  is  very  specific.  Plants  and  butterflies  have  co‐evolved  together.  Butterflies  are  sensitive  to  environmental changes and are indicators.                        Common Sailor    The order Lepidoptera is the second largest diverse group of insects. So far, 1,40,000 species  have been described. Of them 17,200 species are butterflies (Rhaopalocera). Lepidopterans  have scales all over the body. Butterflies fly during the day, moths during night. Butterflies at  rest hold the wings vertically over the back. Moths, in contrast may either hold the wings tent  like over the back or wrap them around the body or extend them to the sides. Virtually all  butterflies have  knob like  clubs  at  the tip  of  the  antennae.  Moths  lack  antennal  clubs.  The  caterpillar has three pairs of walking legs and five pairs of prolegs.                            Common Castor      Yellow Pansy                     Common Jezbal    Western Ghats and Himalayas hold maximum species of butterflies and these are hotspots.  The largest Indian butterfly is the common bird wing (19 cm at wing span) and smallest is the  grass  jewel  (1.5  cm  at  wing  span).  Colias  hyale  Cramer  and  Appias  hippo  are  endangered  butterfly species. 
  • 30. - 30 - Butterflies in coastal Karnataka.    Sl.No.  Butterfly  Species    FAMILY   PAPILIONIDAE    1  Southern  birdwing  Troides minos Cramer  2  Common jay  Graphium doson Feeder  3  Tailed jay  Graphium gamemnon Linn.  4  Lime butterfly  Papilio demoleus Linn.  5  Common mormon  Papilio polymnestor Linn.  6  Common mormon  Papilio polytes romulus  7  Common mormon  Papilio polytes stichius  8  Common rose  Pachiliopta aristolochiae Fab  9  Common mime  Papilio clytia L  10  Red helen  Papilio helenus L  11  Blue marmon  Papilio polymenester Cramer  12  Crimson rose  Pachiliopta hector L  13  Spotted swordtail  Pathysa nomius nomius Es  14  Common Bluebottle  Graphium sarpedon  15  Paris peacock  Papilo paris  16  Malabar banded peacock  Papilio Buddha  17  Common banded peacock  Papilio crino  18  Malabar rose  Papchliopta pandiyana    FAMILY   PIERIDAE    19  Common emigrant  Catopsilia Domona Cramer  20  Common jezebel  Delias eucharis Drury  21  Common wanderer  Pareronia valeria Fabricius  22  Common grass yellow  Eurema hecabe Moore  23  Small grass yellow  Eurema lecabe Linn.  24  Mottled emigrant  Catopsilla pyraithe Linn.  25  Great orange tip  Hebomoia glaucippe L  26  Pioneer  Anaphaeis aurota Fab.  27  Common gull  Cepora sps.  28  Albatross  Appias albina  29  White orange tip  Ixias sp.  30  Plain orange tip  Colotis eucharis  31  Psyche  Leptosia nina          FAMILY NYMPHALIDAE    32  Common leopard  Phalanta phalantha Drury  33  Common sailor  Neptis hylas Moore  34  Yellow pansy  Junonia hierta Fabricius  35  Common castor  Ariadne merione Cramer  36  Plain tiger  Danaus chrysippus Linn.  37  Common tiger  Danus genutia Cramer  38  Common Indian crow  Euploea core Cramer  39  Danaid egg fly  Hypolimnas misippus L  40  Great egg fly  Hypolimnas bolina jacintha  41  Rustic  Cupha erimanthis D  42  Common baron  Euthalia aconthea C  43  Baronet  Euthalia nais F  44  Grey count  Tanaceia lepida B  45  Chocolate pansy  Precis iphita C  46  Peacock pansy  Junonia hierta F  47  Lemon pansy  Junonia lemonias L 
  • 31. - 31 - 48  Clipper  Parthenos Sylvia L  49  Angled castor  Ariadne ariadne  50  Baron  Euthalia garuda  51  Blue admiral  Nanesia canace  52  Blue pansy  Précis orithya  53  Black rajah  Charaxex fabius  54  Commander   Linenitis procris  55  Common nawab  Eriboea athomas  56  Common sergent  Pantoporia perius  57  Joker  Byblia ilithyia  58  Lacewing  Cethosia nietneri  59  Yeomen  Cirrochroa thais  60  Grey pansy  Précis atlites  61  Red admiral  Vanessa indica    FAMILY   SATYRINAE    62  Common evening brown  Melanitis leda leda D.  63  Common brush brown  Mycalesis perseus F  64  Common four ring  Ypthima hubneri K  65  Common five ring  Ypthima balbus Fab    FAMILY   LYCAENIDAE    66  Lesser grass blue  Zizina otis Fab.  67  Common pierrot  Castalius rosimen Fab.  68  Common silver line  Spindaris vulcanus Fab.  69  Tiny grass blue  Zizula hylax F  70  Gram blue  Euchrysops cnejus F  71  Pale grass blue  Pseudozizeeria maha K  72  Rounded pierrot  Tarucus nara K  73  Zebras blue  Leptotes plinius  74  Hedge blue  Actolepis puspa  75  Line blue  Chilades laius  76  Pea blue   Lampides boeticus  77  Red pierrot  Talicada nyseus  78  Peacock royal  Tajuria cippus    FAMILY   DANIINAE    79  Striped tiger  Danus genutia C  80  Dark blue tiger  Danus Melissa C  81  Common Indian crow  Euploea core C    FAMILY   ACRAEIINAE    82  Tawny coster  Acraea violae F    FAMILY   HESPERIIDAE    83  Indian skipper  Spiallia galba Fabricius  84  Grass demon  Udaspes folus Cramer  85  White banded owl  Hasora taminatus H  86  Common banded owl  Hasora badra M  87  Common spotted flat  Celaenorrhinus leucocera K  88  Rice swift  Borbo cinnara W  89  Indian palm bob  Suastus greminus  90  Giant red eye  Gangara thyris  91  Tamil grass dart  Taractrocera ceramus  92  Dark palm dart  Telicota ancilla  93  Snow flat  Teagiades litigiosa  94  Pied flat  Pseudocoladinia dan 
  • 32. - 32 - Current status of Biodiversity    One  of  the  fascinations  of  life  is  its  incredible  variety.  The  Indian  tradition  estimates  this  variety at 84 lakh. Modern science estimates that there are somewhere between 80 to 120  lakh different species of living organisms on the earth.  But the bulk of this diversity of life is  in the form of fungi and smaller animals that are yet to be described by scientists. Only about  16 lakh species are known to science, and India with a land area of 2.2% of the earth as a  whole harbours over 1.2 lakh or more than 7.5% of the world’s known species. This is why  India ranks amongst the world’s top twelve mega diversity countries.     The  state  of  Karnataka  is  a  part  of  the  highly  biodiversity  rich  regions  of  India.  The  state  boasts of a great diversity of climate, topography, soils. It spans the sea coast with its corals  and mangrove swamps at the mouths of estuaries. It harbours verdant rain forests, paddy  fields and coconut and areca nut orchards on the narrow coast flanked by the hills of Western  Ghats. It bears deciduous woods and scrub jungles, and the sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, ragi  and jowar fields of the Deccan plateau. The different environmental regimes support their  own characteristic set of plants and animals.                                                                   Lion tailed macaque    The number of species in other groups are better known, and our state probably boasts of  around 4500 species of flowering plants, around 522 species of birds, about 158 species of  mammals  ,about  158  species  of  reptiles  (turtles,  snakes,  lizards  and  crocodiles),  about  70  species of frogs, and about 623 species of fish. Medicinal plants are one of the most important  of  these.  About  300  species  of  such  plants  are  in  commercial  use  in  Karnataka  today,  The  industry  knows  that  broad  regions  from  which  the  supplies  have  been  coming  have  been  shifting, the levels of availability have often been changing and that in response the prices  have  also  been  changing;  but  has  no  really  detailed  information  at  its  disposal.  The  only  reliable information on these issues, albeit limited to their own localities, resides with forest  produce. The lion tailed macaque and the racket‐tailed drongo are characteristic of the rain  forests, the blackbuck and the Great Indian Bustard of the grasslands and scrub jungles of the  Deccan  plateau.  Roughly  25%  of  the  17,500  species  of  flowering  plants  of  India  occur  in  Karnataka; but over 40% of the 1228 species of the more mobile birds do so. The fraction of  smaller animals present is likely to be closer to that for plants, since they too are not very  mobile. So Karnataka probably harbours some 22,000 known and 100,000 total species of  little  known  organisms.   There  is  no  organized  information  on  the  status  of  the  indigenous  fish  fauna  of  our  freshwaters. Again the only source of information on this issue, albeit limited to their own  localities, is with our native fisher‐folk. Nor do we possess any detailed information on the  genetic  diversity  of  cultivated  plants  and  domesticated  animals  which  is  still  being  maintained under field conditions by farmers and herders. We are, therefore, constrained to  make only qualitative statements about this important sector. Ours is still a biomass‐based  civilization; many people cultivate a wide range of species and varieties, consume wild fruit 
  • 33. - 33 - and  fish,  use  fuel‐wood  to  cook  their  meals  and  grass  to  thatch  their  huts  and  cowsheds,  extensively employ herbal remedies and worship peepal trees and hanuman langurs.       We  are  also  a  state  rich  in  knowledge  of  uses  of  our  living  resources,  ranging  from  the  classical traditions of Ayurveda, Siddha and Yunani, to folk medicinal practices and uses of  vegetable perfumes, cosmetics and dyes. But Karnataka’s ecological resource base is under  threat,  with  extensive  destruction  of  natural  habitats,  widespread  degradation  of  agro‐ ecosystems and a growing burden of pollution. Simultaneously, the knowledge base of uses of  biodiversity  is  also  being  eroded,  with  the  younger  generation  becoming  increasingly  alienated from the natural world.      The wealth of strains of domesticated plants and animals on our farms and in the camps of  our cowherds and shepherds also holds much promise. The hill chain of Western Ghats has a  greater diversity of wild relatives of cultivated plants than any other region of comparable  size in the world. Much of this diversity of domesticated organisms and their wild relatives is  also being rapidly lost. Life in Karnataka’s rivers, lakes, estuaries and the seas is under even  greater stress than that on the land. With all attention focused on culturing of a few species of  economic  interest  like  carps  and  tiger  prawns,  there  has  been  little  thought  devoted  to  conservation and prudent use of the state’s aquatic biodiversity. Yet this loss is occurring at a  time when pharmaceutical companies are focusing their attention on marine organisms as  the greatest, and as yet little explored treasury of bioactive compounds on the earth. It is clear  that we need to look after the ecological well being of Karnataka’s lands and waters, not only  of  the  few  remaining  natural  habitats,  but  also  of  farm  lands  and  irrigation  tanks,  of  overgrazed  pastures  and  eroded  hill  slopes.  We  need  to  carefully  plan  on  conserving,  sustainably using and restoring the biological diversity across the length and breadth of the  state. We also need to conserve and benefit from the knowledge of uses and the traditions of  conservation of this biological diversity.     Key Environmental Problems    Biodiversity  is  being  eroded  in  all  the  major  ecosystems  of  the  Karnataka  state,  in  coastal  and  marine  tracts,  in  streams,  rivers,  lakes  and  reservoirs,  in  protected  areas,  as  also  in  humid  and  dry  forests  outside  protected  areas,  in  agro‐ ecosystems, and in urban ecosystems. This  erosion  may  be  traced  to  four  significant  environmental problems, namely, (a) non‐ sustainable  harvests  of  living  resources,  (b) Habitat destruction and fragmentation,  (c)  Impacts  of  pollutants,  and  (d)  Competition  with  colonizing,  often  exotic,  invasive species.    Tiger                                                                                     Non­sustainable harvests of living resources    Non‐sustainable harvests have been a significant cause of depletion of biodiversity. Poaching  has affected a variety of organisms, such as Turtles breeding along sea beaches including the  Olive Ridley, or otters breeding along riverbanks. There have been endemic people‐wild life  conflicts, especially in relation to elephants raiding crops and killing people. This has been  accompanied by extensive poaching of male elephants and many other wild mammals.     Non‐sustainable use by pharmaceutical and allied industry has led to substantial depletion of  medicinal  plant  and  other  non‐timber  forest  resources,  Rouwolfia  serpentina  and  Gloriosa  superba being two well‐known examples. Wild honey‐bee populations have been decimated,  because of the loss of nesting trees and sources of pollen and nectar, and use of pesticides in  orchards and plantations. This has affected the agricultural productivity. 
  • 34. - 34 -  
  • 35. - 35 -   Habitat destruction and fragmentation    Habitat destruction and fragmentation has plagued all of the state’s ecosystems. Large tracts  of forests have also been converted to monoculture plantations of teak, Eucalyptus, Casuarina  equisetifolia and Acacia auriculiformis. These processes have led to the loss of many special  habitats such as Myristica swamps and high altitude grasslands. In the dry zone, they have  adversely affected several species dependent on large tracts of scrub such as the wolf and the  Great Indian Bustard. The simultaneous extension of agriculture has led to a loss of grassland  and scrub savanna habitats and erosion of species such as partridges and quails dependent on  them.  The  processes  of  commercialization  of  agriculture  have  prompted  the  liquidation  of  sacred  groves  and  traditionally  protected  species  such  as  banyan,  peepal  and  other  Ficus  species, peafowl and monkeys that were a characteristic feature of the traditional agricultural  landscape. Open areas in urban ecosystems are also shrinking. So are the old irrigation tanks  that  constitute  urban  wetlands.  Many  have  been  drained,  others  are  highly  polluted  and  eutrophicated, resulting in a loss of their biota, including indigenous fish communities and  migratory waterfowl.      Impacts of pollutants    The  manifold  pollution  problems  impacting  Karnataka’s  biodiversity  include  industrial  effluents that contain heavy metals like mercury, untreated sewage from towns and cities,  and bio‐medical wastes from hospitals. Agricultural intensification has also meant high levels  of use of pesticides, bioaccumulation of the pesticides and consequent erosion of biodiversity.  The  cotton  growing  tracts  of  Gulbarga  and  Raichur  districts,  and  river  command  areas  of  Kabini,  Kaveri  and  Ghataprabha  have  witnessed  sharp  reduction  in  populations  of  bird  species, including beneficial insectivorous birds like drongos, as well as honeybees. Even the  house sparrows are gone from Bangalore. Given the high levels of air pollution, only a few  species of lichens persist on the tree trunks in urban areas.       Exotic invasive species                        Invasive  Alien  Species  (IAS)  are  species  whose  introductions  and  spread  outside  their  natural  distribution  affects  the  ecosystem. They are generally of short life  span,  have  high  reproduction  capacity,  produce  large  quantity  of  seeds/eggs  and  survive  in  hostile  environment.  They  are  easily  adaptable  and  have  no  natural  enemies in the new habitat. Invasive Alien  Species  are  one  of  the  greatest  threats  to  biodiversity.             They  have  invaded  every  ecosystem  type  on  earth  which  causes  economic  as  well  as  environmental  harm  and  adversely  affect  human  health.  Example:  Lantana,  Eupatorium,  Parthenium, Coffee stem borer, Carnivorous Cat fish, Gambusia etc.   
  • 36. - 36 -                                                     Parthenium weed      Exotic  species  have  impacted  the  biodiversity  of  various  fresh‐water  and  terrestrial  ecosystems  of  Karnataka.  Spread  of  exotic  fishes  like  Tilapia  and,  more  recently,  the  African  Catfish  has  contributed  to  an  erosion  of  indigenous  fish  biota.  The  weedy  water  hyacinth  is  choking many of the wetlands. Large tracts  of forests have been invaded by the weedy  Eupatorium, they have also been converted  to  monoculture  plantations  of  exotic  species  such  as  Acacia  auriculiformis,  A.  mangium, Eucalyptus species and Casuarina  equisetifolia.  The  Ranebennur  Sanctuary,  primarily meant to conserve blackbuck and  the  Great  Indian  Bustard  has  suffered  in  this  fashion  from  the  plantation  of  Eucalyptus  trees.  Parthenium  has  come  to  cover many scrublands and grasslands.    Globalization has resulted in greater trade, transport, travel and tourism, all of which have  facilitated the introduction and spread of species that are not native to an area, reproduce and  spread if the new habitat is similar to its native habitat.    The  damage  is  further  aggravated  by  climate  change,  pollution,  fragmentation  and  loss  of  habitat. The convention on Biological diversity and its members (191 parties) recognize that  there  is  an  urgent  need  to  address  the  adverse  impacts  of  Invasive  Alien  Species,  the  convention expects that each contracting party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate,  prevent  the  introduction,  control  and  eradicate  those  alien  species  which  threaten  ecosystems, habitat and other species.”   
  • 38. - 38 - Steps taken to conserve Biodiversity    After  CBD  the  Government  of  India  had  enacted  Biodiversity  Act  2002  subsequently  Karnataka  State  has  framed  Biodiversity  Rule  2005  and  established  the  State  Biodiversity  Board. The above are instrumental in protection of Biodiversity. The main objectives of the  Act and Rules are:    1. Conservation of Biodiversity,  2. Sustainable utilization of Biodiversity  3. Equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the commercial use of Biodiversity.    The efforts are going on in this direction at various levels. Further the goals have been fixed  and  the  same  has  to  be  achieved  by  2010  by  various  departments  involved  in  resource  management and Biodiversity management.                     Biodiversity Goals 2010    1. Promote the conservation of biological diversity of ecosystems, habitats and  biomes  2. Promote conservation of species diversity  3. Promote the conservation of genetic diversity  4. Promote sustainable use and consumption  5. Pressures from habitat loss, degradation reduced  6. Control threats from invasive alien species  7. Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change  8. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support  livelihoods.  9. Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices.  10.Ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic  resources.  11.Parties should have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and  technological capacity to implement the convention. 
  • 39. - 39 - HORTICULTURE BIODIVERSITY   As per survey report the total horticultural production in Karnataka State is 97.30 lakh tons  per  year.  The  production  figures  stand  at  40.79  lakh  tons  (41.92%)  with  respect  to  Fruit  Crops; 44.03 lakh tons (45.25%) Vegetable crops; 5.96 lakh tons (6.13%) Spice Crops; 4.96  lakh tons (5.09%) Garden/Plantation Crops and 1.57 lakh tons (1.61%) crops coming under  Commercial Flowers including the Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.    Due to the introduction of the high yielding  varieties  and  improved  technology  the  productivity  of  horticultural  crops  has  improved. Efforts are being made to boost‐ up  the  agricultural  exports,  mainly  of  horticultural produce like fruits, vegetables  and  flowers,  through  the  effective  Agricultural Policy.                      According  to  the  latest  available  information  pertaining  to  various  States  Karnataka  State  has  occupied  Fifth  place  regarding  Fruit  Crops.  But  with  regard  to  Commercial  flowers  our  state  has  stood  first  with  respect  to  area  of  0.19  lakh  hectares  and  second  with  respect  to  production being 1.57 lakh tons.                 Bougainville       REGISTERED GI CROPS OF KARNATAKA   The concept of geographical indication is fast developing globally. GIs is very essential and  imperative in the current global scenario to seek legal protection in WTO countries.    Advantages of Geographical Indication Registration  • It provides better legal protection to facilitate an action in case of infringement so that  the registered proprietor and authorized users can initiate infringement actions.  • The  authorized  users  can  exercise  the  exclusive  right  to  use  the  geographical  indication.  • Development of brands, ownership to the community.    Following are the example of GI in horticulture:                                                         Coorg Orange  Coorg Orange (Citrus reticulata)    Grown  in  and  around  Coorg  district  (around  240  kms  from  Bangalore),  Karnataka.  Historically  Coorg  Orange  was  introduced  by the Britishers between 1830 and 1840.  Excellent blend of acid and sugar in juice.  It  has  tight  skin  compared  to  Nagpur  Orange.  Ripe  fruits  are  greenish‐yellow/orange  in  color.  Maintains its unique taste and aroma with  good  keeping  quality  when  it  is  grown 
  • 40. - 40 - under  high  rainfall  areas,  hilly  terrains  (around 3000ft from MSL) and deep well‐ drained soils.    Mysore Betel Leaf (Piper betel)    Popularity  called  as  Mysore  Chigurele (tender leaf)  Historically grown in the back yard  of  Mysore  Palace  and  the  surrounding areas of Mysore city  Specific  hot  taste  (pungent)  and  smooth texture  Requires tropical climate with high  atmospheric humidity  Suitable  for  cultivation  in  both  uplands and wetlands                            Mysore Betel Leaf    Nanjangud Banana (Musa paradisiacal)    Grown in Devarasanahalli and surrounding villages of Nanjangud Taluk (around 160  kms from Bangalore) in Mysore district, Karnataka  Historically Nanjangud Banana fruits were being offered to Lord Sree Srikanteshwara  at Nanjangud Temple  Black clay, alluvial and saline soils are responsible for its unique characters.  Fruits are golden‐yellow, delicious in taste with unique aroma, taste and long shelf life  Occurrence of hard lumps and loss of unique aroma when it is grown outside Mysore  bio climate  Maintains its high quality only under organic method of cultivation    Mysore Mallige (Jasminum trifolium)                                          This  variety  is  predominantly  grown  in  and  around  Mysore  (around  140  kms  from  Bangalore),  Karnataka  Mythologically, Mysore Mallige was  referred  in  great  epics,  Mahabharata  Mainly  used  in  garlands  and  other  decorative purposes  High fragrance is the unique feature  of this flower  Fragrance  in  this  variety  is  influenced  by  agro‐climatic  conditions  of  Mysore  and  its  surrounding areas  Buds  have  good  keeping  quality  with shelf‐life of 2‐3 days  The  dry  and  warm  weather  of  the  region  is  also  responsible  for  the  unique fragrance of this variety 
  • 41. - 41 - Udupi Mallige (Jasminum sambac)    Predominantly  grown  in  Shankarapura  and  surrounding  villages  (around  400  kms  from Bangalore) in Udupi district, Karnataka  Historically Udupi Mallige flowers were offered to Asta (8) Matts including the world  famous Lord Krishna Temple since 12th century  Flowers are highly fragrant and used for making garlands  Buds have good keeping quality with shelf‐life of 3‐4 days  Fragrance is influenced by lateritic soils, heavy S‐W monsoon rains, warm and humid  conditions    Hadagali Mallige (Jasminum azoricum)    Predominantly grown in Hadagali Taluk (around 300 kms from Bangalore) in Bellary  district, Karnataka  Historically  the  flowers  of  Hadagali  Mallige  were  being  sent  daily  to  Hampi  Sree  Veerupaksha temple.  Used mainly for garland making  Strong fragrance is its distinct trait, hence used in cosmetic industry also  The  unique  characteristic  of  this  variety  is  influenced  by  dry  sandy  soils  and  dry  climate of the region.    CROPS UNDER PIPELINE FOR GI REGISTRATION    Kamalapur Red Banana (Musa sp.)    Unique  to  Kamalapur  and  surrounding  areas  of  Gulbarga  district  (around  650  kms  from Bangalore), Karnataka  Grows 15 to 18 feet in height with a strong and thick trunk  It is an 18‐month crop  Colour of the raw fruit is greenish‐purple and turns to red on maturity  Fruits have sweet taste and unique flavour  A normal bunch has 5 to 7 hands and 40‐60 fruits  Fruits  are  slightly  thickened  towards  base  and  tapered  towards  the  apex.  Apex  is  usually blunt    Byadagi Chilli (Capsicum annum)    Grown  in  Byadagi  taluk  of  Haveri  district  (around  335  kms  from  Bangalore),  Karnataka  Express its unique characters when it is grown in S‐W monsoon season, under rain fed  conditions  Grows best in well drained, sandy loam, red or black soils  Fruits  are  long  (upto  15‐20  cms),  slender,  wrinkled  and  have  attractive  deep  red  colour  Less pungent, contains less capsaicin  Unique features of this variety is its wrinkled pericarp, which makes seeds adhere to it  even if the fruit is broken  Highly preferred for oleoresin extraction  Lends attractive red color to dishes   

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  • Kannada Rajyotsava Speech in English for Students


Welcome Speech for Kannada Rajyotsava

Today, we have gathered here to celebrate a significant and prideful day for all of us, the Karnataka Rajyotsava . It is an occasion of immense importance, a day that unites us in celebrating the rich cultural heritage, history, and progress of our beloved state, Karnataka. As we stand here, we have the opportunity to reflect on the remarkable journey of Karnataka, which has transformed from ancient civilizations to a modern and dynamic state.

The Historical Significance

Karnataka Rajyotsava, also known as Karnataka Formation Day , is observed on the 1st of November each year. It marks the day when the state of Karnataka was formed back in 1956, by merging various Kannada-speaking regions into one entity. Today, Karnataka stands as a shining example of unity in diversity, embracing people from various linguistic and cultural backgrounds.

Also Check out Kannada Rajyotsava in Karnataka 2023 - Everything you Need to Know .

The Diversity of Karnataka

Our state, Karnataka, is endowed with the beauty of nature, the richness of culture, and the strength of diversity. From the lush Western Ghats to the vast Deccan Plateau, from historic ruins like Hampi to the modern skyscrapers in Bengaluru, Karnataka offers a delightful blend of tradition and modernity. This diversity is what makes Karnataka a unique and special place, a land of opportunities and progress.

Karnataka has a rich history that dates back to ancient times. It was home to some of the great empires like the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, and the Vijayanagara Empire. These dynasties have left behind architectural marvels and cultural legacies that continue to inspire us. The iconic temples of Belur, Halebidu, and the grandeur of Hampi are living testimonials to the glorious past of Karnataka.

Our state has also contributed immensely to art, literature, and music. Kannada, a language with a rich literary heritage, has been the medium for poets and playwrights like Pampa, Ranna, and Kuvempu to weave their magic with words. It is a source of immense pride for us that our state has produced stalwarts like Kuvempu and Dr. C. N. R. Rao, who has left an indelible mark on the world. Also Check out Kannada Rajyotsava Essay .

Education and Innovation

Furthermore, Karnataka has always been at the forefront of education and technology. With premier institutions like the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), our state has consistently nurtured scientific minds that have made groundbreaking contributions in various fields. It is indeed a testament to the state's commitment to progress and innovation.

The capital of Karnataka, Bengaluru, is popularly known as the Silicon Valley of India. It is a global hub for information technology, and this city has been instrumental in catapulting India into the digital age. The IT sector has created countless job opportunities and has attracted talent from all over the country and the world. Bengaluru's success is a result of the hard work and dedication of its people, who have built an ecosystem that fosters innovation and creativity.

But Karnataka's glory is not limited to its urban centres. Our villages and towns are a testimony to the agrarian strength of the state. Agriculture is the backbone of our economy, and the state is a significant contributor to the country's food grain production. The cooperative movement in Karnataka has been a role model for the entire nation, helping farmers improve their socio-economic conditions.

Festivals and Celebrations

Karnataka is a land of festivals and celebrations. The state celebrates numerous festivals with great enthusiasm. Festivals like Ugadi, Ganesha Chaturthi, Dasara, and Pongal are celebrated with fervour, bringing people from different backgrounds together. These celebrations are an embodiment of the unity that exists amidst diversity in our state.

As we celebrate Karnataka Rajyotsava , it is essential to acknowledge the social progress that our state has made. Karnataka has been a pioneer in social reforms, advocating for gender equality, and providing opportunities for women in various fields. Women from Karnataka have excelled in sports, arts, politics, and entrepreneurship, breaking barriers and stereotypes.

Social Progress

In addition to that, Karnataka has also made significant strides in healthcare and education. With premier medical institutions like the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) and renowned educational institutions, the state has always strived to provide accessible and quality healthcare and education to its citizens.

Environmental Conservation

One of the unique aspects of Karnataka is its commitment to preserving the environment. The state is home to several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, contributing to the conservation of diverse flora and fauna. The efforts to protect the Western Ghats and the conservation of the Western Ghats ecology are laudable and essential for the well-being of our planet.

Karnataka Rajyotsava is not just a day to celebrate the state's achievements, but it is also a day to reaffirm our commitment to its progress. It is a day to acknowledge the challenges that our state faces, including issues like water scarcity, urbanisation, and traffic congestion. As responsible citizens, we need to work together to find sustainable solutions to these problems.

Karnataka Rajyotsava is a day of pride, unity, and celebration. It is an occasion to remember our roots and honour the achievements of our state. Let us pledge to work together, transcending barriers of language, caste, and creed, to build a Karnataka that continues to prosper, embrace its rich culture, and contribute to the growth and development of our great nation.

Thank You, and Jai Karnataka!


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Across India, there are many eateries that will dish up a quick dosa and vada—which everyone associates with south India—for you. But each of the southern states has its own distinct version, not just of these renowned dishes but so many more. Today, dishes from nearly 10 variations of Karnataka cuisines have made their way onto menus across in India and become favourites of diners.

Recently, The Bombay Canteen, Mumbai, had a Canteen Karnataka Feast in association with the Bengaluru Oota Company. Ask Chef-Partner Thomas Zacharias how much people are aware about the diversity of cuisines in Karnataka and he says, “People tend to have a blanket opinion that all the food from the four southern states in India is pretty much the same, and that it’s spicy and cooked with a lot of coconut. However, Karnataka as a state has a lot of diverse influences in its cuisine, whether through the Konkan coastline or the various communities like Catholics and Gowdas who have made it their home. This means that Kannadiga cuisine has a lot of unique nuances in flavours, ingredients, and styles of cooking.”

So what makes the food from Karnataka unique? “Mangalorean food uses a lot of coconut in various forms (like grated, milk, oil) along with red chillies—Badege chilli, individually roasted spices that are mixed together, etc. Gowda food has extensive usage of coriander in all forms, garlic and coconut ground in the masala and primarily green chillies. Kodava food uses kachimpuli, etc,” explains Divya Prabhakar of the Bengaluru Oota Company.

diversity of karnataka essay in english

Being one-fourth Mangalorean is a matter of immense happiness for Cordon Bleu Chef Devika Manjrekar because Mangalorean food is also her favourite Indian cuisine. “The seafood is so fresh, the preparations are so subtle and just all around delicious. There is something about south Indian food that seems simple and healthy and clean,” she says.

Karnataka cuisine consists of pure vegetarian food ( Udupi ) on one of the spectrum to totally non-vegetarian delights ( Kudla, Kodava ) at the other end. You’ll find vegetarian Udupi restaurants in nearly every metro in India like Mathsya and New Woodlands in Chennai; Guruprasad Udupi Restaurant and Karnataka Food Centre in New Delhi; Udipi Home and Rao’s Udipi Home in Kolkata. Step into Mumbai’s Matunga and there are numerous popular Udupi restaurants like Sharda Bhavan, which dates back to the 1950s, and Café Mysore that was set up in 1934.

Divya Prabhakar elaborates on this trend stating, “Some of the more popular cuisines are Mangalorean and Udupi cuisine and some Kodava and North Karnataka dishes. The Mangalorean and Udupi communities are very enterprising as a business community and have set up restaurants across the country which make them very accessible and popular.”

But the non-vegetarian fare from Karnataka is much sought-after too. Sous Chef Sukesh Kanchan of Sana-di-ge (Delhi), which is known for its Kudla fare, says that Chicken Sukka, Mutton Sukka, Chicken Ghee Roast, Prawn Ghee Roast, Jumbo Naked Crab and Seafood Platter are very popular among their patrons. The Pandi Curry (pork curry), Prawns / Yetti Ghee Roast, Kane Fry, Marwai, Crab / Prawns Sukka, Pork Bafat and Kori Gassi are also delicious non-veg fare.

Given that diners today are open to experimentation and want to try new flavours, the previously unknown dishes of Karnataka are being discovered. In fact, at the Canteen Karnataka Feast, diners could not get enough of the Goli Baje (bhaji made with flour and curd), Jeegujje Fry (Breadfruit coated in chiroti rava and fried); Gowda-style Maamsa Saaru (mutton curry); Curd Rice and Pineapple Mensakkai (sweet and sour pineapple); and the Chiroti with Ghasghase Payasa (flaky pastry with poppy seed pudding).

In this scenario, when you ask Chef S Sivaraj Chef de Cuisine, Tuskers, Sofitel Mumbai BKC, what Karnataka specialities he would recommend, he quickly lists out the Majjiage (Buttermilk), Mysore Rasam, Udupi Sambar, Mysore Bonda, Maddur Vada, Paneer Gassi, Dhawan Keri Dosa, Ragi Dosa and Neer Dosa. Devika chips in adding Ghee Roast—of any kind, Chicken Sukka, Idli with Mutton Stew, Pulli Munchi and Payasam. Of course, one must not forget the rice varieties like the Bisi Bele Bhath (Sambar Rice), Vangi Bhath (Eggplant Rice), Avalakki (Baked flat rice) and Maavinkaayi chitranna (Raw Mango Rice).

One interesting aspect of food from this state is the extensive use of millets like ragi and jola (jowhar). While many of us have just discovered how healthy millets are, these have been part of the Kannadiga’s diet for centuries. The Ragi Mudde , Ragi Roti , Ragi Dosa and Ragi Laddu are still consumed extensively alongside the Jowhar Roti .

Chef Thomas Zacharias says, “Many of our traditional Indian cuisines including that of Karnataka are rooted in the ancient science of Ayurveda and centuries of intelligent evolution keeping in mind the basic principles of provenance, seasonality and how it affects our body and mind. Recipes that are based on these traditions are bound to be healthy by those ancient parameters.”

Given the stunning variety in both veg and non-veg dishes, it is no longer surprising that people are not just keen on taking up jobs in Bengaluru but even seeking actively out Karnataka cuisine across the country.

diversity of karnataka essay in english

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diversity of karnataka essay in english


Paragraph on Karnataka

Students are often asked to write a paragraph on Karnataka in their schools. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 200-word, and 250-word paragraphs on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

Paragraph on Karnataka in 100 Words

Karnataka is a big state in India. It is known for its beautiful cities, like Bangalore, which is also called the ‘Silicon Valley of India’ because many people work on computers there. Mysore, another city, is popular for its grand palace. The state has many forests, hills, and rivers too. People speak Kannada here. It is famous for its yummy food like dosa and idli. Also, Karnataka loves festivals. They celebrate Dasara with great joy. Folk dances like Yakshagana are very popular. It’s a wonderful place with lots of things to see and learn.

Paragraph on Karnataka in 200 Words

Karnataka is a beautiful state in India, located in the southern part of the country. It has a lot of interesting things to see and learn about. Bengaluru, the capital city, is known as the “Silicon Valley of India” because it is home to many technology companies. Karnataka is also known for its rich history and culture. The state has many ancient temples and forts that tell stories about its past. It is famous for its traditional dance called “Yakshagana” and a delicious sweet called “Mysore Pak”. Karnataka is also home to many wildlife sanctuaries where you can see animals like elephants and tigers. The state has lovely beaches too, especially in a place called Gokarna. People speak the Kannada language in Karnataka. It celebrates a special festival called “Dasara” that is a big attraction for tourists. The state also grows a lot of coffee and silk. People from different parts of India and the world come to Karnataka to enjoy its beauty and learn about its culture. So, Karnataka is a wonderful place with many things to offer.

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  • Essay on Karnataka
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Paragraph on Karnataka in 250 Words

Karnataka, a state in southern India, is known for its rich culture, history, and scenic beauty. It is famous for its silk, sandalwood, and spices. The state’s capital, Bengaluru, is a significant tech hub, often called the “Silicon Valley of India.” It is a city buzzing with energy and full of beautiful gardens. Karnataka is also home to several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including Hampi and Pattadakal, which showcase the architectural marvels of ancient times. Hampi, once the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire, is a must-visit place with its stunning ruins and unique landscape. Karnataka’s cuisine is also notable, with dishes like Bisi Bele Bath and Dosa being popular all across India. The state’s coastal area, known as the Konkan Coast, is famous for its beautiful beaches and delicious seafood. The state is a blend of urban advancement and traditional customs. It celebrates many festivals like Mysuru Dasara and Kambala, which attract tourists from all over the world. In terms of natural beauty, Karnataka has many national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, including Bandipur National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The state’s Western Ghats region, known as Malenadu, is a biodiversity hotspot with a diverse range of flora and fauna. From its diverse culture to its fascinating history and natural beauty, Karnataka has something for everyone. It is a state that beautifully encapsulates the essence of India.

That’s it! I hope the paragraphs have helped you.

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diversity of karnataka essay in english


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  8. Karnataka Culture

    Gokarna by Kannan via Flickr. A state that defines the rich culture in its traditional attire of art, craft, music, dance, festivals and literature, to its modernity that the capital city Bengaluru breathes, Karnataka is a directory of rich culture. One of the premier choice of both domestic and international tourists alike, the state embeds a city for everyone - Bengaluru to enjoy its ...

  9. Karnataka: State of diverse cultures, but language is the binding

    Karnataka: State of diverse cultures, but language is the binding factor On the occasion of the 60th formation day of the present day Karnataka, a look into the State's unification movement, the ...

  10. Let's celebrate Karnataka's minority languages too

    Karnataka Rajyotsava (November 1) is in many ways a celebration of Karnataka's very identity and of what makes Karnataka what it is - its vast diversity, rich heritage, breathtaking scenery ...

  11. Karnataka: History, Traditions, Heritage, Tourism, Cuisine, Art & Cult

    Welcome to the vibrant state of Karnataka, located in the southern part of India. Known for its rich history, diverse culture, and stunning natural beauty, Karnataka has something to offer to everyone. This blog will take you on a journey through the fascinating history, traditions, heritage, tourism, cuisine, and art & culture of this unique state. We'll delve into the state's glorious past ...

  12. PDF A glimpse of geographical profile of Karnataka: A centre for Bio-diversity

    accounting for 5.83 percent of the total area of the country (Karnataka gazetteer 1981, N.B.K. Reddy and G.S.Murty 1967) and has pre-dominant position in the field of Information Technology (IT), Bio-technology (BT) and Nano Technology. Karnataka is known for not only for Sandalwood and Spices, but also for its rich bio-diversity. The state


    CULTURE. Karnataka noted for its varied religious traditions along with their renowned history has helped the state and the people in achieving a rich cultural heritage for the state. Though Kannadiagas have Karnataka as their home town, the state is also the place for Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis. Karnataka also accommodates minority of ...

  14. Essay on Karnataka in English

    It is located in the southwest part of India. In this essay, we are going to get important information about Karnataka in detail. So, start reading: Karnataka was formed on 1st November 1956. Initially, it was given the name of the state of Mysore. It was formed with the passage of the States Reorganization Act.

  15. Wildlife of Karnataka

    The state of Karnataka in South India has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of 38,720 km 2 which constitutes 55 of the geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of the elephant population and 20% of the tiger population of India. Many regions of Karnataka are still unexplored and new species of ...

  16. Kannada Rajyotsava History, Essay, Speech And Facts For ...

    Kannada Rajyotsava History. Today's Karnataka was originally called as the Mysore State, which is within India from 1948 until 1956. Maharaja of Mysore Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar agreed to become the part of India after independence. Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar became Rajpramukh of Mysore State from 1950 to 1956 and the Governor of Mysore State.

  17. Karnataka Government

    These have also been successfully translated into other Indian languages and English, thereby contributing significantly to the glorious literary heritage of Karnataka as well as of India. The new movement in modern Kannada started from the time of the Mysore king Krishnaraja Wodeyar III who reigned from 1799 - 1831 A.D.

  18. Biodiversity of karnataka at a glan

    The document provides an overview of biodiversity in the state of Karnataka, India. It is divided into 3 key regions: 1) The coastal zone, which contains mangrove forests, coral reefs, and marine life. 2) The Western Ghats, one of the world's biodiversity hotspots containing over 4,500 plant and hundreds of animal species.


    Karnataka consists of 3 regions­ 1. Coastal Zone, 2. The Western Ghats, 3. The Eastern Plains. 1. Coastal Zone Karnataka coastline extends over a length of 320 kilometers with numerous river mouths, lagoons, bays, creeks, cliffs, sand dunes and long beaches. Karnataka has no major delta formations.

  20. Kannada Rajyotsava Speech in English for Students

    Karnataka Rajyotsava, also known as Karnataka Formation Day, is observed on the 1st of November each year. It marks the day when the state of Karnataka was formed back in 1956, by merging various Kannada-speaking regions into one entity. Today, Karnataka stands as a shining example of unity in diversity, embracing people from various linguistic ...

  21. What makes Karnataka's food culture so popular & unique?

    So what makes the food from Karnataka unique? "Mangalorean food uses a lot of coconut in various forms (like grated, milk, oil) along with red chillies—Badege chilli, individually roasted spices that are mixed together, etc. Gowda food has extensive usage of coriander in all forms, garlic and coconut ground in the masala and primarily green ...

  22. Paragraph on Karnataka

    Essay on Karnataka; Speech on Karnataka; Paragraph on Karnataka in 250 Words. Karnataka, a state in southern India, is known for its rich culture, history, and scenic beauty. It is famous for its silk, sandalwood, and spices. The state's capital, Bengaluru, is a significant tech hub, often called the "Silicon Valley of India." It is a ...

  23. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife of Karnataka

    The document summarizes natural vegetation and wildlife areas in Karnataka, India. It describes tropical deciduous and evergreen forests, grasslands, and shrubs as the main types of natural vegetation. It then outlines several bird sanctuaries and national parks in Karnataka, including Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, Mandagadde Bird Sanctuary, Magadi Bird Sanctuary, Nagarhole National Park, and ...