Student Case Study

Ai generator.

case study examples school students

Delving into student case studies offers invaluable insights into educational methodologies and student behaviors. This guide, complete with detailed case study examples , is designed to help educators, researchers, and students understand the nuances of creating and analyzing case studies in an educational context. By exploring various case study examples, you will gain the tools and knowledge necessary to effectively interpret and apply these studies, enhancing both teaching and learning experiences in diverse academic settings.

What is a Student Case Study? – Meaning A student case study is an in-depth analysis of a student or a group of students to understand various educational, psychological, or social aspects. It involves collecting detailed information through observations, interviews, and reviewing records, to form a comprehensive picture. The goal of a case study analysis is to unravel the complexities of real-life situations that students encounter, making it a valuable tool in educational research. In a case study summary, key findings are presented, often leading to actionable insights. Educators and researchers use these studies to develop strategies for improving learning environments. Additionally, a case study essay allows students to demonstrate their understanding by discussing the analysis and implications of the case study, fostering critical thinking and analytical skills.

Student Case Study Bundle

Download Student Case Study Bundle

Schools especially those that offers degree in medicine, law, public policy and public health teaches students to learn how to conduct a case study. Some students say they love case studies . For what reason? Case studies offer real world challenges. They help in preparing the students how to deal with their future careers. They are considered to be the vehicle for theories and concepts that enables you to be good at giving detailed discussions and even debates. Case studies are useful not just in the field of education, but also in adhering to the arising issues in business, politics and other organizations.

Student Case Study Format

Case Study Title : Clear and descriptive title reflecting the focus of the case study. Student’s Name : Name of the student the case study is about. Prepared by : Name of the person or group preparing the case study. School Name : Name of the school or educational institution. Date : Date of completion or submission.


Background Information : Briefly describe the student’s background, including age, grade level, and relevant personal or academic history. Purpose of the Case Study : State the reason for conducting this case study, such as understanding a particular behavior, learning difficulty, or achievement.

Case Description

Situation or Challenge : Detail the specific situation, challenge, or condition that the student is facing. Observations and Evidence : Include observations from teachers, parents, or the students themselves, along with any relevant academic or behavioral records.
Problem Analysis : Analyze the situation or challenge, identifying potential causes or contributing factors. Impact on Learning : Discuss how the situation affects the student’s learning or behavior in school.

Intervention Strategies

Action Taken : Describe any interventions or strategies implemented to address the situation. This could include educational plans, counseling, or specific teaching strategies. Results of Intervention : Detail the outcome of these interventions, including any changes in the student’s behavior or academic performance.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary of Findings : Summarize the key insights gained from the case study. Recommendations : Offer suggestions for future actions or strategies to further support the student. This might include recommendations for teachers, parents, or the student themselves.

Best Example of Student Case Study

Overcoming Reading Challenges: A Case Study of Emily Clark, Grade 3 Prepared by: Laura Simmons, Special Education Teacher Sunset Elementary School Date: May 12, 2024   Emily Clark, an 8-year-old student in the third grade at Sunset Elementary School, has been facing significant challenges with reading and comprehension since the first grade. Known for her enthusiasm and creativity, Emily’s struggles with reading tasks have been persistent and noticeable. The primary purpose of this case study is to analyze Emily’s reading difficulties, implement targeted interventions, and assess their effectiveness.   Emily exhibits difficulty in decoding words, reading fluently, and understanding text, as observed by her teachers since first grade. Her reluctance to read aloud and frustration with reading tasks have been consistently noted. Assessments indicate that her reading level is significantly below the expected standard for her grade. Parental feedback has also highlighted Emily’s struggles with reading-related homework.   Analysis of Emily’s situation suggests a potential learning disability in reading, possibly dyslexia. This is evidenced by her consistent difficulty with word recognition and comprehension. These challenges have impacted not only her reading skills but also her confidence and participation in class activities, especially those involving reading.   To address these challenges, an individualized education plan (IEP) was developed. This included specialized reading instruction focusing on phonemic awareness and decoding skills, multisensory learning approaches, and regular sessions with a reading specialist. Over a period of six months, Emily demonstrated significant improvements. She engaged more confidently in reading activities, and her reading assessment scores showed notable progress.   In conclusion, the intervention strategies implemented for Emily have been effective. Her case highlights the importance of early identification and the implementation of tailored educational strategies for students with similar challenges. It is recommended that Emily continues to receive specialized instruction and regular monitoring. Adjustments to her IEP should be made as necessary to ensure ongoing progress. Additionally, fostering a positive reading environment at home is also recommended.

18+ Student Case Study Examples

1. student case study.


2. College Student Case Study

College Student Case Study

3. Student Case Study in the Classroom

Student Case Study in the Classroom

Free Download

4. Student Case Study Format Template

Student Case Study Template

  • Google Docs

Size: 153 KB

5. Sample Student Case Study Example

Student Case Study Template


Size: 241 KB

6. Education Case Study Examples for Students

case study examples for students


Size: 129 KB

7. Graduate Student Case Study Example

Graduate Student Case Study


8. Student Profile Case Study Example

Student Profile Case Study


Size: 51 KB

9. Short Student Case Study Example

Student Case Study Example


Size: 192 KB

10. High School Student Case Study Example

High School Student Case Study


Size: 135 KB

11. Student Research Case Study Example

Student Research Case Study

Size: 67 KB

12. Classroom Case Study Examples

classroom case study examples

Size: 149 KB

13. Case Study of a Student

case study of a student

14. Sample Student Assignment Case Study Example

Sample Student Assignment Case Study


Size: 43 KB

15. College Student Case Study Example

Printable Student Case Study

Size: 221 KB

16. Basic Student Case Study Example

Basic Student Case Study

Size: 206 KB

17. Free Student Impact Case Study Example

Student Impact Case Study

Size: 140 KB

18. Student Case Study in DOC Example

Student Case Study in DOC


Size: 12 KB

19. Case Study Of a Student with Anxiety

Case Study Of a Student with Anxiety

Size: 178 KB

Case Study Definition

A case study is defined as a research methodology that allows you to conduct an intensive study about a particular person, group of people, community, or some unit in which the researcher could provide an in-depth data in relation to the variables. Case studies can examine a phenomena in the natural setting. This increases your ability to understand why the subjects act such. You may be able to describe how this method allows every researcher to take a specific topic to narrow it down making it into a manageable research question. The researcher gain an in-depth understanding about the subject matter through collecting qualitative research and quantitative research datasets about the phenomenon.

Benefits and Limitations of Case Studies

If a researcher is interested to study about a phenomenon, he or she will be assigned to a single-case study that will allow him or her to gain an understanding about the phenomenon. Multiple-case study would allow a researcher to understand the case as a group through comparing them based on the embedded similarities and differences. However, the volume of data in case studies will be difficult to organize and the process of analysis and strategies needs to be carefully decided upon. Reporting of findings could also be challenging at times especially when you are ought to follow for word limits.

Example of Case Study

Nurses’ pediatric pain management practices.

One of the authors of this paper (AT) has used a case study approach to explore nurses’ pediatric pain management practices. This involved collecting several datasets:

Observational data to gain a picture about actual pain management practices.

Questionnaire data about nurses’ knowledge about pediatric pain management practices and how well they felt they managed pain in children.

Questionnaire data about how critical nurses perceived pain management tasks to be.

These datasets were analyzed separately and then compared and demonstrated that nurses’ level of theoretical did not impact on the quality of their pain management practices. Nor did individual nurse’s perceptions of how critical a task was effect the likelihood of them carrying out this task in practice. There was also a difference in self-reported and observed practices; actual (observed) practices did not confirm to best practice guidelines, whereas self-reported practices tended to.

How do you Write a Case Study for Students?

1. choose an interesting and relevant topic:.

Select a topic that is relevant to your course and interesting to your audience. It should be specific and focused, allowing for in-depth analysis.

2. Conduct Thorough Research :

Gather information from reputable sources such as books, scholarly articles, interviews, and reliable websites. Ensure you have a good understanding of the topic before proceeding.

3. Identify the Problem or Research Question:

Clearly define the problem or research question your case study aims to address. Be specific about the issues you want to explore and analyze.

4. Introduce the Case:

Provide background information about the subject, including relevant historical, social, or organizational context. Explain why the case is important and what makes it unique.

5. Describe the Methods Used:

Explain the methods you used to collect data. This could include interviews, surveys, observations, or analysis of existing documents. Justify your choice of methods.

6. Present the Findings:

Present the data and findings in a clear and organized manner. Use charts, graphs, and tables if applicable. Include direct quotes from interviews or other sources to support your points.

7. Analytical Interpretation:

Analyze the data and discuss the patterns, trends, or relationships you observed. Relate your findings back to the research question. Use relevant theories or concepts to support your analysis.

8. Discuss Limitations:

Acknowledge any limitations in your study, such as constraints in data collection or research methods. Addressing limitations shows a critical awareness of your study’s scope.

9. Propose Solutions or Recommendations:

If your case study revolves around a problem, propose practical solutions or recommendations based on your analysis. Support your suggestions with evidence from your findings.

10. Write a Conclusion:

Summarize the key points of your case study. Restate the importance of the topic and your findings. Discuss the implications of your study for the broader field.

What are the objectives of a Student Case Study?

1. learning and understanding:.

  • To deepen students’ understanding of a particular concept, theory, or topic within their field of study.
  • To provide real-world context and practical applications for theoretical knowledge.

2. Problem-Solving Skills:

  • To enhance students’ critical thinking and problem-solving abilities by analyzing complex issues or scenarios.
  • To encourage students to apply their knowledge to real-life situations and develop solutions.

3. Research and Analysis:

  • To develop research skills, including data collection, data analysis , and the ability to draw meaningful conclusions from information.
  • To improve analytical skills in interpreting data and making evidence-based decisions.

4. Communication Skills:

  • To improve written and oral communication skills by requiring students to present their findings in a clear, organized, and coherent manner.
  • To enhance the ability to communicate complex ideas effectively to both academic and non-academic audiences.

5. Ethical Considerations:

To promote awareness of ethical issues related to research and decision-making, such as participant rights, privacy, and responsible conduct.

6. Interdisciplinary Learning:

To encourage cross-disciplinary or interdisciplinary thinking, allowing students to apply knowledge from multiple areas to address a problem or issue.

7. Professional Development:

  • To prepare students for future careers by exposing them to real-world situations and challenges they may encounter in their chosen profession.
  • To develop professional skills, such as teamwork, time management, and project management.

8. Reflection and Self-Assessment:

  • To prompt students to reflect on their learning and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in research and analysis.
  • To foster self-assessment and a commitment to ongoing improvement.

9. Promoting Innovation:

  • To inspire creativity and innovation in finding solutions to complex problems or challenges.
  • To encourage students to think outside the box and explore new approaches.

10. Building a Portfolio:

To provide students with tangible evidence of their academic and problem-solving abilities that can be included in their academic or professional portfolios.

What are the Elements of a Case Study?

A case study typically includes an introduction, background information, presentation of the main issue or problem, analysis, solutions or interventions, and a conclusion. It often incorporates supporting data and references.

How Long is a Case Study?

The length of a case study can vary, but it generally ranges from 500 to 1500 words. This length allows for a detailed examination of the subject while maintaining conciseness and focus.

How Big Should a Case Study Be?

The size of a case study should be sufficient to comprehensively cover the topic, typically around 2 to 5 pages. This size allows for depth in analysis while remaining concise and readable.

What Makes a Good Case Study?

A good case study is clear, concise, and well-structured, focusing on a relevant and interesting issue. It should offer insightful analysis, practical solutions, and demonstrate real-world applications or implications.

Case studies bring people into the real world to allow themselves engage in different fields such as in business examples, politics, health related aspect where each individuals could find an avenue to make difficult decisions. It serves to provide framework for analysis and evaluation of the different societal issues. This is one of the best way to focus on what really matters, to discuss about issues and to know what can we do about it.


Text prompt

  • Instructive
  • Professional

Education Case Study Examples for Students

Graduate Student Case Study Example

Student Profile Case Study Example

High School Student Case Study Example

Student Research Case Study Example

Writing A Case Study

Case Study Examples

Barbara P

Brilliant Case Study Examples and Templates For Your Help

15 min read

Case Study Examples

People also read

A Complete Case Study Writing Guide With Examples

Simple Case Study Format for Students to Follow

Understand the Types of Case Study Here

It’s no surprise that writing a case study is one of the most challenging academic tasks for students. You’re definitely not alone here!

Most people don't realize that there are specific guidelines to follow when writing a case study. If you don't know where to start, it's easy to get overwhelmed and give up before you even begin.

Don't worry! Let us help you out!

We've collected over 25 free case study examples with solutions just for you. These samples with solutions will help you win over your panel and score high marks on your case studies.

So, what are you waiting for? Let's dive in and learn the secrets to writing a successful case study.

Arrow Down

  • 1. An Overview of Case Studies
  • 2. Case Study Examples for Students
  • 3. Business Case Study Examples
  • 4. Medical Case Study Examples
  • 5. Psychology Case Study Examples 
  • 6. Sales Case Study Examples
  • 7. Interview Case Study Examples
  • 8. Marketing Case Study Examples
  • 9. Tips to Write a Good Case Study

An Overview of Case Studies

A case study is a research method used to study a particular individual, group, or situation in depth. It involves analyzing and interpreting data from a variety of sources to gain insight into the subject being studied. 

Case studies are often used in psychology, business, and education to explore complicated problems and find solutions. They usually have detailed descriptions of the subject, background info, and an analysis of the main issues.

The goal of a case study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the subject. Typically, case studies can be divided into three parts, challenges, solutions, and results. 

Here is a case study sample PDF so you can have a clearer understanding of what a case study actually is:

Case Study Sample PDF

How to Write a Case Study Examples

Learn how to write a case study with the help of our comprehensive case study guide.

Case Study Examples for Students

Quite often, students are asked to present case studies in their academic journeys. The reason instructors assign case studies is for students to sharpen their critical analysis skills, understand how companies make profits, etc.

Below are some case study examples in research, suitable for students:

Case Study Example in Software Engineering

Qualitative Research Case Study Sample

Software Quality Assurance Case Study

Social Work Case Study Example

Ethical Case Study

Case Study Example PDF

These examples can guide you on how to structure and format your own case studies.

Struggling with formatting your case study? Check this case study format guide and perfect your document’s structure today.

Business Case Study Examples

A business case study examines a business’s specific challenge or goal and how it should be solved. Business case studies usually focus on several details related to the initial challenge and proposed solution. 

To help you out, here are some samples so you can create case studies that are related to businesses: 

Here are some more business case study examples:

Business Case Studies PDF

Business Case Studies Example

Typically, a business case study discovers one of your customer's stories and how you solved a problem for them. It allows your prospects to see how your solutions address their needs. 

Medical Case Study Examples

Medical case studies are an essential part of medical education. They help students to understand how to diagnose and treat patients. 

Here are some medical case study examples to help you.

Medical Case Study Example

Nursing Case Study Example

Want to understand the various types of case studies? Check out our types of case study blog to select the perfect type.

Psychology Case Study Examples 

Case studies are a great way of investigating individuals with psychological abnormalities. This is why it is a very common assignment in psychology courses. 

By examining all the aspects of your subject’s life, you discover the possible causes of exhibiting such behavior. 

For your help, here are some interesting psychology case study examples:

Psychology Case Study Example

Mental Health Case Study Example

Sales Case Study Examples

Case studies are important tools for sales teams’ performance improvement. By examining sales successes, teams can gain insights into effective strategies and create action plans to employ similar tactics.

By researching case studies of successful sales campaigns, sales teams can more accurately identify challenges and develop solutions.

Sales Case Study Example

Interview Case Study Examples

Interview case studies provide businesses with invaluable information. This data allows them to make informed decisions related to certain markets or subjects.

Interview Case Study Example

Marketing Case Study Examples

Marketing case studies are real-life stories that showcase how a business solves a problem. They typically discuss how a business achieves a goal using a specific marketing strategy or tactic.

They typically describe a challenge faced by a business, the solution implemented, and the results achieved.

This is a short sample marketing case study for you to get an idea of what an actual marketing case study looks like.

 Here are some more popular marketing studies that show how companies use case studies as a means of marketing and promotion:

“Chevrolet Discover the Unexpected” by Carol H. Williams

This case study explores Chevrolet's “ DTU Journalism Fellows ” program. The case study uses the initials “DTU” to generate interest and encourage readers to learn more. 

Multiple types of media, such as images and videos, are used to explain the challenges faced. The case study concludes with an overview of the achievements that were met.

Key points from the case study include:

  • Using a well-known brand name in the title can create interest.
  • Combining different media types, such as headings, images, and videos, can help engage readers and make the content more memorable.
  • Providing a summary of the key achievements at the end of the case study can help readers better understand the project's impact.

“The Met” by Fantasy

“ The Met ” by Fantasy is a fictional redesign of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, created by the design studio Fantasy. The case study clearly and simply showcases the museum's website redesign.

The Met emphasizes the website’s features and interface by showcasing each section of the interface individually, allowing the readers to concentrate on the significant elements.

For those who prefer text, each feature includes an objective description. The case study also includes a “Contact Us” call-to-action at the bottom of the page, inviting visitors to contact the company.

Key points from this “The Met” include:

  • Keeping the case study simple and clean can help readers focus on the most important aspects.
  • Presenting the features and solutions with a visual showcase can be more effective than writing a lot of text.
  • Including a clear call-to-action at the end of the case study can encourage visitors to contact the company for more information.

“Better Experiences for All” by Herman Miller

Herman Miller's minimalist approach to furniture design translates to their case study, “ Better Experiences for All ”, for a Dubai hospital. The page features a captivating video with closed-captioning and expandable text for accessibility.

The case study presents a wealth of information in a concise format, enabling users to grasp the complexities of the strategy with ease. It concludes with a client testimonial and a list of furniture items purchased from the brand.

Key points from the “Better Experiences” include:

  • Make sure your case study is user-friendly by including accessibility features like closed captioning and expandable text.
  • Include a list of products that were used in the project to guide potential customers.

“NetApp” by Evisort 

Evisort's case study on “ NetApp ” stands out for its informative and compelling approach. The study begins with a client-centric overview of NetApp, strategically directing attention to the client rather than the company or team involved.

The case study incorporates client quotes and explores NetApp’s challenges during COVID-19. Evisort showcases its value as a client partner by showing how its services supported NetApp through difficult times. 

  • Provide an overview of the company in the client’s words, and put focus on the customer. 
  • Highlight how your services can help clients during challenging times.
  • Make your case study accessible by providing it in various formats.

“Red Sox Season Campaign,” by CTP Boston

The “ Red Sox Season Campaign ” showcases a perfect blend of different media, such as video, text, and images. Upon visiting the page, the video plays automatically, there are videos of Red Sox players, their images, and print ads that can be enlarged with a click.

The page features an intuitive design and invites viewers to appreciate CTP's well-rounded campaign for Boston's beloved baseball team. There’s also a CTA that prompts viewers to learn how CTP can create a similar campaign for their brand.

Some key points to take away from the “Red Sox Season Campaign”: 

  • Including a variety of media such as video, images, and text can make your case study more engaging and compelling.
  • Include a call-to-action at the end of your study that encourages viewers to take the next step towards becoming a customer or prospect.

“Airbnb + Zendesk” by Zendesk

The case study by Zendesk, titled “ Airbnb + Zendesk : Building a powerful solution together,” showcases a true partnership between Airbnb and Zendesk. 

The article begins with an intriguing opening statement, “Halfway around the globe is a place to stay with your name on it. At least for a weekend,” and uses stunning images of beautiful Airbnb locations to captivate readers.

Instead of solely highlighting Zendesk's product, the case study is crafted to tell a good story and highlight Airbnb's service in detail. This strategy makes the case study more authentic and relatable.

Some key points to take away from this case study are:

  • Use client's offerings' images rather than just screenshots of your own product or service.
  • To begin the case study, it is recommended to include a distinct CTA. For instance, Zendesk presents two alternatives, namely to initiate a trial or seek a solution.

“Influencer Marketing” by Trend and WarbyParker

The case study "Influencer Marketing" by Trend and Warby Parker highlights the potential of influencer content marketing, even when working with a limited budget. 

The “Wearing Warby” campaign involved influencers wearing Warby Parker glasses during their daily activities, providing a glimpse of the brand's products in use. 

This strategy enhanced the brand's relatability with influencers' followers. While not detailing specific tactics, the case study effectively illustrates the impact of third-person case studies in showcasing campaign results.

Key points to take away from this case study are:

  • Influencer marketing can be effective even with a limited budget.
  • Showcasing products being used in everyday life can make a brand more approachable and relatable.
  • Third-person case studies can be useful in highlighting the success of a campaign.

Marketing Case Study Example

Marketing Case Study Template

Now that you have read multiple case study examples, hop on to our tips.

Tips to Write a Good Case Study

Here are some note-worthy tips to craft a winning case study 

  • Define the purpose of the case study This will help you to focus on the most important aspects of the case. The case study objective helps to ensure that your finished product is concise and to the point.
  • Choose a real-life example. One of the best ways to write a successful case study is to choose a real-life example. This will give your readers a chance to see how the concepts apply in a real-world setting.
  • Keep it brief. This means that you should only include information that is directly relevant to your topic and avoid adding unnecessary details.
  • Use strong evidence. To make your case study convincing, you will need to use strong evidence. This can include statistics, data from research studies, or quotes from experts in the field.
  • Edit and proofread your work. Before you submit your case study, be sure to edit and proofread your work carefully. This will help to ensure that there are no errors and that your paper is clear and concise.

There you go!

We’re sure that now you have secrets to writing a great case study at your fingertips! This blog teaches the key guidelines of various case studies with samples. So grab your pen and start crafting a winning case study right away!

Having said that, we do understand that some of you might be having a hard time writing compelling case studies.

But worry not! Our expert case study writing service is here to take all your case-writing blues away! 

With 100% thorough research guaranteed, our online essay service can craft an amazing case study within 24 hours! 

So why delay? Let us help you shine in the eyes of your instructor!

AI Essay Bot

Write Essay Within 60 Seconds!

Barbara P

Dr. Barbara is a highly experienced writer and author who holds a Ph.D. degree in public health from an Ivy League school. She has worked in the medical field for many years, conducting extensive research on various health topics. Her writing has been featured in several top-tier publications.

Get Help

Paper Due? Why Suffer? That’s our Job!

Keep reading

Case Study

  • Our Mission

Making Learning Relevant With Case Studies

The open-ended problems presented in case studies give students work that feels connected to their lives.

Students working on projects in a classroom

To prepare students for jobs that haven’t been created yet, we need to teach them how to be great problem solvers so that they’ll be ready for anything. One way to do this is by teaching content and skills using real-world case studies, a learning model that’s focused on reflection during the problem-solving process. It’s similar to project-based learning, but PBL is more focused on students creating a product.

Case studies have been used for years by businesses, law and medical schools, physicians on rounds, and artists critiquing work. Like other forms of problem-based learning, case studies can be accessible for every age group, both in one subject and in interdisciplinary work.

You can get started with case studies by tackling relatable questions like these with your students:

  • How can we limit food waste in the cafeteria?
  • How can we get our school to recycle and compost waste? (Or, if you want to be more complex, how can our school reduce its carbon footprint?)
  • How can we improve school attendance?
  • How can we reduce the number of people who get sick at school during cold and flu season?

Addressing questions like these leads students to identify topics they need to learn more about. In researching the first question, for example, students may see that they need to research food chains and nutrition. Students often ask, reasonably, why they need to learn something, or when they’ll use their knowledge in the future. Learning is most successful for students when the content and skills they’re studying are relevant, and case studies offer one way to create that sense of relevance.

Teaching With Case Studies

Ultimately, a case study is simply an interesting problem with many correct answers. What does case study work look like in classrooms? Teachers generally start by having students read the case or watch a video that summarizes the case. Students then work in small groups or individually to solve the case study. Teachers set milestones defining what students should accomplish to help them manage their time.

During the case study learning process, student assessment of learning should be focused on reflection. Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick’s Learning and Leading With Habits of Mind gives several examples of what this reflection can look like in a classroom: 

Journaling: At the end of each work period, have students write an entry summarizing what they worked on, what worked well, what didn’t, and why. Sentence starters and clear rubrics or guidelines will help students be successful. At the end of a case study project, as Costa and Kallick write, it’s helpful to have students “select significant learnings, envision how they could apply these learnings to future situations, and commit to an action plan to consciously modify their behaviors.”

Interviews: While working on a case study, students can interview each other about their progress and learning. Teachers can interview students individually or in small groups to assess their learning process and their progress.

Student discussion: Discussions can be unstructured—students can talk about what they worked on that day in a think-pair-share or as a full class—or structured, using Socratic seminars or fishbowl discussions. If your class is tackling a case study in small groups, create a second set of small groups with a representative from each of the case study groups so that the groups can share their learning.

4 Tips for Setting Up a Case Study

1. Identify a problem to investigate: This should be something accessible and relevant to students’ lives. The problem should also be challenging and complex enough to yield multiple solutions with many layers.

2. Give context: Think of this step as a movie preview or book summary. Hook the learners to help them understand just enough about the problem to want to learn more.

3. Have a clear rubric: Giving structure to your definition of quality group work and products will lead to stronger end products. You may be able to have your learners help build these definitions.

4. Provide structures for presenting solutions: The amount of scaffolding you build in depends on your students’ skill level and development. A case study product can be something like several pieces of evidence of students collaborating to solve the case study, and ultimately presenting their solution with a detailed slide deck or an essay—you can scaffold this by providing specified headings for the sections of the essay.

Problem-Based Teaching Resources

There are many high-quality, peer-reviewed resources that are open source and easily accessible online.

  • The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science at the University at Buffalo built an online collection of more than 800 cases that cover topics ranging from biochemistry to economics. There are resources for middle and high school students.
  • Models of Excellence , a project maintained by EL Education and the Harvard Graduate School of Education, has examples of great problem- and project-based tasks—and corresponding exemplary student work—for grades pre-K to 12.
  • The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning at Purdue University is an open-source journal that publishes examples of problem-based learning in K–12 and post-secondary classrooms.
  • The Tech Edvocate has a list of websites and tools related to problem-based learning.

In their book Problems as Possibilities , Linda Torp and Sara Sage write that at the elementary school level, students particularly appreciate how they feel that they are taken seriously when solving case studies. At the middle school level, “researchers stress the importance of relating middle school curriculum to issues of student concern and interest.” And high schoolers, they write, find the case study method “beneficial in preparing them for their future.”

Center for Teaching

Case studies.

Print Version

Case studies are stories that are used as a teaching tool to show the application of a theory or concept to real situations. Dependent on the goal they are meant to fulfill, cases can be fact-driven and deductive where there is a correct answer, or they can be context driven where multiple solutions are possible. Various disciplines have employed case studies, including humanities, social sciences, sciences, engineering, law, business, and medicine. Good cases generally have the following features: they tell a good story, are recent, include dialogue, create empathy with the main characters, are relevant to the reader, serve a teaching function, require a dilemma to be solved, and have generality.

Instructors can create their own cases or can find cases that already exist. The following are some things to keep in mind when creating a case:

  • What do you want students to learn from the discussion of the case?
  • What do they already know that applies to the case?
  • What are the issues that may be raised in discussion?
  • How will the case and discussion be introduced?
  • What preparation is expected of students? (Do they need to read the case ahead of time? Do research? Write anything?)
  • What directions do you need to provide students regarding what they are supposed to do and accomplish?
  • Do you need to divide students into groups or will they discuss as the whole class?
  • Are you going to use role-playing or facilitators or record keepers? If so, how?
  • What are the opening questions?
  • How much time is needed for students to discuss the case?
  • What concepts are to be applied/extracted during the discussion?
  • How will you evaluate students?

To find other cases that already exist, try the following websites:

  • The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science , University of Buffalo. SUNY-Buffalo maintains this set of links to other case studies on the web in disciplines ranging from engineering and ethics to sociology and business
  • A Journal of Teaching Cases in Public Administration and Public Policy , University of Washington

For more information:

  • World Association for Case Method Research and Application

Book Review :  Teaching and the Case Method , 3rd ed., vols. 1 and 2, by Louis Barnes, C. Roland (Chris) Christensen, and Abby Hansen. Harvard Business School Press, 1994; 333 pp. (vol 1), 412 pp. (vol 2).

Creative Commons License

Teaching Guides

  • Online Course Development Resources
  • Principles & Frameworks
  • Pedagogies & Strategies
  • Reflecting & Assessing
  • Challenges & Opportunities
  • Populations & Contexts

Quick Links

  • Services for Departments and Schools
  • Examples of Online Instructional Modules
  • Utility Menu

University Logo

GA4 Tracking Code



Bok Center Logo

Case Study At-A-Glance

A case study is a way to let students interact with material in an open-ended manner. the goal is not to find solutions, but to explore possibilities and options of a real-life scenario..

Want examples of a Case-Study?  Check out the ABLConnect Activity Database Want to read research supporting the Case-Study method? Click here

Why should you facilitate a Case Study?

Want to facilitate a case-study in your class .

How-To Run a Case-Study

  • Before class pick the case study topic/scenario. You can either generate a fictional situation or can use a real-world example.
  • Clearly let students know how they should prepare. Will the information be given to them in class or do they need to do readings/research before coming to class?
  • Have a list of questions prepared to help guide discussion (see below)
  • Sessions work best when the group size is between 5-20 people so that everyone has an opportunity to participate. You may choose to have one large whole-class discussion or break into sub-groups and have smaller discussions. If you break into groups, make sure to leave extra time at the end to bring the whole class back together to discuss the key points from each group and to highlight any differences.
  • What is the problem?
  • What is the cause of the problem?
  • Who are the key players in the situation? What is their position?
  • What are the relevant data?
  • What are possible solutions – both short-term and long-term?
  • What are alternate solutions? – Play (or have the students play) Devil’s Advocate and consider alternate view points
  • What are potential outcomes of each solution?
  • What other information do you want to see?
  • What can we learn from the scenario?
  • Be flexible. While you may have a set of questions prepared, don’t be afraid to go where the discussion naturally takes you. However, be conscious of time and re-focus the group if key points are being missed
  • Role-playing can be an effective strategy to showcase alternate viewpoints and resolve any conflicts
  • Involve as many students as possible. Teamwork and communication are key aspects of this exercise. If needed, call on students who haven’t spoken yet or instigate another rule to encourage participation.
  • Write out key facts on the board for reference. It is also helpful to write out possible solutions and list the pros/cons discussed.
  • Having the information written out makes it easier for students to reference during the discussion and helps maintain everyone on the same page.
  • Keep an eye on the clock and make sure students are moving through the scenario at a reasonable pace. If needed, prompt students with guided questions to help them move faster.  
  • Either give or have the students give a concluding statement that highlights the goals and key points from the discussion. Make sure to compare and contrast alternate viewpoints that came up during the discussion and emphasize the take-home messages that can be applied to future situations.
  • Inform students (either individually or the group) how they did during the case study. What worked? What didn’t work? Did everyone participate equally?
  • Taking time to reflect on the process is just as important to emphasize and help students learn the importance of teamwork and communication.


Other Sources:

Harvard Business School: Teaching By the Case-Study Method

Written by Catherine Weiner

Do Your Students Know How to Analyze a Case—Really?

Explore more.

  • Case Teaching
  • Student Engagement

J ust as actors, athletes, and musicians spend thousands of hours practicing their craft, business students benefit from practicing their critical-thinking and decision-making skills. Students, however, often have limited exposure to real-world problem-solving scenarios; they need more opportunities to practice tackling tough business problems and deciding on—and executing—the best solutions.

To ensure students have ample opportunity to develop these critical-thinking and decision-making skills, we believe business faculty should shift from teaching mostly principles and ideas to mostly applications and practices. And in doing so, they should emphasize the case method, which simulates real-world management challenges and opportunities for students.

To help educators facilitate this shift and help students get the most out of case-based learning, we have developed a framework for analyzing cases. We call it PACADI (Problem, Alternatives, Criteria, Analysis, Decision, Implementation); it can improve learning outcomes by helping students better solve and analyze business problems, make decisions, and develop and implement strategy. Here, we’ll explain why we developed this framework, how it works, and what makes it an effective learning tool.

The Case for Cases: Helping Students Think Critically

Business students must develop critical-thinking and analytical skills, which are essential to their ability to make good decisions in functional areas such as marketing, finance, operations, and information technology, as well as to understand the relationships among these functions. For example, the decisions a marketing manager must make include strategic planning (segments, products, and channels); execution (digital messaging, media, branding, budgets, and pricing); and operations (integrated communications and technologies), as well as how to implement decisions across functional areas.

Faculty can use many types of cases to help students develop these skills. These include the prototypical “paper cases”; live cases , which feature guest lecturers such as entrepreneurs or corporate leaders and on-site visits; and multimedia cases , which immerse students into real situations. Most cases feature an explicit or implicit decision that a protagonist—whether it is an individual, a group, or an organization—must make.

For students new to learning by the case method—and even for those with case experience—some common issues can emerge; these issues can sometimes be a barrier for educators looking to ensure the best possible outcomes in their case classrooms. Unsure of how to dig into case analysis on their own, students may turn to the internet or rely on former students for “answers” to assigned cases. Or, when assigned to provide answers to assignment questions in teams, students might take a divide-and-conquer approach but not take the time to regroup and provide answers that are consistent with one other.

To help address these issues, which we commonly experienced in our classes, we wanted to provide our students with a more structured approach for how they analyze cases—and to really think about making decisions from the protagonists’ point of view. We developed the PACADI framework to address this need.

PACADI: A Six-Step Decision-Making Approach

The PACADI framework is a six-step decision-making approach that can be used in lieu of traditional end-of-case questions. It offers a structured, integrated, and iterative process that requires students to analyze case information, apply business concepts to derive valuable insights, and develop recommendations based on these insights.

Prior to beginning a PACADI assessment, which we’ll outline here, students should first prepare a two-paragraph summary—a situation analysis—that highlights the key case facts. Then, we task students with providing a five-page PACADI case analysis (excluding appendices) based on the following six steps.

Step 1: Problem definition. What is the major challenge, problem, opportunity, or decision that has to be made? If there is more than one problem, choose the most important one. Often when solving the key problem, other issues will surface and be addressed. The problem statement may be framed as a question; for example, How can brand X improve market share among millennials in Canada? Usually the problem statement has to be re-written several times during the analysis of a case as students peel back the layers of symptoms or causation.

Step 2: Alternatives. Identify in detail the strategic alternatives to address the problem; three to five options generally work best. Alternatives should be mutually exclusive, realistic, creative, and feasible given the constraints of the situation. Doing nothing or delaying the decision to a later date are not considered acceptable alternatives.

Step 3: Criteria. What are the key decision criteria that will guide decision-making? In a marketing course, for example, these may include relevant marketing criteria such as segmentation, positioning, advertising and sales, distribution, and pricing. Financial criteria useful in evaluating the alternatives should be included—for example, income statement variables, customer lifetime value, payback, etc. Students must discuss their rationale for selecting the decision criteria and the weights and importance for each factor.

Step 4: Analysis. Provide an in-depth analysis of each alternative based on the criteria chosen in step three. Decision tables using criteria as columns and alternatives as rows can be helpful. The pros and cons of the various choices as well as the short- and long-term implications of each may be evaluated. Best, worst, and most likely scenarios can also be insightful.

Step 5: Decision. Students propose their solution to the problem. This decision is justified based on an in-depth analysis. Explain why the recommendation made is the best fit for the criteria.

Step 6: Implementation plan. Sound business decisions may fail due to poor execution. To enhance the likeliness of a successful project outcome, students describe the key steps (activities) to implement the recommendation, timetable, projected costs, expected competitive reaction, success metrics, and risks in the plan.

“Students note that using the PACADI framework yields ‘aha moments’—they learned something surprising in the case that led them to think differently about the problem and their proposed solution.”

PACADI’s Benefits: Meaningfully and Thoughtfully Applying Business Concepts

The PACADI framework covers all of the major elements of business decision-making, including implementation, which is often overlooked. By stepping through the whole framework, students apply relevant business concepts and solve management problems via a systematic, comprehensive approach; they’re far less likely to surface piecemeal responses.

As students explore each part of the framework, they may realize that they need to make changes to a previous step. For instance, when working on implementation, students may realize that the alternative they selected cannot be executed or will not be profitable, and thus need to rethink their decision. Or, they may discover that the criteria need to be revised since the list of decision factors they identified is incomplete (for example, the factors may explain key marketing concerns but fail to address relevant financial considerations) or is unrealistic (for example, they suggest a 25 percent increase in revenues without proposing an increased promotional budget).

In addition, the PACADI framework can be used alongside quantitative assignments, in-class exercises, and business and management simulations. The structured, multi-step decision framework encourages careful and sequential analysis to solve business problems. Incorporating PACADI as an overarching decision-making method across different projects will ultimately help students achieve desired learning outcomes. As a practical “beyond-the-classroom” tool, the PACADI framework is not a contrived course assignment; it reflects the decision-making approach that managers, executives, and entrepreneurs exercise daily. Case analysis introduces students to the real-world process of making business decisions quickly and correctly, often with limited information. This framework supplies an organized and disciplined process that students can readily defend in writing and in class discussions.

PACADI in Action: An Example

Here’s an example of how students used the PACADI framework for a recent case analysis on CVS, a large North American drugstore chain.

The CVS Prescription for Customer Value*


Summary Response

How should CVS Health evolve from the “drugstore of your neighborhood” to the “drugstore of your future”?


A1. Kaizen (continuous improvement)

A2. Product development

A3. Market development

A4. Personalization (micro-targeting)

Criteria (include weights)

C1. Customer value: service, quality, image, and price (40%)

C2. Customer obsession (20%)

C3. Growth through related businesses (20%)

C4. Customer retention and customer lifetime value (20%)

Each alternative was analyzed by each criterion using a Customer Value Assessment Tool

Alternative 4 (A4): Personalization was selected. This is operationalized via: segmentation—move toward segment-of-1 marketing; geodemographics and lifestyle emphasis; predictive data analysis; relationship marketing; people, principles, and supply chain management; and exceptional customer service.


Partner with leading medical school

Curbside pick-up

Pet pharmacy

E-newsletter for customers and employees

Employee incentive program

CVS beauty days

Expand to Latin America and Caribbean

Healthier/happier corner

Holiday toy drives/community outreach

*Source: A. Weinstein, Y. Rodriguez, K. Sims, R. Vergara, “The CVS Prescription for Superior Customer Value—A Case Study,” Back to the Future: Revisiting the Foundations of Marketing from Society for Marketing Advances, West Palm Beach, FL (November 2, 2018).

Results of Using the PACADI Framework

When faculty members at our respective institutions at Nova Southeastern University (NSU) and the University of North Carolina Wilmington have used the PACADI framework, our classes have been more structured and engaging. Students vigorously debate each element of their decision and note that this framework yields an “aha moment”—they learned something surprising in the case that led them to think differently about the problem and their proposed solution.

These lively discussions enhance individual and collective learning. As one external metric of this improvement, we have observed a 2.5 percent increase in student case grade performance at NSU since this framework was introduced.

Tips to Get Started

The PACADI approach works well in in-person, online, and hybrid courses. This is particularly important as more universities have moved to remote learning options. Because students have varied educational and cultural backgrounds, work experience, and familiarity with case analysis, we recommend that faculty members have students work on their first case using this new framework in small teams (two or three students). Additional analyses should then be solo efforts.

To use PACADI effectively in your classroom, we suggest the following:

Advise your students that your course will stress critical thinking and decision-making skills, not just course concepts and theory.

Use a varied mix of case studies. As marketing professors, we often address consumer and business markets; goods, services, and digital commerce; domestic and global business; and small and large companies in a single MBA course.

As a starting point, provide a short explanation (about 20 to 30 minutes) of the PACADI framework with a focus on the conceptual elements. You can deliver this face to face or through videoconferencing.

Give students an opportunity to practice the case analysis methodology via an ungraded sample case study. Designate groups of five to seven students to discuss the case and the six steps in breakout sessions (in class or via Zoom).

Ensure case analyses are weighted heavily as a grading component. We suggest 30–50 percent of the overall course grade.

Once cases are graded, debrief with the class on what they did right and areas needing improvement (30- to 40-minute in-person or Zoom session).

Encourage faculty teams that teach common courses to build appropriate instructional materials, grading rubrics, videos, sample cases, and teaching notes.

When selecting case studies, we have found that the best ones for PACADI analyses are about 15 pages long and revolve around a focal management decision. This length provides adequate depth yet is not protracted. Some of our tested and favorite marketing cases include Brand W , Hubspot , Kraft Foods Canada , TRSB(A) , and Whiskey & Cheddar .

Art Weinstein

Art Weinstein , Ph.D., is a professor of marketing at Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. He has published more than 80 scholarly articles and papers and eight books on customer-focused marketing strategy. His latest book is Superior Customer Value—Finding and Keeping Customers in the Now Economy . Dr. Weinstein has consulted for many leading technology and service companies.

Herbert V. Brotspies

Herbert V. Brotspies , D.B.A., is an adjunct professor of marketing at Nova Southeastern University. He has over 30 years’ experience as a vice president in marketing, strategic planning, and acquisitions for Fortune 50 consumer products companies working in the United States and internationally. His research interests include return on marketing investment, consumer behavior, business-to-business strategy, and strategic planning.

John T. Gironda

John T. Gironda , Ph.D., is an assistant professor of marketing at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. His research has been published in Industrial Marketing Management, Psychology & Marketing , and Journal of Marketing Management . He has also presented at major marketing conferences including the American Marketing Association, Academy of Marketing Science, and Society for Marketing Advances.

Related Articles

case study examples school students

We use cookies to understand how you use our site and to improve your experience, including personalizing content. Learn More . By continuing to use our site, you accept our use of cookies and revised Privacy Policy .

case study examples school students

Smart. Open. Grounded. Inventive. Read our Ideas Made to Matter.

Which program is right for you?

MIT Sloan Campus life

Through intellectual rigor and experiential learning, this full-time, two-year MBA program develops leaders who make a difference in the world.

A rigorous, hands-on program that prepares adaptive problem solvers for premier finance careers.

A 12-month program focused on applying the tools of modern data science, optimization and machine learning to solve real-world business problems.

Earn your MBA and SM in engineering with this transformative two-year program.

Combine an international MBA with a deep dive into management science. A special opportunity for partner and affiliate schools only.

A doctoral program that produces outstanding scholars who are leading in their fields of research.

Bring a business perspective to your technical and quantitative expertise with a bachelor’s degree in management, business analytics, or finance.

A joint program for mid-career professionals that integrates engineering and systems thinking. Earn your master’s degree in engineering and management.

An interdisciplinary program that combines engineering, management, and design, leading to a master’s degree in engineering and management.

Executive Programs

A full-time MBA program for mid-career leaders eager to dedicate one year of discovery for a lifetime of impact.

This 20-month MBA program equips experienced executives to enhance their impact on their organizations and the world.

Non-degree programs for senior executives and high-potential managers.

A non-degree, customizable program for mid-career professionals.

Teaching Resources Library

Case studies.

The teaching business case studies available here are narratives that facilitate class discussion about a particular business or management issue. Teaching cases are meant to spur debate among students rather than promote a particular point of view or steer students in a specific direction.  Some of the case studies in this collection highlight the decision-making process in a business or management setting. Other cases are descriptive or demonstrative in nature, showcasing something that has happened or is happening in a particular business or management environment. Whether decision-based or demonstrative, case studies give students the chance to be in the shoes of a protagonist. With the help of context and detailed data, students can analyze what they would and would not do in a particular situation, why, and how.

Case Studies By Category

case study examples school students

Using Case Studies to Teach

case study examples school students

Why Use Cases?

Many students are more inductive than deductive reasoners, which means that they learn better from examples than from logical development starting with basic principles. The use of case studies can therefore be a very effective classroom technique.

Case studies are have long been used in business schools, law schools, medical schools and the social sciences, but they can be used in any discipline when instructors want students to explore how what they have learned applies to real world situations. Cases come in many formats, from a simple “What would you do in this situation?” question to a detailed description of a situation with accompanying data to analyze. Whether to use a simple scenario-type case or a complex detailed one depends on your course objectives.

Most case assignments require students to answer an open-ended question or develop a solution to an open-ended problem with multiple potential solutions. Requirements can range from a one-paragraph answer to a fully developed group action plan, proposal or decision.

Common Case Elements

Most “full-blown” cases have these common elements:

  • A decision-maker who is grappling with some question or problem that needs to be solved.
  • A description of the problem’s context (a law, an industry, a family).
  • Supporting data, which can range from data tables to links to URLs, quoted statements or testimony, supporting documents, images, video, or audio.

Case assignments can be done individually or in teams so that the students can brainstorm solutions and share the work load.

The following discussion of this topic incorporates material presented by Robb Dixon of the School of Management and Rob Schadt of the School of Public Health at CEIT workshops. Professor Dixon also provided some written comments that the discussion incorporates.

Advantages to the use of case studies in class

A major advantage of teaching with case studies is that the students are actively engaged in figuring out the principles by abstracting from the examples. This develops their skills in:

  • Problem solving
  • Analytical tools, quantitative and/or qualitative, depending on the case
  • Decision making in complex situations
  • Coping with ambiguities

Guidelines for using case studies in class

In the most straightforward application, the presentation of the case study establishes a framework for analysis. It is helpful if the statement of the case provides enough information for the students to figure out solutions and then to identify how to apply those solutions in other similar situations. Instructors may choose to use several cases so that students can identify both the similarities and differences among the cases.

Depending on the course objectives, the instructor may encourage students to follow a systematic approach to their analysis.  For example:

  • What is the issue?
  • What is the goal of the analysis?
  • What is the context of the problem?
  • What key facts should be considered?
  • What alternatives are available to the decision-maker?
  • What would you recommend — and why?

An innovative approach to case analysis might be to have students  role-play the part of the people involved in the case. This not only actively engages students, but forces them to really understand the perspectives of the case characters. Videos or even field trips showing the venue in which the case is situated can help students to visualize the situation that they need to analyze.

Accompanying Readings

Case studies can be especially effective if they are paired with a reading assignment that introduces or explains a concept or analytical method that applies to the case. The amount of emphasis placed on the use of the reading during the case discussion depends on the complexity of the concept or method. If it is straightforward, the focus of the discussion can be placed on the use of the analytical results. If the method is more complex, the instructor may need to walk students through its application and the interpretation of the results.

Leading the Case Discussion and Evaluating Performance

Decision cases are more interesting than descriptive ones. In order to start the discussion in class, the instructor can start with an easy, noncontroversial question that all the students should be able to answer readily. However, some of the best case discussions start by forcing the students to take a stand. Some instructors will ask a student to do a formal “open” of the case, outlining his or her entire analysis.  Others may choose to guide discussion with questions that move students from problem identification to solutions.  A skilled instructor steers questions and discussion to keep the class on track and moving at a reasonable pace.

In order to motivate the students to complete the assignment before class as well as to stimulate attentiveness during the class, the instructor should grade the participation—quantity and especially quality—during the discussion of the case. This might be a simple check, check-plus, check-minus or zero. The instructor should involve as many students as possible. In order to engage all the students, the instructor can divide them into groups, give each group several minutes to discuss how to answer a question related to the case, and then ask a randomly selected person in each group to present the group’s answer and reasoning. Random selection can be accomplished through rolling of dice, shuffled index cards, each with one student’s name, a spinning wheel, etc.

Tips on the Penn State U. website: http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/cases/

If you are interested in using this technique in a science course, there is a good website on use of case studies in the sciences at the University of Buffalo.

Dunne, D. and Brooks, K. (2004) Teaching with Cases (Halifax, NS: Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education), ISBN 0-7703-8924-4 (Can be ordered at http://www.bookstore.uwo.ca/ at a cost of $15.00)

case study examples school students

All You Wanted to Know About How to Write a Case Study

case study examples school students

What do you study in your college? If you are a psychology, sociology, or anthropology student, we bet you might be familiar with what a case study is. This research method is used to study a certain person, group, or situation. In this guide from our dissertation writing service , you will learn how to write a case study professionally, from researching to citing sources properly. Also, we will explore different types of case studies and show you examples — so that you won’t have any other questions left.

What Is a Case Study?

A case study is a subcategory of research design which investigates problems and offers solutions. Case studies can range from academic research studies to corporate promotional tools trying to sell an idea—their scope is quite vast.

What Is the Difference Between a Research Paper and a Case Study?

While research papers turn the reader’s attention to a certain problem, case studies go even further. Case study guidelines require students to pay attention to details, examining issues closely and in-depth using different research methods. For example, case studies may be used to examine court cases if you study Law, or a patient's health history if you study Medicine. Case studies are also used in Marketing, which are thorough, empirically supported analysis of a good or service's performance. Well-designed case studies can be valuable for prospective customers as they can identify and solve the potential customers pain point.

Case studies involve a lot of storytelling – they usually examine particular cases for a person or a group of people. This method of research is very helpful, as it is very practical and can give a lot of hands-on information. Most commonly, the length of the case study is about 500-900 words, which is much less than the length of an average research paper.

The structure of a case study is very similar to storytelling. It has a protagonist or main character, which in your case is actually a problem you are trying to solve. You can use the system of 3 Acts to make it a compelling story. It should have an introduction, rising action, a climax where transformation occurs, falling action, and a solution.

Here is a rough formula for you to use in your case study:

Problem (Act I): > Solution (Act II) > Result (Act III) > Conclusion.

Types of Case Studies

The purpose of a case study is to provide detailed reports on an event, an institution, a place, future customers, or pretty much anything. There are a few common types of case study, but the type depends on the topic. The following are the most common domains where case studies are needed:

Types of Case Studies

  • Historical case studies are great to learn from. Historical events have a multitude of source info offering different perspectives. There are always modern parallels where these perspectives can be applied, compared, and thoroughly analyzed.
  • Problem-oriented case studies are usually used for solving problems. These are often assigned as theoretical situations where you need to immerse yourself in the situation to examine it. Imagine you’re working for a startup and you’ve just noticed a significant flaw in your product’s design. Before taking it to the senior manager, you want to do a comprehensive study on the issue and provide solutions. On a greater scale, problem-oriented case studies are a vital part of relevant socio-economic discussions.
  • Cumulative case studies collect information and offer comparisons. In business, case studies are often used to tell people about the value of a product.
  • Critical case studies explore the causes and effects of a certain case.
  • Illustrative case studies describe certain events, investigating outcomes and lessons learned.

Need a compelling case study? EssayPro has got you covered. Our experts are ready to provide you with detailed, insightful case studies that capture the essence of real-world scenarios. Elevate your academic work with our professional assistance.

order case study

Case Study Format

The case study format is typically made up of eight parts:

  • Executive Summary. Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you’re researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences.
  • Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.
  • Case Evaluation. Isolate the sections of the study you want to focus on. In it, explain why something is working or is not working.
  • Proposed Solutions. Offer realistic ways to solve what isn’t working or how to improve its current condition. Explain why these solutions work by offering testable evidence.
  • Conclusion. Summarize the main points from the case evaluations and proposed solutions. 6. Recommendations. Talk about the strategy that you should choose. Explain why this choice is the most appropriate.
  • Implementation. Explain how to put the specific strategies into action.
  • References. Provide all the citations.

How to Write a Case Study

Let's discover how to write a case study.

How to Write a Case Study

Setting Up the Research

When writing a case study, remember that research should always come first. Reading many different sources and analyzing other points of view will help you come up with more creative solutions. You can also conduct an actual interview to thoroughly investigate the customer story that you'll need for your case study. Including all of the necessary research, writing a case study may take some time. The research process involves doing the following:

  • Define your objective. Explain the reason why you’re presenting your subject. Figure out where you will feature your case study; whether it is written, on video, shown as an infographic, streamed as a podcast, etc.
  • Determine who will be the right candidate for your case study. Get permission, quotes, and other features that will make your case study effective. Get in touch with your candidate to see if they approve of being part of your work. Study that candidate’s situation and note down what caused it.
  • Identify which various consequences could result from the situation. Follow these guidelines on how to start a case study: surf the net to find some general information you might find useful.
  • Make a list of credible sources and examine them. Seek out important facts and highlight problems. Always write down your ideas and make sure to brainstorm.
  • Focus on several key issues – why they exist, and how they impact your research subject. Think of several unique solutions. Draw from class discussions, readings, and personal experience. When writing a case study, focus on the best solution and explore it in depth. After having all your research in place, writing a case study will be easy. You may first want to check the rubric and criteria of your assignment for the correct case study structure.


Although your instructor might be looking at slightly different criteria, every case study rubric essentially has the same standards. Your professor will want you to exhibit 8 different outcomes:

  • Correctly identify the concepts, theories, and practices in the discipline.
  • Identify the relevant theories and principles associated with the particular study.
  • Evaluate legal and ethical principles and apply them to your decision-making.
  • Recognize the global importance and contribution of your case.
  • Construct a coherent summary and explanation of the study.
  • Demonstrate analytical and critical-thinking skills.
  • Explain the interrelationships between the environment and nature.
  • Integrate theory and practice of the discipline within the analysis.

Need Case Study DONE FAST?

Pick a topic, tell us your requirements and get your paper on time.

Case Study Outline

Let's look at the structure of an outline based on the issue of the alcoholic addiction of 30 people.


  • Statement of the issue: Alcoholism is a disease rather than a weakness of character.
  • Presentation of the problem: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there.
  • Explanation of the terms: In the past, alcoholism was commonly referred to as alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction. Alcoholism is now the more severe stage of this addiction in the disorder spectrum.
  • Hypotheses: Drinking in excess can lead to the use of other drugs.
  • Importance of your story: How the information you present can help people with their addictions.
  • Background of the story: Include an explanation of why you chose this topic.
  • Presentation of analysis and data: Describe the criteria for choosing 30 candidates, the structure of the interview, and the outcomes.
  • Strong argument 1: ex. X% of candidates dealing with anxiety and depression...
  • Strong argument 2: ex. X amount of people started drinking by their mid-teens.
  • Strong argument 3: ex. X% of respondents’ parents had issues with alcohol.
  • Concluding statement: I have researched if alcoholism is a disease and found out that…
  • Recommendations: Ways and actions for preventing alcohol use.

Writing a Case Study Draft

After you’ve done your case study research and written the outline, it’s time to focus on the draft. In a draft, you have to develop and write your case study by using: the data which you collected throughout the research, interviews, and the analysis processes that were undertaken. Follow these rules for the draft:

How to Write a Case Study

  • Your draft should contain at least 4 sections: an introduction; a body where you should include background information, an explanation of why you decided to do this case study, and a presentation of your main findings; a conclusion where you present data; and references.
  • In the introduction, you should set the pace very clearly. You can even raise a question or quote someone you interviewed in the research phase. It must provide adequate background information on the topic. The background may include analyses of previous studies on your topic. Include the aim of your case here as well. Think of it as a thesis statement. The aim must describe the purpose of your work—presenting the issues that you want to tackle. Include background information, such as photos or videos you used when doing the research.
  • Describe your unique research process, whether it was through interviews, observations, academic journals, etc. The next point includes providing the results of your research. Tell the audience what you found out. Why is this important, and what could be learned from it? Discuss the real implications of the problem and its significance in the world.
  • Include quotes and data (such as findings, percentages, and awards). This will add a personal touch and better credibility to the case you present. Explain what results you find during your interviews in regards to the problem and how it developed. Also, write about solutions which have already been proposed by other people who have already written about this case.
  • At the end of your case study, you should offer possible solutions, but don’t worry about solving them yourself.

Use Data to Illustrate Key Points in Your Case Study

Even though your case study is a story, it should be based on evidence. Use as much data as possible to illustrate your point. Without the right data, your case study may appear weak and the readers may not be able to relate to your issue as much as they should. Let's see the examples from essay writing service :

‍ With data: Alcoholism is affecting more than 14 million people in the USA, which makes it the third most common mental illness there. Without data: A lot of people suffer from alcoholism in the United States.

Try to include as many credible sources as possible. You may have terms or sources that could be hard for other cultures to understand. If this is the case, you should include them in the appendix or Notes for the Instructor or Professor.

Finalizing the Draft: Checklist

After you finish drafting your case study, polish it up by answering these ‘ask yourself’ questions and think about how to end your case study:

  • Check that you follow the correct case study format, also in regards to text formatting.
  • Check that your work is consistent with its referencing and citation style.
  • Micro-editing — check for grammar and spelling issues.
  • Macro-editing — does ‘the big picture’ come across to the reader? Is there enough raw data, such as real-life examples or personal experiences? Have you made your data collection process completely transparent? Does your analysis provide a clear conclusion, allowing for further research and practice?

Problems to avoid:

  • Overgeneralization – Do not go into further research that deviates from the main problem.
  • Failure to Document Limitations – Just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study, you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis.
  • Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications – Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings.

How to Create a Title Page and Cite a Case Study

Let's see how to create an awesome title page.

Your title page depends on the prescribed citation format. The title page should include:

  • A title that attracts some attention and describes your study
  • The title should have the words “case study” in it
  • The title should range between 5-9 words in length
  • Your name and contact information
  • Your finished paper should be only 500 to 1,500 words in length.With this type of assignment, write effectively and avoid fluff

Here is a template for the APA and MLA format title page:

There are some cases when you need to cite someone else's study in your own one – therefore, you need to master how to cite a case study. A case study is like a research paper when it comes to citations. You can cite it like you cite a book, depending on what style you need.

Citation Example in MLA ‍ Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, 2008. Print.
Citation Example in APA ‍ Hill, L., Khanna, T., & Stecker, E. A. (2008). HCL Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Publishing.
Citation Example in Chicago Hill, Linda, Tarun Khanna, and Emily A. Stecker. HCL Technologies.

Case Study Examples

To give you an idea of a professional case study example, we gathered and linked some below.

Eastman Kodak Case Study

Case Study Example: Audi Trains Mexican Autoworkers in Germany

To conclude, a case study is one of the best methods of getting an overview of what happened to a person, a group, or a situation in practice. It allows you to have an in-depth glance at the real-life problems that businesses, healthcare industry, criminal justice, etc. may face. This insight helps us look at such situations in a different light. This is because we see scenarios that we otherwise would not, without necessarily being there. If you need custom essays , try our research paper writing services .

Get Help Form Qualified Writers

Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. If you’re having trouble with your case study, help with essay request - we'll help. EssayPro writers have read and written countless case studies and are experts in endless disciplines. Request essay writing, editing, or proofreading assistance from our custom case study writing service , and all of your worries will be gone.

Don't Know Where to Start?

Crafting a case study is not easy. You might want to write one of high quality, but you don’t have the time or expertise. Request ' write my case study ' assistance from our service.

What Is A Case Study?

How to cite a case study in apa, how to write a case study.

Daniel Parker

Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

case study examples school students

is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

Related Articles

How to Find Credible Sources

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Assignments

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Analyzing a Scholarly Journal Article
  • Group Presentations
  • Dealing with Nervousness
  • Using Visual Aids
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper
  • Types of Structured Group Activities
  • Group Project Survival Skills
  • Leading a Class Discussion
  • Multiple Book Review Essay
  • Reviewing Collected Works
  • Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Writing a Case Study
  • About Informed Consent
  • Writing Field Notes
  • Writing a Policy Memo
  • Writing a Reflective Paper
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Generative AI and Writing
  • Acknowledgments

A case study research paper examines a person, place, event, condition, phenomenon, or other type of subject of analysis in order to extrapolate  key themes and results that help predict future trends, illuminate previously hidden issues that can be applied to practice, and/or provide a means for understanding an important research problem with greater clarity. A case study research paper usually examines a single subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a comparative investigation that shows relationships between two or more subjects. The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative paradigm.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010 ; “What is a Case Study?” In Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London: SAGE, 2010.

How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper

General information about how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in the Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper writing guide. Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a case study design.

However, identifying a case to investigate involves more than choosing the research problem . A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions. As Seawright and Gerring note, practical considerations such as time and access to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the sole factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a particular case to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following:

  • The case represents an unusual or atypical example of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis? Cases often represent a topic that rests on the fringes of prior investigations because the case may provide new ways of understanding the research problem. For example, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support girl's access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a case study rather than selecting a more obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may reveal important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.
  • The case provides important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and important implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless veterans is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming prior studies have not looked at individual travel choices as a way to study access to illicit drug use, a case study that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how issues of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit drugs. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.
  • The case challenges and offers a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any given topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on outdated studies that are still applied to new or changing conditions or the idea that something should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice. A case study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations applied to practice that have not been tested previously. For example, perhaps there has been a long practice among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis. Your case could challenge this assumption by applying an innovative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore whether this approach offers new ways of understanding the research problem. Taking a contrarian stance is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature.
  • The case provides an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem. For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of accidents in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.
  • The case offers a new direction in future research? A case study can be used as a tool for an exploratory investigation that highlights the need for further research about the problem. A case can be used when there are few studies that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important!], you discover that little research exists showing the ways in which women contribute to promoting water conservation in rural communities of east central Africa. A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.g., applying feminist theories of work and family to the issue of water conservation].

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. “Building Theories from Case Study Research.” Academy of Management Review 14 (October 1989): 532-550; Emmel, Nick. Sampling and Choosing Cases in Qualitative Research: A Realist Approach . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2013; Gerring, John. “What Is a Case Study and What Is It Good for?” American Political Science Review 98 (May 2004): 341-354; Mills, Albert J. , Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Seawright, Jason and John Gerring. "Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research." Political Research Quarterly 61 (June 2008): 294-308.

Structure and Writing Style

The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case studies may also be used to reveal best practices, highlight key programs, or investigate interesting aspects of professional work.

In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper.

I.  Introduction

As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study . The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions:

  • What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem.
  • Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis.
  • How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

II.  Literature Review

The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. The difference, however, is that the literature review is focused on providing background information and  enabling historical interpretation of the subject of analysis in relation to the research problem the case is intended to address . This includes synthesizing studies that help to:

  • Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated . This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.g., conditions have changed; prior studies were conducted long ago, etc.].
  • Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable . Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.
  • Identify new ways to interpret prior research using the case study . If applicable, review any research that has examined the research problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an important new direction.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies . This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.
  • Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research . Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.
  • Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill . Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.
  • Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important!] . Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem.

III.  Method

In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i.e., subject of analysis] and the strategy you used to identify and ultimately decide that your case was appropriate in addressing the research problem. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

If your subject of analysis is an incident or event . In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events." Whether the event is rare or not, the methods section should include an explanation of the following characteristics of the event: a) when did it take place; b) what were the underlying circumstances leading to the event; and, c) what were the consequences of the event in relation to the research problem.

If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. This includes describing the relationships this person has had with other people, institutions, and/or events that support using them as the subject for a case study research paper. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e.g., why is one politician in a particular local election used to show an increase in voter turnout from any other candidate running in the election]. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e.g., a classroom of students].

If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e.g., physical, social, historical, cultural, economic, political], but you must state the method by which you determined that this place will illuminate new understandings about the research problem. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i.e., if you are studying patterns of homeless encampments of veterans in open spaces, explain why you are studying Echo Park in Los Angeles rather than Griffith Park?]. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e.g., prior research suggests Echo Park has more homeless veterans].

If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way.

NOTE:   The choice of the case or set of cases to study cannot appear random. Evidence that supports the method by which you identified and chose your subject of analysis should clearly support investigation of the research problem and linked to key findings from your literature review. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem.

IV.  Discussion

The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. The objectives of your discussion section should include the following:

Reiterate the Research Problem/State the Major Findings Briefly reiterate the research problem you are investigating and explain why the subject of analysis around which you designed the case study were used. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound.

Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions.

Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic.

Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case.

Acknowledge the Study's Limitations You can state the study's limitations in the conclusion section of your paper but describing the limitations of your subject of analysis in the discussion section provides an opportunity to identify the limitations and explain why they are not significant. This part of the discussion section should also note any unanswered questions or issues your case study could not address. More detailed information about how to document any limitations to your research can be found here .

Suggest Areas for Further Research Although your case study may offer important insights about the research problem, there are likely additional questions related to the problem that remain unanswered or findings that unexpectedly revealed themselves as a result of your in-depth analysis of the case. Be sure that the recommendations for further research are linked to the research problem and that you explain why your recommendations are valid in other contexts and based on the original assumptions of your study.

V.  Conclusion

As with any research paper, you should summarize your conclusion in clear, simple language; emphasize how the findings from your case study differs from or supports prior research and why. Do not simply reiterate the discussion section. Provide a synthesis of key findings presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem. If you haven't already done so in the discussion section, be sure to document the limitations of your case study and any need for further research.

The function of your paper's conclusion is to: 1) reiterate the main argument supported by the findings from your case study; 2) state clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem using a case study design in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found from reviewing the literature; and, 3) provide a place to persuasively and succinctly restate the significance of your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with in-depth information about the topic.

Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is appropriate:

  • If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize these points for your reader.
  • If prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the conclusion of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
  • Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration of the case study's findings that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from your case study findings.

Note that, depending on the discipline you are writing in or the preferences of your professor, the concluding paragraph may contain your final reflections on the evidence presented as it applies to practice or on the essay's central research problem. However, the nature of being introspective about the subject of analysis you have investigated will depend on whether you are explicitly asked to express your observations in this way.

Problems to Avoid

Overgeneralization One of the goals of a case study is to lay a foundation for understanding broader trends and issues applied to similar circumstances. However, be careful when drawing conclusions from your case study. They must be evidence-based and grounded in the results of the study; otherwise, it is merely speculation. Looking at a prior example, it would be incorrect to state that a factor in improving girls access to education in Azerbaijan and the policy implications this may have for improving access in other Muslim nations is due to girls access to social media if there is no documentary evidence from your case study to indicate this. There may be anecdotal evidence that retention rates were better for girls who were engaged with social media, but this observation would only point to the need for further research and would not be a definitive finding if this was not a part of your original research agenda.

Failure to Document Limitations No case is going to reveal all that needs to be understood about a research problem. Therefore, just as you have to clearly state the limitations of a general research study , you must describe the specific limitations inherent in the subject of analysis. For example, the case of studying how women conceptualize the need for water conservation in a village in Uganda could have limited application in other cultural contexts or in areas where fresh water from rivers or lakes is plentiful and, therefore, conservation is understood more in terms of managing access rather than preserving access to a scarce resource.

Failure to Extrapolate All Possible Implications Just as you don't want to over-generalize from your case study findings, you also have to be thorough in the consideration of all possible outcomes or recommendations derived from your findings. If you do not, your reader may question the validity of your analysis, particularly if you failed to document an obvious outcome from your case study research. For example, in the case of studying the accident at the railroad crossing to evaluate where and what types of warning signals should be located, you failed to take into consideration speed limit signage as well as warning signals. When designing your case study, be sure you have thoroughly addressed all aspects of the problem and do not leave gaps in your analysis that leave the reader questioning the results.

Case Studies. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Gerring, John. Case Study Research: Principles and Practices . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007; Merriam, Sharan B. Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education . Rev. ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1998; Miller, Lisa L. “The Use of Case Studies in Law and Social Science Research.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 14 (2018): TBD; Mills, Albert J., Gabrielle Durepos, and Eiden Wiebe, editors. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010; Putney, LeAnn Grogan. "Case Study." In Encyclopedia of Research Design , Neil J. Salkind, editor. (Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2010), pp. 116-120; Simons, Helen. Case Study Research in Practice . London: SAGE Publications, 2009;  Kratochwill,  Thomas R. and Joel R. Levin, editors. Single-Case Research Design and Analysis: New Development for Psychology and Education .  Hilldsale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992; Swanborn, Peter G. Case Study Research: What, Why and How? London : SAGE, 2010; Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research: Design and Methods . 6th edition. Los Angeles, CA, SAGE Publications, 2014; Walo, Maree, Adrian Bull, and Helen Breen. “Achieving Economic Benefits at Local Events: A Case Study of a Local Sports Event.” Festival Management and Event Tourism 4 (1996): 95-106.

Writing Tip

At Least Five Misconceptions about Case Study Research

Social science case studies are often perceived as limited in their ability to create new knowledge because they are not randomly selected and findings cannot be generalized to larger populations. Flyvbjerg examines five misunderstandings about case study research and systematically "corrects" each one. To quote, these are:

Misunderstanding 1 :  General, theoretical [context-independent] knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical [context-dependent] knowledge. Misunderstanding 2 :  One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore, the case study cannot contribute to scientific development. Misunderstanding 3 :  The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building. Misunderstanding 4 :  The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions. Misunderstanding 5 :  It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of specific case studies [p. 221].

While writing your paper, think introspectively about how you addressed these misconceptions because to do so can help you strengthen the validity and reliability of your research by clarifying issues of case selection, the testing and challenging of existing assumptions, the interpretation of key findings, and the summation of case outcomes. Think of a case study research paper as a complete, in-depth narrative about the specific properties and key characteristics of your subject of analysis applied to the research problem.

Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research.” Qualitative Inquiry 12 (April 2006): 219-245.

  • << Previous: Writing a Case Analysis Paper
  • Next: Writing a Field Report >>
  • Last Updated: May 7, 2024 9:45 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/assignments

The Center for Global Studies

Sample case studies, page table of contents, case study #1.

Sophia A. McClennen

Cultural Connections for Younger Students: A Party for a Japanese Refugee

On Friday, March 11, 2011 an earthquake hit Japan and caused a series of Tsunami waves. It was the largest earthquake in the history of Japan and it caused a lot of damage.  Homes were lost, people were hurt, and many had to find other places to stay since the places where they lived were no longer safe. Some Japanese families even had to move to other countries, at least temporarily.  Your teacher has just told you that a little girl from Japan will be coming soon to join your class at your school.  Her name is Bachiko, which means “happy child” in Japanese.  She is moving to State College with her parents and younger brother.

Your teacher tells you that the first day she will be in class will be May 5. In Japan May 5 is children’s day and the whole country celebrates children and their mothers. But for Bachiko May 5 is even more special since it is also her birthday. Since she will be here the class thinks that you should all plan a celebration for her. She won’t know anyone here yet.  She won’t have any friends yet. And, even though she speaks some English, she is more comfortable speaking Japanese.  You want to help her celebrate Children’s Day and her birthday and you also want to help her feel welcome since she will probably be missing her home very much. You want to make sure that the party includes some of the sorts of things that kids do in Japan. How can you plan the party? How can you help her celebrate her special day?

Global Knowledge/Global Empathy:

Asking the right questions:.

Begin by asking questions that help your students connect with Bachiko’s story. Ask them to think of holidays they celebrate that they would miss if they had to go to a different country during that time of year.

Ask them to think of how they would feel if they had to be far from home for their birthday. What sorts of things would they miss? What sorts of things would they be able to do in a new place?

Adjusting the conversation based on the maturity of the class, talk about the challenges to Bachiko of having to move to a new place. Ask them about what they think of moving and what sorts of challenges moving brings—compare moving to another place in the country where you currently live to moving to a new country.

Talk about natural disasters. Ask them if there are times when they feel scared of them and discuss ways for them to reduce their fears. Talk about how they happen all over the globe. Make sure not to let them think that they only happen in places like Japan.

Gathering information:

Brainstorm with the class the sort of information they need in order to plan the party (solve the problem). Create a list of things that the class needs to learn to be able to do this.

Create a list of things that the kids need to learn about Japanese culture.  Ask the kids to think of any Japanese culture that they already know of (sushi, animation, pokemon, origami, etc.). Ask them to consider whether their experience of these cultural items might be different from how Bachiko and her friends experience them.

Depending on the class—consider teaching more about earthquakes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters. Use this as a chance to balance learning about sciences with learning compassion for those that are affected by these events. Consider talking about Katrina or other US natural disasters (tornadoes) so that they don’t think these things only happen to others.

Imagining a way to address the problem:

Once you have begun to gather materials and information that can help the class imagine the party that they would like to throw, have them begin to describe what they want to do for the party. Do they need to make origami, kites, etc? What foods?   Music? What other activities? Help them imagine all of these things.

Then ask them to imagine the party and think of how they would like to tell a story about it. Asking them to be the storytellers of this will help encourage their imagination and empathy. (While possibly throwing the party would be a fun idea—it might not be the best learning activity and could be difficult to do).  Do they want to write a story about Bachiko and the party? Do they want to create a cartoon/animated version? Do they want to make a series of pictures? Consider whether you want them to work in groups or individually or in some combination. Group work is generally helpful for these types of projects. Maybe you make a few groups and let each one decide between a story, pictures, an origami play, etc… There are lots of options.

When the students have their projects complete have them present them to the class. Then have the whole class talk about the strengths and weaknesses of their projects. What do they think Bachiko would have liked most? What might have been hard for her? What parts were fun for them to plan? What parts were hard? The idea here is to make it clear that they have done good work, that they imagined a way to help someone else, but that it would not be possible to “fix” the situation. Bachiko would surely be a bit sad—but their party would also surely really help. And the more the party made her feel welcome, the more of a success it would be.

Next ask the class to engage in some sort of fundraising or other project to help the kids in Japan. Now, when they do this, they will feel much more connected to the communities they are trying to help.


There should always be some assessment with these projects.  It is possible to determine how well students gathered information, whether they asked good questions, and whether they could appreciate the limits to their work as well as its strengths.

Asks students to imagine a direct connection with a young Japanese earthquake victim—which creates a greater link.  Makes the crisis in Japan more real.

Asks them to imagine themselves in a similar situation—this will deter othering (the idea that this situation would only happen to others).

Gives them an opportunity to learn more about Japan through their own interest in solving a problem.

Risks making them feel sorry for Bachiko in a way that might make her seem helpless. You can teach in ways that confront this tendency.

Risks developing a negative stereotype of Japan—since it could seem like a country that suffers disasters and needs our help. You can teach in ways that confront this tendency by not allowing them to describe Japan in negative terms.


This case study could be adjusted to describe a child from almost any other nation that had to suddenly move to your school district. The possibilities are limitless.

Web resources:

  • Teaching Kids About Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Japan Through Online Resources
  • Talking to kids about the Earthquake
  • The Science of Earthquakes (for kids)
  • Kids web Japan
  • Japan for kids

Case Study #2

Environmental connections for middle school age students: global sustainability and the brazilian amazon.

Your name is Jorge, you are 13, and you are from Brazil. You live in the Amazon in a community of Seringueiros— Seringueiro   is the Portuguese word for “rubber tapper.” Rubber tapping has been a traditional way of life for many people living in the Amazon forest since the start of the century.  A cut is made in the side of a rubber tree then the rubber is harvested. Later the tree heals and the rubber tapper sells the rubber to buy things they need. Life as a  seringueiro   is not easy. It is difficult to make money selling the rubber and many in these communities struggle to make a good life. Lately, though, it has gotten worse.

Jorge’s family and his community have just learned that a logging company plans to cut down the trees that they use to get rubber. Jorge’s parents are tired of fighting the logging company and they are thinking of moving to the city. But Jorge has heard stories that life in the city would be even harder for them and he doesn’t want to leave the forest. Instead, he wants to think of a way to protect the trees that his family needs for rubber. He wants to work to find a way to allow his community to continue living in harmony with nature. He thinks that he will hate living in the city and he wants to continue living in the ways that his community has for decades.

Jorge realizes that saving the trees for rubber tappers probably won’t convince the Brazilian government to protect them.  Native Americans throughout the hemisphere have seen their lands taken away and their way of life threatened for centuries—and very few people have come to their defense. But he thinks that maybe he can get attention to saving his community’s trees if he reminds the public of the importance of the plant life in the Amazon. He also thinks that he has a greater chance of getting attention to his community’s problem if he links with other kids his age from other parts of the world.

He thinks that if they work together they can make a difference. He thinks that if kids from various places draw attention to this problem, and if he gets help from environmentalists, he can convince the Brazilian government to protect the lands.

The Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural resources. Its many plants recycle carbon dioxide into oxygen, and some call it “Lungs of our Planet” since 20% of earth oxygen is produced by the Amazon rainforest. Even though environmentalists and government policies forced the world to give more attention to the rain forest, deforestation continues to be a major problem. Predications show that if nothing is done to stop the destruction of rainforest that half our remaining rain forests will be gone by the year 2025 and by 2060 there will be no rain forests remaining.

Not only does the Amazon provide oxygen, it is the home to a great variety of plant life that holds the potential to help solve many medical problems. Protecting this biodiversity is also of great importance. The plants in the Amazon could help us discover the next cure for cancer or for other diseases. The oxygen produced in the Amazon helps people all over the world to breathe.

Put yourself in the place of Jorge and imagine how he might solve this problem. How can he get help protecting the trees his family needs? Should he start an environmental activism campaign? How could

he do that? He will need to connect with others outside his community. Could you imagine ways that your own school might help him?  Design a strategy to help Jorge protect the rainforest.

Begin by asking questions that help your students connect with Jorge’s story. Ask them to think of what they would do if a company was taking over the lands they lived on.

Ask them to think about the value of protecting traditional ways of life. Does their family have traditions that sometimes seem threatened based on the way that society has changed? And how are their experiences related to those of Jorge, whose community has a very traditional way of living? Does Jorge have a right to have that way of life protected? Do we have an obligation to help protect it?

Ask them to think about how hard it will be for Jorge to get attention to his cause. What are the challenges he faces? How can Jorge connect his cause to the lives of people living outside the rain forest? The rainforest is important to everyone’s heath—but few people know that or care. How can that change?

Talk about environmental issues. Ask them about what they do to help conserve the planet’s resources. Ask them to think about how environmental issues link people across the globe.   Ask them to think about the sorts of communities that tend to be most threatened by things like deforestation.  Are their problems exacerbated by having a less publicly recognized voice? Also ask them to think about how hard it is to get people to change the way that they live—even when they know that some of their habits are bad for the planet.

Talk about sustainability. Jorge’s community as a sustainable connection to the land. It does not take in a way that causes damage or limits regeneration. What are some ways that our students can live a sustainable life? How can we learn from communities like Jorge’s? What gets lost if those communities cease to exist?

Brainstorm with the class the sort of information they need in order to help Jorge. They need to learn about rubber tapping, the Amazon, deforestation, environmental activism, sustainability. Create a list of things that the class needs to learn to be able to do this.

Create a list of things that the kids need to learn about Brazilian Native American culture.  Ask them to think of things that they know about Native Americans in the United States and then ask them to think of way that these communities face similar challenges across the Americas.

Ask them to think about how the crisis in the Amazon links to environmental crises in the United States. Do they know about the Marellus Shale story? How might that story be similar to that of Jorge’s?

Once you have begun to gather materials and information that can help the class imagine  Jorge’s situation, have them begin to describe a plan for Jorge.  How can Jorge gain support? He can’t do it alone—so who would be good to help him?  What sorts of information does he need to present to get supporters for this? How can he best connect with people outside of his community? Help them imagine all of these things.

Next have them implement a campaign to save the rainforest where Jorge lives. Consider whether you want them to work in groups or individually or in some combination. Group work is generally helpful for these types of projects. Do they want to do posters, hold events, make a movie, write a book, get articles in newspapers, host a website, etc….? How can they best get attention for the cause? There are lots of options.

When the students have their project concepts complete have them present them to the class. They do not need to actually make the posters, websites, etc…they just need to describe them and create an example. Then have the whole class talk about the strengths and weaknesses of their projects. What parts of Jorge’s action plan were fun for them to work on? What parts were hard? The idea here is to make it clear that they have done good work, that they imagined          a way to help someone else, but that it would not be possible to “fix” the situation.

The class should then discuss the merits of each of the ideas that the teams came up with –and they could follow through on creating some resources that exemplified some of the approaches the class thought worked best.

Next ask the class to engage in some sort of project to raise awareness for an environmental issue—especially one linked to protecting forests. Ask them to consider a project to advance sustainable living.

Asks students to imagine a direct connection with a Brazilian Native American—which creates a greater link.   Makes the social and environmental crisis more real.

Asks them to imagine themselves in a similar situation—this will deter othering.

Gives them an opportunity to learn more about the Amazon and Brazilians through their own interest in solving a problem.

Risks making them feel sorry for Jorge in a way that might make him seem helpless. You can teach in ways that confront this tendency.

Risks developing a negative stereotype of Brazil—since it could seem like the Brazilian government doesn’t care about the Amazon or the rubber tappers. You can teach in ways that confront this tendency by not allowing them to describe Brazil in negative terms and by reminding them of how this problem has global examples.

This case study could be adjusted to describe an environmental conflict from another region. The possibilities are limitless.

  • Amazon rubber tappers news
  • Amazon rainforest

Case Study #3

The impact of war on children for high school age students: landmines in angola.

Mia is 16 years old and she is from Angola. Last week her brother, Nelson, was playing soccer with friends when he chased after the ball and went on lands that they are warned never to step on. He was too busy chasing the ball to pay attention to the rule. As he crossed over into the dangerous territory he heard a click, then an explosion. He had stepped on a land mine. He was rushed to a hospital where Mia and her family went to see him.  Once they arrived they learned that Nelson had lost both legs in the explosion. Nelson is now one of the more than 100,000 Angolans who have lost a limb to landmines.

Angola suffered a civil war that ended in 1994, but, even though the war ended that year, the effects of it are still in place. There are estimates of between 10 and 20 landmines in Angola which is equal to approximately 1-2 landmines per inhabitant. As mentioned, over 100,000 Angolans have lost a limb due to a landmine and 120 Angolans die from a landmine explosion every month. But the negative effects of landmines on the population go beyond injuries: the threat of landmines restricts the ability of people to move about their country, to farm, to find clean water, to go to school, and –as in Nelson’s case—to play games like soccer. Women and children are most threatened by landmines and children represent 49% of the landmine injuries in Angola. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan during the 1980s the Soviets used landmines that looked to children like toys. Many were killed trying to pick them up. Even though the UN passed a moratorium on landmines in 1993, there is still no international consensus on banning the use of landmines. Currently there are 20 mines laid for each one removed.

Landmines only cost about $3 to make, but they cost about $1,000 each to remove. Mia has watched her community suffer life with landmines for too long. She wants to work to change this problem, but she realizes that the cost of removing landmines is very high. She knows that anti-landmine groups help to de-mine areas, but she doesn’t want to wait for help from others, she thinks her community needs to learn more about how to de-mine. She has another problem, too, she has learned that landmines continue to be used and she wants to work to stop the use of landmines in other countries. There are over 110 million landmines (and millions of other explosive devices) in 68 nations today. She wants to work to stop the future placement of more mines.

Put yourself in the place of Mia and imagine how she might solve this problem. How can she get help de-mining her community? Should she attempt to get de-miners to her area or she should work to see if some of the members of her community could learn de-mining techniques?  How could she do that? She also wants to raise awareness about landmines globally so that this practice can stop. Can you imagine a project with your school that could help her in that goal? Design a strategy to help Mia stop landmine damage.

Begin by asking questions that help students connect with Mia’s story. Ask them to think of what they would do if a sibling or cousin or friend was hurt in this way.

Ask them to think about the impact of war on children. The case of landmines is a clear example of how current military techniques often target civilian populations and they do so through devices that can be left and that do not require military personnel to maintain. How has that changed the nature of war?  Should there be a ban on landmines? What would be some good ways to advance this cause?  It might be useful to review the Geneva Conventions with students since they are war guidelines that create protections for civilians.

A further issue is the way that the landmines cause Mia’s community to depend on others. De- mining is complex work and it takes a lot of training. Most of the time de-mining crews will come to a community, work, then leave. What are the challenges to changing that process and giving more local communities these skills and the equipment needed to perform them safely? Similarly some believe that the 12 nations that participated in Angola’s Civil War by providing the mines should also be responsible for getting rid of them. Who should get rid of the mines? What are some ways that the community can be an active part of this process?

Ask students to think about how hard it will be for Mia to get attention to her cause. What are the challenges she faces? How can Mia connect her cause to the lives of people living outside of Angola or Africa? What would it take to get people living in the United States to care about Mia’s situation? The US is home to more than 15 landmine producers. Should efforts be made to shut down their operations?

Ask them to think about the long term effects of war on communities.  A number of nations in the world have been engaged in long term conflicts, with children that have lived their whole lives during military conflict. How does that influence the lives of children?  How does that affect a community’s ability to prosper? What will happen to kids like Nelson as they grow up?

Brainstorm with the class the sort of information they need in order to help Mia. They need to learn about landmines, the politics of de-mining, the current efforts to ban landmines, and the human rights of children in a time of war. Create a list of things that the class needs to learn to be able to do this.

Create a list of things that the students need to learn about Angolan society and history.  In order to appreciate Mia’s situation it is important that students empathize with her without seeing her as a helpless victim. What happened during the Civil War? Why did the United States and the Soviet Union get involved?  How was their involvement a result of Cold War dynamics? Teach students about the idea of proxy wars and ask them to think about the political implications such wars have on the nations where the wars are waged.

Ask them to think about how the landmine crisis is a geopolitical problem that is not just limited to Angola. Have the class learn about the use of landmines in other countries and ask them to think about how landmines play a role in contemporary military conflicts.

Once you have begun to gather materials and information that can help the class imagine Mia’s situation, have them begin to describe a plan for Mia. How can Mia gain support?  How can Mia

help her community and get help? She can’t do it alone—so who would be good to help her? What sorts of information does she need to present to get supporters for her cause? How can she best connect with people outside of her community? Help them imagine all of these things.

Next have them implement a campaign to get resources to de-mine the area where Mia lives and/or to assist the international anti-landmine project. Consider whether you want them to work in groups or individually or in some combination. Group work is generally helpful for these types of projects. Do they want to do posters, hold events, make a movie, write a book, get articles in newspapers, host a website, etc….?  How can they best get attention for the cause?

There are lots of options.

When the students have their project concepts complete have them present them to the class. They do not need to actually make the posters, websites, etc…they just need to describe them, include examples, and possibly write up a report. The amount of actual materials they provide can be adjusted based on time and resources.

Then have the whole class talk about the strengths and weaknesses of their projects. What parts of Mia’s action plan were easier to solve? What parts were harder? The idea here is to make it clear that they have done good work, that they imagined a way to help someone else, but that it would not be possible to “fix” the situation. Nelson won’t get his legs back, but possibly this project could save another boy.

The class should then discuss the merits of each of the ideas that the teams came up with –and they could follow through on creating some resources that exemplified some of the approaches the class thought worked best.  Having open conversations with the class about the pros and cons of each project teaches students to appreciate that complex problems require complex solutions.

Next ask the class to engage in some sort of project to raise awareness of the damages caused by landmines. Ask them to consider a project to advance efforts to ban landmines and/or to support de-mining in Angola.

Asks students to imagine a direct connection with an Angolan—which creates a greater link.  Makes the social and political crisis more real.

Gives them an opportunity to learn more about landmines, the effects of war on children, and Angola through their own interest in solving a problem.

Teaches them to appreciate the complexity of these types of problems and the fact that they do not have easy solutions. Teaches them that it is important to work to solve problems even when these can’t be easily fixed.

Risks making them feel sorry for Mia and Nelson in a way that might make them seem helpless. You can teach in ways that confront this tendency.

Risks developing a negative stereotype of Angola—since the history of the prolonged Civil War could make it seem like Angola is not capable of peaceful rule. You can teach in ways that confront this tendency by not allowing them to describe Angola in negative terms and by reminding them of how the Civil War was not simply fought by Angolans: it was indicative of Cold War struggles and the legacy of Angola’s history as a colony of Portugal.

This case study could be adjusted to describe a military conflict from another region—the key is to focus on the effects to children of war, since that link is likely to draw more empathy. There are many possibilities.

  • Angola’s landmines
  • Landmines a deadly inheritance
  • BBC: Angola’s Landmine legacy
  • International Campaign to Ban Landmines
  • Effects on Children of Landmines
  • Case Studies

Sample Cases

Explore raw case studies for free from the school of management.

All of the cases listed here are from our series on Design and Social Enterprise, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation through a grant to William Drenttel and Winterhouse Institute.

A SELCO PV solar panel on a roof

Perspectives: Customer/Marketing, Innovation & Design, Social Enterprise, State & Society, Sustainability

Harish Hande and the company he founded, SELCO, provide solar electricity for lighting and power to India's poor. For his company's work, he has received numerous recognitions and is frequently cited as one of the top social entrepreneurs in India and an example for the entire developing world. But the road to SELCO’s success has not always been smooth...

The marquis above the main entrance to the Mayo Clinic

Design at Mayo

Perspectives: healthcare, innovation & design, leadership & teamwork, social enterprise.

In the early 2000s, Mayo Clinic physician Nicholas LaRusso began asking himself a question: if we can test new drugs in clinical trials, can we also test new kinds of doctor-patient interactions. Although over the last 50 years there had been enormous advances in diagnosing and treating disease, the health care experience had become increasingly complex...

A frog design journey map charting the user experience acquiring and transporting an iteration of the Project M test kits

Perspectives: Entrepreneurship, Healthcare, Innovation & Design, Social Enterprise

When Krista Dong and Zinhle Thabethe came to the 2006 PopTech conference in Camden, Maine, they hoped to expand their fight against HIV/AIDS, one of South Africa’s greatest problems. They were the founders of iTEACH, an HIV/AIDS and TB prevention and treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Impressed by their story, conference organizers and Robert Fabricant of frog design came together with iTEACH to address these real-world challenges through the conference’s vision - accelerating social innovation...

A student's finger points to the text in a book

Teach for All

Perspectives: education management, innovation & design, social enterprise.

By their November 2011 annual conference in Mumbai India, Teach For All’s network consisted of 23 national partner organizations. Network members came from all over the globe. From tiny Estonia with near universal literacy, to India with over 900 times more people and only 75% literacy, from China with single-party authoritarian rule, to England with hundreds of years of multi-party democracy. Uniting the network, though, was a commitment to building an organization similar to Teach For America in their respective countries. Teach For America was the brainchild of Wendy Kopp...

  • Browse Topics
  • Executive Committee
  • Affiliated Faculty
  • Harvard Negotiation Project
  • Great Negotiator
  • American Secretaries of State Project
  • Awards, Grants, and Fellowships
  • Negotiation Programs
  • Mediation Programs
  • One-Day Programs
  • In-House Training – Inquiry Form
  • In-Person Programs
  • Online Programs
  • Advanced Materials Search
  • Contact Information
  • The Teaching Negotiation Resource Center Policies
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Negotiation Journal
  • Harvard Negotiation Law Review
  • Working Conference on AI, Technology, and Negotiation
  • 40th Anniversary Symposium
  • Free Reports and Program Guides

Free Videos

  • Upcoming Events
  • Past Events
  • Event Series
  • Our Mission
  • Keyword Index

case study examples school students

PON – Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School - https://www.pon.harvard.edu

Team-Building Strategies: Building a Winning Team for Your Organization

case study examples school students

Discover how to build a winning team and boost your business negotiation results in this free special report, Team Building Strategies for Your Organization, from Harvard Law School.

Teach by Example with These Negotiation Case Studies

By Lara SanPietro — on January 17th, 2024 / Teaching Negotiation

case study examples school students

Negotiation case studies use the power of example to teach negotiation strategies. Looking to past negotiations where students can analyze what approaches the parties took and how effective they were in reaching an agreement, can help students gain new insights into negotiation dynamics. The Teaching Negotiation Resource Center (TNRC) has a variety of negotiation case studies to help students learn by example.

Negotiating About Pandas for San Diego Zoo – Featured Case Study 

The  Negotiating About Pandas for San Diego Zoo case study centers on the most challenging task for a negotiator: to reach a satisfactory agreement with a tough counterpart from a position of low power—and to do so in an uncommon context. This case focuses on the executive director of a zoo in the U.S. who seeks two giant pandas, an endangered species, from their only source on the planet: China. Compounding the difficulty, many other zoos are also trying to obtain giant pandas—the “rock stars” of the zoo world. Yet, as if relative bargaining power were not enough to preoccupy the zoo director, it is not his only major challenge.

His zoo’s initiative attracts attention from a wide range of stakeholders, from nongovernmental (NGO) conservation groups to government agencies on both sides of the Pacific Ocean. Several of these organizations ardently oppose the zoo’s efforts, while others change their positions over time. All of this attention influences the zoo’s negotiations. Therefore, a second challenging task for the zoo director is to monitor events in the negotiating environment and manage their effects on his negotiations with Chinese counterparts.

This three-part case is based on the actual negotiations and offers lessons for business, law and government students and professionals in multiple subject areas. Preview a Negotiating About Pandas for San Diego Zoo Teacher’s Package to learn more.

Camp Lemonnier Case Study – Featured Case Study 

In the spring of 2014, representatives from the United States of America and the Republic of Djibouti were in the midst of renegotiations over Camp Lemonnier, the only permanent U.S. base on the continent of Africa. Djibouti, bordering Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, has been home to Camp Lemonnier since the September 11, 2001 attacks prompted the United States to seek a temporary staging ground for U.S. Marines in the region. Since then, Camp Lemonnier has expanded to nearly 500 acres and a base of unparalleled importance, in part because it is one of the busiest Predator drone bases outside of the Afghan warzone.

Tensions between the United States and Djibouti have flared in recent years, due in large part to a string of collisions and close calls because of Djiboutian air-traffic controllers’ job performance at the airport. Americans have complained about the training of air-traffic controllers at the commercial airport. Additionally, labor disputes have arisen at the base where the United States is one of the largest non-government employers within the country.

Major lessons of this case study include:

  • Defining BATNA: what is each party’s BATNA?
  • Understanding the Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA)
  • The impact of culture in negotiation.
  • Uncovering interests.
  • Principal-agent dynamics.
  • Uncovering sources of power in negotiation.

This case is based on the real 2014 negotiations between the United States of America and the Republic of Djibouti. Preview a Camp Lemonnier Case Study Teacher’s Package to learn more.

A Green Victory Against Great Odds, But Was It Too Little Too Late? – Featured Case Study 

This case study provides an intimate view into the fierce battle among major US nonprofit environmental groups, Members of Congress, and industry over energy policy in 2007. The resulting law slashed pollution by raising car efficiency regulations for the first time in three decades. For negotiators and advocates, this case provides important lessons about cultivating champions, neutralizing opponents, organizing the masses, and using the right message at the right time.

This case is based on the actual negotiations and offers lessons for business, government, climate change, sustainability, corporate social responsibility, and more. Preview A Green Victory Against Great Odds Teacher’s Package to learn more.

Negotiating a Template for Labor Standards – Featured Case Study

Negotiating a Template for Labor Standards: The U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement is a detailed factual case study that tracks the negotiation of the labor provisions in the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement signed into law on January 1, 2004. It draws upon a range of published and unpublished sources and interview with some of the primary players to give a true inside look into a challenging international negotiation. Written primarily from the point of view of the lead U.S. negotiator for the labor chapter, the case study discusses the two countries’ interests and positions on the labor provisions, the possible templates available from prior agreements, the complex political maneuvering involved, and the course of the negotiations themselves – from the opening talks to the various obstacles to the final post-agreement celebration. Preview a Negotiating a Template for Labor Standards Teacher’s Package to learn more.


Take your training to the next level with the TNRC

The  Teaching Negotiation Resource Center  offers a wide range of effective teaching materials, including

  • Over 250 negotiation exercises and role-play simulations
  • Critical case studies
  • Enlightening periodicals
  • More than 30 videos
  • 100-plus books

TNRC  negotiation exercises and teaching materials are designed for educational purposes. They are used in college classroom settings or corporate training settings; used by mediators and facilitators seeking to introduce their clients to a process or issue; and used by individuals who want to enhance their negotiation skills and knowledge.

Negotiation exercises and role-play simulations introduce participants to new negotiation and dispute resolution tools, techniques and strategies.  Our videos, books, case studies, and periodicals are also a helpful way of introducing students to key concepts while addressing the theory and practice of negotiation.

Check out all that the TNRC has in store >>

Related Posts

  • Asynchronous Learning: Negotiation Exercises to Keep Students Engaged Outside the Classroom
  • Redevelopment Negotiation: The Challenges of Rebuilding the World Trade Center
  • New Great Negotiator Case and Video: Christiana Figueres, former UNFCCC Executive Secretary
  • Bidding in an International Business Negotiation: Euro-Idol
  • Check Out the All-In-One Curriculum Packages!

Click here to cancel reply.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

case study examples school students

Negotiation and Leadership

  • Learn More about Negotiation and Leadership

Negotiation and Leadership Fall 2024 programs cover


  • Learn More about Harvard Negotiation Master Class

Harvard Negotiation Master Class

Negotiation Essentials Online

  • Learn More about Negotiation Essentials Online

Negotiation Essentials Online cover

Beyond the Back Table: Working with People and Organizations to Get to Yes

  • Learn More about Beyond the Back Table

Beyond the Back Table September 2024 and February 2025 Program Guide

Select Your Free Special Report

  • Beyond the Back Table September 2024 and February 2025 Program Guide
  • Negotiation and Leadership Fall 2024 Program Guide
  • Negotiation Essentials Online (NEO) Spring 2024 Program Guide
  • Negotiation Master Class May 2024 Program Guide
  • Negotiation and Leadership Spring 2024 Program Guide
  • Make the Most of Online Negotiations
  • Managing Multiparty Negotiations
  • Getting the Deal Done
  • Salary Negotiation: How to Negotiate Salary: Learn the Best Techniques to Help You Manage the Most Difficult Salary Negotiations and What You Need to Know When Asking for a Raise
  • Overcoming Cultural Barriers in Negotiation: Cross Cultural Communication Techniques and Negotiation Skills From International Business and Diplomacy

Teaching Negotiation Resource Center

  • Teaching Materials and Publications

Stay Connected to PON

Preparing for negotiation.

Understanding how to arrange the meeting space is a key aspect of preparing for negotiation. In this video, Professor Guhan Subramanian discusses a real world example of how seating arrangements can influence a negotiator’s success. This discussion was held at the 3 day executive education workshop for senior executives at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.

Guhan Subramanian is the Professor of Law and Business at the Harvard Law School and Professor of Business Law at the Harvard Business School.

Articles & Insights

case study examples school students

  • 10 Hard-Bargaining Tactics to Watch Out for in a Negotiation
  • The Good Cop, Bad Cop Negotiation Strategy
  • Negotiation Examples: How Crisis Negotiators Use Text Messaging
  • BATNA Examples—and What You Can Learn from Them
  • What is BATNA? How to Find Your Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
  • Framing in Negotiation
  • Negotiation Tactics, BATNA and Examples for Creating Value in Business Negotiations
  • Individual Differences in Negotiation—and How They Affect Results
  • Winner’s Curse: Negotiation Mistakes to Avoid
  • Solutions for Avoiding Intercultural Barriers at the Negotiation Table
  • How to Handle Conflict in Teams: Lessons from Scientific Collaborations
  • 5 Conflict Resolution Strategies
  • Lessons Learned from Cultural Conflicts in the Covid-19 Era
  • Case Study of Conflict Management: To Resolve Disputes and Manage Conflicts, Assume a Neutral 3rd Party Role
  • The Pitfalls of Negotiations Over Email
  • AI Negotiation in the News
  • Crisis Negotiation Skills: The Hostage Negotiator’s Drill
  • Police Negotiation Techniques from the NYPD Crisis Negotiations Team
  • Famous Negotiations Cases – NBA and the Power of Deadlines at the Bargaining Table
  • Negotiating Change During the Covid-19 Pandemic
  • Managing Difficult Employees: Listening to Learn
  • Dealing with Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
  • Dealing with Difficult People: Coping with an Insulting Offer in Contract Negotiations
  • When Dealing with Difficult People, Look Inward
  • Ethics in Negotiations: How to Deal with Deception at the Bargaining Table
  • Managing a Multiparty Negotiation
  • MESO Negotiation: The Benefits of Making Multiple Equivalent Simultaneous Offers in Business Negotiations
  • 7 Tips for Closing the Deal in Negotiations
  • How Does Mediation Work in a Lawsuit?
  • Dealmaking Secrets from Henry Kissinger
  • The Importance of Power in Negotiations: Taylor Swift Shakes it Off
  • Settling Out of Court: Negotiating in the Shadow of the Law
  • How to Negotiate with Friends and Family
  • What is Dispute System Design?
  • What are the Three Basic Types of Dispute Resolution? What to Know About Mediation, Arbitration, and Litigation
  • What is the Multi-Door Courthouse Concept
  • Famous Negotiators: Angela Merkel and Vladimir Putin
  • The Importance of Relationship Building in China
  • A Top International Negotiation Case Study in Business: The Microsoft-Nokia Deal
  • India’s Direct Approach to Conflict Resolution
  • What Is Facilitative Leadership?
  • What Is Collective Leadership?
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Leadership Styles: Uncovering Bias and Generating Mutual Gains
  • Leadership and Decision-Making: Empowering Better Decisions
  • The Contingency Theory of Leadership: A Focus on Fit
  • Negotiations and Logrolling: Discover Opportunities to Generate Mutual Gains
  • Using E-Mediation and Online Mediation Techniques for Conflict Resolution
  • Undecided on Your Dispute Resolution Process? Combine Mediation and Arbitration, Known as Med-Arb
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Training: Mediation Curriculum
  • What Makes a Good Mediator?
  • The Ladder of Inference: A Resource List
  • For a Mutually Beneficial Agreement, Collaboration is Key
  • Use Integrative Negotiation Strategies to Create Value at the Bargaining Table
  • Negotiation Skills for Win-Win Negotiations
  • Finding Mutual Gains In “Non-Negotiation”
  • Use a Negotiation Preparation Worksheet for Continuous Improvement
  • The Importance of a Relationship in Negotiation
  • Collaborative Negotiation Examples: Tenants and Landlords
  • Ethics and Negotiation: 5 Principles of Negotiation to Boost Your Bargaining Skills in Business Situations
  • Negotiation Journal celebrates 40th anniversary, new publisher, and diamond open access in 2024
  • How to Negotiate Salary: 3 Winning Strategies
  • How to Negotiate a Higher Salary
  • Setting Standards in Negotiations
  • Negotiating a Salary When Compensation Is Public
  • How to Negotiate a Higher Salary after a Job Offer
  • What is a Win-Win Negotiation?
  • Win-Win Negotiation: Managing Your Counterpart’s Satisfaction
  • Win-Lose Negotiation Examples
  • How to Negotiate Mutually Beneficial Noncompete Agreements
  • How to Win at Win-Win Negotiation

PON Publications

  • Negotiation Data Repository (NDR)
  • New Frontiers, New Roleplays: Next Generation Teaching and Training
  • Negotiating Transboundary Water Agreements
  • Learning from Practice to Teach for Practice—Reflections From a Novel Training Series for International Climate Negotiators
  • Insights From PON’s Great Negotiators and the American Secretaries of State Program
  • Gender and Privilege in Negotiation

case study examples school students

Remember Me This setting should only be used on your home or work computer.

Lost your password? Create a new password of your choice.

Copyright © 2024 Negotiation Daily. All rights reserved.

case study examples school students

Logo for University of Minnesota Libraries

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

9 10 Academic Goals Examples to Supercharge Your Student Success

Becoming a successful student involves more than just going to classes and remembering facts for the test. It is about establishing a mentality of learning and evolving continuously, and distinct academic goals are a key aspect of that. These are the lights that lead the way and help you stay on track as you navigate through the trials and tribulations of your studies, whether it’s the demands of testing or the stuff that life throws at you. But, just as importantly, by clearly defining and outlining your academic objectives, you give your study a sense of intention and purpose. Whether it’s achieving a particular GPA, mastering a challenging topic, or participating in enriching extracurricular, strong academic Goals are the foundation of both short- and long-term academic success.  

academic goals examples

Establishing concrete goals and the quest of excellence are frequently linked in the academic sphere. Before delving into these Academic Goals Examples, it is important to recognize services like Scholarly Help that provide workable ways to handle several Tasks. With options like pay someone to do my online class , Scholarly Help ensures you stay on track without compromising other responsibilities. This comprehensive guide explores ten powerful academic goals examples designed to elevate your student success to unprecedented heights. Whether your academic goals are designed to improve your critical thinking habits, advance your time management skills, or explore interdisciplinary thinking to further your academic career, they should provide students with a path toward overall intellectual and personal development. Rounding up different students through carefully structured college academic goals. All must necessarily form the basis of individual reality and opportunities.

Mastering Time Management

One of the building blocks for academic achievement is the effective management of time. The ability allows students to combine studies with other activities, namely work, daily life, or personal life. To manage time effectively, learners are recommended to:

  • Plan a Weekly Schedule: set certain hours and days to work, study, and engage in other activities; 
  • Set Priorities: determine poses that are urgent and important, then focus on a solution; 
  • Do not Get Distracted: if some activities or processes are distracting, generate disadvantages.

Enhancing Study Skills

Improving study abilities might result in better comprehension and recall of course material. Students should focus on:

  • Active Learning Techniques: Engage with the material such as holding discussions, teaching others, and transforming what one learned to real-life application. 
  • Effective Note-Taking: Employ methods like Cornell Note-taking System to organize and refresh notes. 
  • Regular Review Sessions: Set regular study dates to refresh one’s memory and prepare for exams.

Setting Specific Academic Targets

Setting clear, specific targets helps students stay motivated and measure progress. Examples of specific academic goals include:

  • Achieve Specific GPA:   Aim to reach or maintain a specific grade point average each semester.
  • Improving Grades in Challenging Subjects: Identify subjects where improvement is needed and set goals accordingly.
  • Completing Assignments Ahead of Deadlines: Plan to finish assignments before the due date to allow time for revisions.

Expanding Knowledge beyond the Classroom

Gaining knowledge outside the classroom can enhance academic performance and provide a broader perspective. Students can achieve this by:

  • Reading Extensively: Explore Books, Journals, and articles related to their field of Study.
  • Attending Seminars and Workshops: Participate in events offering additional insights and networking opportunities.
  • Engaging in Research Projects: Collaborate with professors or peers on research projects to deepen understanding of specific topics.

Developing Critical Thinking Skills

Critical thinking is vital for problem-solving and making informed decisions. Students can cultivate these skills by:

  • Questioning Assumptions: Always ask why and consider alternative viewpoints.
  • Analyzing Arguments: Evaluate the evidence and logic in different arguments.
  • Reflecting on Learning: Regularly review what has been learned and how it applies to real-world situations.

Building Effective Communication Skills

Strong communication skills are essential for academic and professional success. Students can enhance these skills by:

  • Participating in Class Discussions: Engage actively in discussions to practice articulating thoughts clearly.
  • Writing Regularly: Practice writing essays, reports, and articles to improve writing abilities.
  • Presenting Projects: Take opportunities to present work in front of an audience to build confidence and clarity.

Fostering Collaboration and Teamwork

Collaboration with peers can lead to better understanding and innovative solutions. Students should focus on:

  • Joining Study Groups: Collaborate with classmates to discuss topics and solve problems together.
  • Participating in Group Projects: Develop teamwork and leadership skills by working on group assignments.
  • Engaging in Extracurricular Activities: Join clubs and organizations that encourage teamwork and collective problem-solving.

Seeking Feedback and Continuous Improvement

Constructive feedback helps identify areas for improvement and guide academic growth. Students should:

  • Ask for Feedback: Request feedback from professors and peers on assignments and presentations.
  • Reflect on Criticism: Use feedback to identify strengths and weaknesses, developing action plans for improvement.
  • Commit to Lifelong Learning: Embrace continuous learning and improvement in all aspects of life.

Utilizing Academic Resources

Taking full advantage of available academic resources can enhance learning and performance. Students should:

  • Visit the Library Regularly: Utilize resources for research and study.
  • Use Online Databases: Access academic journals and articles online to support studies.
  • Seek Academic Support Services: Utilize tutoring, writing centers, and academic advising offered by the institution.

Preparing for Future Careers with Academic Goals

Setting academic goals with future careers in mind provides direction and motivation. Students should:

  • Identify Career Goals: Determine career aspirations and align academic goals accordingly.
  • Gain Relevant Experience: Pursue internships, part-time jobs, and volunteer opportunities related to the field of study.
  • Develop Professional Skills: Focus on skills like resume writing, interviewing, and networking to prepare for the job market.

Setting and meeting academic goals necessitates dedication, strategic planning, and consistent effort. By focusing on these ten academic goal examples, students can improve their learning experience, and performance, and set themselves up for future success. Remember that the key to academic success is to set specific, attainable goals and work hard to meet them.

Education Copyright © by john44. All Rights Reserved.

Share This Book

  • Essay Editor

International HRM Case Study: Apple Inc.

1. introduction to international human resource management.

Business is no longer confined to a particular area or nation; instead, it is global with staff working worldwide. The result of this development gives International Human Resource Management (IHRM) importance and a wide range of operations in HRM. The skills of IHRM professionals in an organization are vital in the realization of strategic IHRM policies and practices. A global role of an HR professional should be multicentric and multidirectional, identifying and recognizing cultural differences, economic efficiencies, and being able to contribute collaboratively across a wide range of HR functions and services. Apple Inc. was chosen as the focus of this case study as the company is prominent within multinational corporations. Moreover, Apple Inc. has a stationary global workforce while still being accountable for company performance in a very dynamic and fast-changing global industry. A variety of international companies have been reviewed in relation to how or where decisions on Apple Inc.'s strategic positioning would be made. Furthermore, research into the financial performance of the world's multinational companies, such as Apple Inc., is also included in this research. Organizations such as these have a high propensity for creating global jobs in high-performing economies located in business capitals where international business is not prohibited. The impacts of the head office and the theories discovered in these large cities on a multinational's international human resource management practices, such as Apple Inc., are found in previous research. In this research, the focus is on cities with the highest key density. The methodologies used in these analyses are implemented within the research strategies of understanding performance in the case study of Apple Inc.

2. Overview of Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. (previously Apple Computer Inc.) was established in 1976 and is registered on the stock exchange as AAPL. The company produces some of the best information technology (IT) products that are for the consumption of the general public and for the corporate market. They also sell a few forms of digital content that are delivered through their iTunes online store. Apple Inc. has a huge challenge of production due to the different types of unique products they sell. They are expected to produce products that are of various quality grades, and they strive to produce some of the differentiating products in the market. Apple Inc. products are hardware, software, portable consumer systems, and IP applications to run on the consumers' systems. Apple Inc. serves the customers' needs both in the corporate and general public. They are designed to create value through product designs and management of the product to prove to the consumers that buying Apple products would be worth their spending plan. The company also receives various goods and services from the local economy when setting up its business activities in the respective communities. However, part of their service in return to accessing the local markets is to provide their corporate social responsibilities. Apple is known for being a leader in IT while also paying strict attention to information technology with their services. With the high development and innovations in technology, international markets are on the increase. They provide IT products to over 100 countries to meet the customer's requirements.

2.1. Company Background and Global Operations

Apple Inc. is a well-known American multinational company that focuses on consumer electronics, personal computers, and software. It was launched in 1976 in California by three partners, Steven Paul Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne, whose priority was to offer practical applications for mass-market use. Apple Inc. has repeatedly topped the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's list of the top 50 innovative companies worldwide. They currently operate more than 200 retail stores in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania, with a mixture of company-owned, partner, and licensed retail establishments. Apple's retail locations are run by its employees and are located in shopping districts, malls, and other high-traffic areas. Apple Inc. has kept up this growth even during tough financial times. Apple has the biggest market capitalization of any company created in the era of record-keeping, valued at nearly a trillion dollars. The iPhone, iPod, iMac, Apple TV, and their game-changing software and operating systems were among the technologies that helped Apple secure the best market capitalization in this list. Mr. Tim Cook, the current CEO at Apple Inc., has an extensive international background, as well as broad experience in establishing successful collaboration and network links across diverse business groups. Under the leadership of Mr. Cook, this business has developed a division for corporate social responsibility that includes better management of business groups engaged in executing more than two hundred initiatives focused on safeguarding the environment and preserving mixed standards. The globalization strategy implemented by Apple Inc. brought the manufacturing and distribution of its products to the level of a strategic asset utilized to have Apple products successfully stocked. The formative impact of technology transfer allowed Apple's interest in international development to increase, which triggered the opening of major R&D centers in Europe and Asia with the roles of spearhead models for launching local goals and projects. This study aims to improve our explicit understanding of Apple Inc.'s current handling of Human Resource Management throughout the above three evolutionary stages of globalization, especially with personnel, leadership, diversity, and international recruitment.

3. Key HRM Strategies at Apple Inc.

Since it was founded in 1976, Apple Computer has been one of the most admired companies in the world. It has been on the cutting edge of developing technologies and tools that enable consumers to connect to the internet and manage documents, music, video, and information with a range of personal digital devices. Much of its success can be attributed to its talented and motivated employees, and the company has developed a range of human resource management strategies and techniques to get the most out of their employees. These include, amongst others, executive support systems and career programs, teamwork between employees, flextime, and training programs. There are career development centers in the workplace and Apple University, which offers attractive courses and programs to the employees. One of these programs is AppleU, the corporate university which was established in 2008 and offers three core types of courses to employees. The first type is strategy and execution; the second, business, management, and leadership skills; the third, hardware, software, and services. All of these courses are designed to improve employees' knowledge and incorporate the company's business strategy, finest practices, policies, and culture. It offers training support to the employees to align with corporate culture, largely focusing on its diverse personnel. Flextime or flexible work hours is also another strategy that the company applies to the employees. It is a management strategy that offers flexible work hours or scheduled shifts as opposed to being locked in a 9 am to 5 pm schedule. This beneficial strategy not only allows employees to perform at a higher degree of expense but also fosters creative problem-solving, team or group interaction during core hours, better use of labor and equipment within existing hours, and increased employee morale and loyalty. Apple's employees also enjoy these benefits, which in return are referred to as performance. In the executive support system programs and career programs, part-time and full-time employees receive financial support through mentoring, coaching, and career development initiatives. At Apple, teams are engaged in daily activities, discussing issues such as development for performance, clarifying goals and objectives, identification of strengths and areas for improvement, and strategies for the creation of value. The company's executives communicate information covering: - The company's overall business situation - Major events, changes, and related reasons - Strategic, payer, and related objectives and changes - Leadership behavior, criteria, and policies - Performance of the team Congratulations, resources, and other information related to business objectives and strategies. Overall, Apple's senior leadership team message indicates that the company values everyone, wants employees to understand the business, and collaborate and make a difference. The communication model at Apple is based on Maslow's hierarchy theory of needs. The company acknowledges the ascension of fulfillment between employees, the higher standards of achievement that come from workers, and the need for empowerment. They encourage, develop, and retain employees and create styles and open, honest, and inclusive work environments. Their motive is to have unitary decision-making, communicate business initiatives and project completion within specified time frames as a result of high group morale for company success. The interrelationships of individuals, groups, secure loyalty, commitment, collaboration, trust, and synergy establish confidence and respect through shared vision. The organization's success derives from respectful behavior. Successful ongoing relationships are cultivated and experienced so employees are more receptive to taking on new challenges, learning, inspiring mutual satisfaction, and productive capability. This exemplary performance generates a relationship among coworkers, managers, and senior leadership teams.

4. Challenges and Successes in Apple's International HRM

Apple Inc. has been seen as a highly innovative and highly successful company. It has developed a worldwide reputation for being at the forefront of technology, has revolutionized a number of consumer products (e.g., music, computer, phone, tablet) and has developed a 'fan base' of customers who eagerly anticipate the company's next product. Clearly, the products which Apple develops would not be possible without an individual who is highly skilled and has the engineering 'smarts' to develop 'iconic' products. However, it is the case that Apple, and other major companies, could do a better job in tapping into a global labor market. This labor market should enable Apple, for example, to hire an engineer from India for their headquarters located in Cupertino and to hire a designer from China to help create the newest version of the iPhone. Challenges Challenges in HRM at Apple may be broadly divided into two categories, namely (1) Challenges of International HRM and (2) Challenges of managing the HRM function in an organization which has work units dispersed across the globe. Human resources professionals, even with the most liberal outlooks, will have to connect with a diverse and varied group of workers who will challenge the HRM policy and practices of even the best of organizations. Even in a company which is managing HRM in the US, HRM professionals will have to accommodate and understand gender, race, ethnicity, and other lines of difference in a country that is rapidly becoming more pluralistic. With Apple and its global workforce, changes in HRM will magnify.

Related articles

Tesla's strategy for leadership in energy sector.

1. Introduction Electric car production and expansion policy of Tesla, which also produces solar cells, photovoltaic panels, and solar storage products, is the primary issue of this study. The purpose of the study is to determine whether Elon Musk's future entrepreneurial strategies are appropriate or not. 44 written articles were analyzed in this study. As a result of the study, the model, strategy, and future vision applied by Tesla in the field of energy were achieved. With this energy polic ...

Nike Inc.: Operations and Logistics

1. Introduction to Nike Inc. Located in Beaverton, Oregon, Nike Inc. is one of the most well-known companies in the world. Nike's mission is "to bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world." The company was named after the Greek Goddess of Victory, and the company's first business was selling running shoes out of the trunk of a white Plymouth Valiant. Bill Bowerman, the co-founder and former track and field coach at the University of Oregon, was famous for using his wife's wa ...

Employee Motivation Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

1. Introduction to Employee Motivation A cornerstone of management theory, employee motivation is a fundamental concept, encapsulating a heterogeneous range of constructs tied to an extensive body of relevant research. Motivation is a matter of psychological strength that might positively influence human behavior. "High motivation" will result in employees with a positive attitude in their work, which suggests that they will be able to reach and perform the work activities that were delegated t ...

Causes of Poor Security Practices in Organizations

1. Introduction Every organization in the world is concerned about security. The levels of security may vary depending on the type of organization and the value of the assets that need to be protected. However, it is often observed that security practices do not reflect the concerns for security. They see the organizations investing in good security measures but do not achieve the desired security goals. Many organizations are often viewed as having poor security practices leading to hackers, e ...

Three Levels of Products Theory

1. Introduction As Dr. Philip Kotler, marketers have long distinguished between the core product, that is, the essential good or service that delivers the core benefit customers seek, and its actual features, design, quality level, brand name, and packaging that combine to deliver this core benefit. Yet the core product may also incorporate a number of services or supporting products. As ever, this model helps us develop a broad range of differences between similar products which are classified ...

The "Bling H2O" as the Luxury Bottled Water

1. Introduction Entrepreneurs, in order to be successful, need to be able to find a niche. In 2007, young entrepreneur Daren Hess had a "eureka moment" while sifting through a portfolio of family-owned companies. For the bottled mineral water commodity market, he was considering targeting a niche (premium water). In his reflective conversation, Mr. Hess illustrated the role of cognitive and emotional considerations for market-facing decisions. Specifically, Hess disclosed how he built knowledge ...

Organizational Diagnosis of Starbucks

1. Introduction The objectives of this work are threefold. First, a brief organizational analysis of Starbucks will be given. This will be followed by a presentation of an organizational analysis model used in the following chapters. This model is called the "Organizational Diagnosis". We shall show that this is a participative model for analyzing organizations that involves both top management and lower echelons of the organization. It can be used as a preliminary model for diagnosing an organ ...

EBay Company in E-business

1. Introduction to E-Business E-business is an enabler for businesses to conduct more effective and efficient commercial transactions through the application of digital solutions. By reducing management and transaction costs, businesses take advantage of new opportunities in the global market. The establishment of appropriate internet-enabled business models and plans is critical for realizing the potential benefits of doing business in the digital economy. Research on e-business has a wide ran ...


  1. FREE 11+ Student Case Study Templates in PDF

    case study examples school students

  2. 49 Free Case Study Templates ( + Case Study Format Examples + )

    case study examples school students

  3. 🌷 How to write an educational case study. Basic Tips on How to Write a

    case study examples school students

  4. 7 Sample Case Study Templates to Download

    case study examples school students

  5. 49 Free Case Study Templates ( + Case Study Format Examples + )

    case study examples school students

  6. 49 Free Case Study Templates ( + Case Study Format Examples + )

    case study examples school students



  2. School Activities 🏫🎒#students #school #activity #gaming please subscribe my channel 🙂

  3. G-Gillette Business Case Study Live. #shorts #businesscasestudy #brandstrategy #gillette

  4. Hear how students contributed to a cold case analysis project by LOCATE International

  5. How to do Case Study|| How to do Case Study Research|| Case Study

  6. German International Students Success Stories


  1. Student Case Study

    A student case study is an in-depth analysis of a student or a group of students to understand various educational, psychological, or social aspects. It involves collecting detailed information through observations, interviews, and reviewing records, to form a comprehensive picture. The goal of a case study analysis is to unravel the ...

  2. 28+ Case Study Examples

    Example of Case Study Suitable for Students. Title: Energy Efficiency Upgrade: A Case Study of GreenTech Office. Introduction: GreenTech Office embarked on an energy efficiency upgrade to reduce its environmental impact. This case study delves into the facts and figures behind the initiative's success.

  3. Making Learning Relevant With Case Studies

    Journaling: At the end of each work period, have students write an entry summarizing what they worked on, what worked well, what didn't, and why. Sentence starters and clear rubrics or guidelines will help students be successful. At the end of a case study project, as Costa and Kallick write, it's helpful to have students "select significant learnings, envision how they could apply these ...

  4. 7 Favorite Business Case Studies to Teach—and Why

    1. The Army Crew Team. Emily Michelle David, Assistant Professor of Management, China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) EMILY MICHELLE DAVID Assistant Professor, CEIBS. "I love teaching The Army Crew Team case because it beautifully demonstrates how a team can be so much less than the sum of its parts.

  5. Cases

    The Case Analysis Coach is an interactive tutorial on reading and analyzing a case study. The Case Study Handbook covers key skills students need to read, understand, discuss and write about cases. The Case Study Handbook is also available as individual chapters to help your students focus on specific skills.

  6. Case Studies

    Case Studies. Print Version. Case studies are stories that are used as a teaching tool to show the application of a theory or concept to real situations. Dependent on the goal they are meant to fulfill, cases can be fact-driven and deductive where there is a correct answer, or they can be context driven where multiple solutions are possible.

  7. PDF Elementary School Case Studies

    Leadership Elementary School Case Studies — 4. Ivy Elementary School. The school-wide vision at Ivy Elementary is that all students will reach high academic levels. The entire staff meet in grade-level teams at the beginning of the year to set specific targets for growth on reading and math on the NWEA and attendance.

  8. Case Study At-A-Glance

    A Case Study is a way to let students interact with material in an open-ended manner. The goal is not to find solutions, but to explore possibilities and options of a real-life scenario. ... Want examples of a Case-Study? ... Harvard Business School: Teaching By the Case-Study Method. Written by Catherine Weiner ...

  9. Do Your Students Know How to Analyze a Case—Really?

    Give students an opportunity to practice the case analysis methodology via an ungraded sample case study. Designate groups of five to seven students to discuss the case and the six steps in breakout sessions (in class or via Zoom). Ensure case analyses are weighted heavily as a grading component. We suggest 30-50 percent of the overall course ...

  10. PDF High School Case Studies

    Elm High School. Elm High School has several school-wide goals, according to Principal Parsons, including: 1) create college and career readiness for students at all grade levels, 2) help students to manage some of their internal social-emotional issues, and. 3) celebrate success as a school. Principal Parsons said that creating a college-going ...

  11. Case Studies

    Teaching cases are meant to spur debate among students rather than promote a particular point of view or steer students in a specific direction. Some of the case studies in this collection highlight the decision-making process in a business or management setting. Other cases are descriptive or demonstrative in nature, showcasing something that ...

  12. PDF Handout 2 Case Studies

    Handout #2 provides case histories of four students: Chuck, a curious, highly verbal, and rambunctious six-year-old boy with behavior disorders who received special education services in elementary school. Juanita, a charming but shy six-year-old Latina child who was served as an at-risk student with Title 1 supports in elementary school.

  13. Using Case Studies to Teach

    Advantages to the use of case studies in class. A major advantage of teaching with case studies is that the students are actively engaged in figuring out the principles by abstracting from the examples. This develops their skills in: Problem solving. Analytical tools, quantitative and/or qualitative, depending on the case.

  14. What Is a Case Study?

    Revised on November 20, 2023. A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research. A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods, but quantitative methods are ...

  15. Top 40 Most Popular Case Studies of 2021

    Fifty four percent of raw case users came from outside the U.S.. The Yale School of Management (SOM) case study directory pages received over 160K page views from 177 countries with approximately a third originating in India followed by the U.S. and the Philippines. Twenty-six of the cases in the list are raw cases.

  16. How to Write a Case Study: from Outline to Examples

    Explain what you will examine in the case study. Write an overview of the field you're researching. Make a thesis statement and sum up the results of your observation in a maximum of 2 sentences. Background. Provide background information and the most relevant facts. Isolate the issues.

  17. Writing a Case Study

    The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e.g., education, social work, public administration, etc.], case ...

  18. Case studies and practical examples: Supporting teaching and improving

    Search for: HOME; OUR MISSION. About; ACCESS MODELS. Institutional. Library Provisioned Textbooks

  19. How to Write a Case Study (Templates and Tips)

    A case study is a detailed analysis of a specific topic in a real-world context. It can pertain to a person, place, event, group, or phenomenon, among others. The purpose is to derive generalizations about the topic, as well as other insights. Case studies find application in academic, business, political, or scientific research.

  20. Sample Case Studies

    Case Study #2. Sophia A. McClennen. Environmental Connections for Middle School Age Students: Global Sustainability and the Brazilian Amazon. Your name is Jorge, you are 13, and you are from Brazil. You live in the Amazon in a community of Seringueiros—Seringueiro is the Portuguese word for "rubber tapper." Rubber tapping has been a ...

  21. Sample Cases

    View case. Project M. Perspectives: Entrepreneurship, Healthcare, Innovation & Design, Social Enterprise. When Krista Dong and Zinhle Thabethe came to the 2006 PopTech conference in Camden, Maine, they hoped to expand their fight against HIV/AIDS, one of South Africa's greatest problems. They were the founders of iTEACH, an HIV/AIDS and TB ...

  22. Teach by Example with These Negotiation Case Studies

    Looking to past negotiations where students can analyze what approaches the parties took and how effective they were in reaching an agreement, can help students gain new insights into negotiation dynamics. The Teaching Negotiation Resource Center (TNRC) has a variety of negotiation case studies to help students learn by example.

  23. Case study example

    Atlanta public schools case study. In 2011, an external investigation of the performance evaluation strategies of the Atlanta Public Schools System revealed that schools had been cheating to obtain high results. For this example case analysis, the student has identified the problems faced by the organisation, outlined factors that contributed ...

  24. What is a Case Study? Definition & Examples

    A case study is an in-depth investigation of a single person, group, event, or community. This research method involves intensively analyzing a subject to understand its complexity and context. The richness of a case study comes from its ability to capture detailed, qualitative data that can offer insights into a process or subject matter that ...

  25. Developing school processes in Therapeutic Thinking

    Oriel High School is a maintained community secondary school for pupils aged 11 to 18, based in Crawley. There are over 1400 students on role at the school, making Oriel a larger than the average-sized secondary school. At the most recent inspection in October 2019, Ofsted reported that, 'Pupils greatly enjoy coming to school.

  26. 9 10 Academic Goals Examples to Supercharge Your Student Success

    Examples of specific academic goals include: Achieve Specific GPA: Aim to reach or maintain a specific grade point average each semester. Improving Grades in Challenging Subjects: Identify subjects where improvement is needed and set goals accordingly. Completing Assignments Ahead of Deadlines: Plan to finish assignments before the due date to ...

  27. Case study

    A case study is an in-depth, detailed examination of a particular case (or cases) within a real-world context. For example, case studies in medicine may focus on an individual patient or ailment; case studies in business might cover a particular firm's strategy or a broader market; similarly, case studies in politics can range from a narrow happening over time like the operations of a specific ...

  28. Universal SEL implementation to improve community and prosocial skills

    This case example presents a pilot evaluation of the Open Circle SEL curriculum implementation, delivered universally, at Tier 2 for all students. Universal SEL instruction was conducted weekly across an entire elementary school in the southeastern United States which had other universal, preventative strategies in place.

  29. Columbine High School massacre

    v. t. e. The Columbine High School massacre, commonly referred to as Columbine, was a school shooting and a failed bombing that occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado, United States. [b] The perpetrators, twelfth-grade students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered twelve students and one teacher.

  30. International HRM Case Study: Apple Inc.

    Let's write. 2. Overview of Apple Inc. Apple Inc. (previously Apple Computer Inc.) was established in 1976 and is registered on the stock exchange as AAPL. The company produces some of the best information technology (IT) products that are for the consumption of the general public and for the corporate market.