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az role assignment create key vault

Working With Azure Key Vault Using Azure PowerShell and AzureCLI

This is second part of  Create key vault and secrets with access policies in Microsoft Azure , In the this article I will use Powershell and Azure CLI to create and configure Azure Key Vault resource service.  Azure Key Vault  is a cloud service that provides a secure store for secrets. You can securely store keys, passwords, certificates, and other secrets. In the first example In the first example I am using Microsoft Powershell Az module to deploy and configure Key vault.

Connect-AzAccount The 'Connect-AzAccount' command was found in the module 'Az.Accounts', but the module could not be loaded Powershell Azure Az module Install-Package cannot convert value 2.0.0-preview to type system.version

PowerShell Az module example First cmdlet connects to azure using az module and creates a new key vault resource. Download this script here or available on github.com .

Microsoft Azure Key vault connect-azaccount tenantid subscription environment azurecloud resource group new-azkeyvault sku location vault uri network rule access policies.png

Once Key vault is created in azure, generate a secret on it with encrypted password string, next configure Access policy to provide access on key vault secret to Azure AD user principal .

Microsoft azure portal convertto-securestring asplaintext set-azkeyvaultsecret powershell az module subscription tenant id content type set-azkeyvaultaccesspolicy vaultname userprincipalname azuread.png

I have already create a new user account vaultviewer on Azure Active directory for testing  Creating a new user in Azure AD using oneliner PowerShell and Azure CLI . Next get and store the key vault information in variable to know ResourceID which I will use when assinging role ( Key Vault Reader ) to user principal on the keyvault. (In my case user principal name is vaultviewer )

Microsoft azure portal powershell az module key vault secret get-azkeyvault vaultname resourceid new-azroleassignment signinname roledefinitionname key vault reader objectid scope.png

Logout of Azure powershell account with Disconnect-AzAccount and login with the user (in my case vaultviewer ), Get the key vault secret and convert the secure string to readable plain text password with below commands.

az role assignment create key vault

AzureCLI example

Login to the AzureCLI, All the Az command generate output in JSON format.

Microsoft powershell azure azurecli az login subscription azurecloud azure cli tenantid subscription microsoftonline oauth2 authorize azure key vault secret.png

Create a new Azure Key Vault resource, note down the resource ID I will use it later in the command.

Microsoft Azure Powershell azure cli azurecli az keyvault create --name --resource-group --location --sku create key vault secret standard access policies.png

Once key vault is created, setup a new secret and set attribute content type (description) on to it.

Microsoft azure powershell azurecli az keyvault secret set --vault-name -value secret password az keyvault secret set-attibutes --content-type tags automation powershell azure cli.png

Next get the complete information of AzureAD user whom i will provide Key vault access policy and role, Grab ObjectId  from the list.

Microsoft azure portal az ad user show --id object id key vault powershell azurecli azure cli azure active directory azuread key vault secret certificate access policy.png

Using the User Object ID and Key vault resource ID (earlier shown in the command) set a secret access policy on the keyvault. In the Json output you can see the newly provided access.

Microsoft azure portal az keyvault set-policy --object-id --secret-permissions powershell azure cli key vault secret key certificate access policies rbac role defination get list create delete tenant.png

After key vault access policy configuration, configure role ( key vault reader ) assignment access to the user on key vault ID got earlier.

Microsoft Azure Powershell Azurecli az role assignment create --assignee key vault azure ad active directory --role reader subscriptions resourcegroup provider certificate.png

Re login to the azure with vaultviewer account to test if you can access and show/Retrieve secret value from the azure key vault.

Microsoft powershell azure az module az login az keyvault secret show key vault --vault-name secret value root password azure password vault root secret tenant subscription azure ad active directory.png

Download this  script here  or available on  github.com .


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Using Azure RBAC with Azure Key Vault

Posted on: 24-09-2020

A lot of Azure services have different methods of granting access to users. Storage and Service Bus have access keys (though SB allows you to create them with different accesses), SQL DB has its users, and Key Vault has Access policies. This can be a bit annoying as you need to always find out how every service does authorization.

Now recently services have been moving to support Azure AD authentication combined with using Azure RBAC (Role-Based Access Control). Storage and Service Bus are good examples of this as they allow you to specify per-user/per-app access with quite small granularity. For example, you can define that this group of users can read blobs in this one container in Storage. Or that this one application can receive messages from this queue.

The granularity is not the only advantage of using Azure RBAC. It allows administrators to see what the users/applications can access very easily in a single view. The access is always assigned to a specific user/group/application and the calling user/application can be identified and logged by the service. With access keys etc., you can't really verify the actual user/application that did the operation.

Another advantage of Azure RBAC is that the roles can be assigned at different levels. Access can be granted at the subscription level for example, removing the need of assigning access individually per resource. The granularity is up to you :)

Key Vault now finally also supports Azure RBAC ( documentation ). Let's go through what has been added.

Turning on Azure RBAC

To use RBAC roles to manage access, you must switch the Key Vault to use Azure RBAC instead of access policies . So no, you cannot use both at the same time. Once you make the switch, access policies will no longer apply. What you can do is assign the necessary roles first to the users/applications that need them, and then switch to use RBAC roles. Do note that currently there is a possible delay:

Role assignments latency: at current expected performance, it will take up to 10 minutes (600 seconds) after role assignments is changed for role to be applied

So it is probably a good idea to assign the roles, wait at least 10 minutes, and then switch over to use RBAC.

To switch a Key Vault to use Azure RBAC, you need to change the Permission model on the Access policies tab to Azure role-based access control .

Permission model radio buttons on Access policies tab of Key Vault

The best part is that no changes are required in the application side. Since Key Vault always used Azure AD authentication, that will continue to work as before. All the changes are internal to Key Vault and how it authorizes the requests.

New built-in roles

There are 8 new RBAC roles that allow different levels of management in Key Vault:

  • Any action on all data
  • Read Key Vaults and read metadata (not contents of secrets etc.)
  • Any action on certificates
  • Any action on keys
  • Read and backup keys + all cryptographic operations with keys
  • Use keys to wrap/unwrap data
  • Any Action on secrets
  • Read secret contents

You can check more details about the roles in the documentation .

Three of the new roles stand out for me as an application developer: Key Vault Crypto Service Encryption , Key Vault Crypto User , and Key Vault Secrets User .

If your application needs to access secrets, you can give it the Key Vault Secrets User role. If it needs to use ASP.NET Core Data Protection with Key Vault keys , it can use the Key Vault Crypto Service Encryption role. If more access to operations is needed for keys (e.g. data signing), the Key Vault Crypto User role can be used.

Those three roles alone cover a lot of scenarios that applications face typically. The other roles are mostly ones that can be used with users to allow them to manage different parts of the Key Vault data.

If these roles don't satisfy your needs, you can always make custom roles that include some selection of the actions granted to these roles.

For new Key Vault deployments, I definitely recommend using Azure RBAC to get more uniform access management across Azure services, and to also give administrators more visibility to users' and applications' accesses.

If you are using access policies currently with Key Vault, you are not in a hurry to switch to Azure RBAC. Access policies continue to work and can totally be used. But if those advantages given by Azure RBAC are tempting, you can switch to use it with quite minimal effort.

  • Key Vault Azure RBAC documentation
  • Azure RBAC documentation

You might also like these related articles

  • ASP.NET Core + Azure Key Vault + Azure AD MSI = Awesome way to do config
  • Using Azure Key Vault and Azure Storage to store Data Protection keys with ASP.NET Core

Focus on cloud-native and Azure

Authenticate to Azure Resources with Azure Managed Identities

az role assignment create key vault

In this post, we will take a look at managed identities in general and system-assigned managed identity in particular. Managed identities can be used by your code to authenticate to Azure AD resources from Azure compute resources that support it, like virtual machines and containers.

But first, let’s look at the other option and why you should avoid it if you can: service principals.

Service Principals

If you have code that needs to authenticate to Azure AD-protected resources such as Azure Key Vault, you can always create a service principal. It’s the option that always works. It has some caveats that will be explained further in this post.

The easiest way to create a service principal is with the single Azure CLI command below:

The command results in the following output:

If the service principal needs access to, let’s say, Azure Key Vault, you could use the following command to grant that access:

The next step is to configure your application to use the service principal and its secret to obtain an Azure AD token (or credential) that can be passed to Azure Key Vault to retrieve secrets or keys. That means you need to find a secure way to store the service principal secret with your application, which is something you want to avoid.

In a Python app, you can use the ClientSecretCredential class and pass your Azure tenant id, the service principal appId (or client Id) and the secret. You can then use the secret with a SecretClient like in the snippet below.

Other languages and frameworks have similar libraries to reach the same result. For instance JavaScript and C# .

This is quite easy to do but again, where do you store the service principal’s secret securely?

The command az ad sp create-for-rbac also creates an App Registration (and Enterprise application) in Azure AD:

az role assignment create key vault

The secret (or password) for our service principal is partly displayed above. As you can see, it expires a year from now (blog post written on January 6th, 2023). You will need to update the secret and your application when that time comes, preferably before that. We all know what expiring secrets and certificates give us: an app that’s not working because we forgot to update the secret or certificate!

💡 Note that one year is the default. You can set the number of years with the --years parameter in az ad sp create-for-rbac .

💡 There will always be cases where managed identities are not supported such as connecting 3rd party systems to Azure. However, it should be clear that whenever managed identity is supported, use it to provide your app with the credentials it needs .

In what follows, we will explain managed identities in general, and system-assigned managed identity in particular. Another blog post will discuss user-assigned managed identity.

Managed Identities Explained

Azure Managed Identities allow you to authenticate to Azure resources without the need to store credentials or secrets in your code or configuration files.

There are two types of Managed Identities:

  • system-assigned
  • user-assigned

System-assigned Managed Identities are tied to a specific Azure resource, such as a virtual machine or Azure Container App. When you enable a system-assigned identity for a resource, Azure creates a corresponding identity in the Azure Active Directory (AD) for that resource, similar to what you have seen above. This identity can be used to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication. The lifecycle of a system-assigned identity is tied to the lifecycle of the Azure resource. When the resource is deleted, the corresponding identity is also deleted. Via a special token endpoint, your code can request an access token for the resource it wants to access.

User-assigned Managed Identities, on the other hand, are standalone identities that can be associated with one or more Azure resources. This allows you to use the same identity across multiple resources and manage the identity’s lifecycle independently from the resources it is associated with. In your code, you can request an access token via the same special token endpoint. You will have to specify the appId (client Id) of the user-managed identity when you request the token because multiple identities could be assigned to your Azure resource.

In summary, system-assigned Managed Identities are tied to a specific resource and are deleted when the resource is deleted, while user-assigned Managed Identities are standalone identities that can be associated with multiple resources and have a separate lifecycle.

System-assigned managed identity

Virtual machines support system and user-assigned managed identity and make it easy to demonstrate some of the internals.

Let’s create a Linux virtual machine and enable a system-assigned managed identity. You will need an Azure subscription and be logged on with the Azure CLI. I use a Linux virtual machine here to demonstrate how it works with bash. Remember that this also works on Windows VMs and many other Azure resources such as App Services, Container Apps, and more.

Run the code below. Adapt the variables for your environment.

After the creation of the resource group and virtual machine, the portal shows the system assigned managed identity in the virtual machine’s Identity section:

az role assignment create key vault

We can now run some code on the virtual machine to obtain an Azure AD token for this identity that allows access to a Key Vault. Key Vault is just an example here.

We will first need to create a Key Vault and a secret. After that we will grant the managed identity access to this Key Vault. Run these commands on your own machine, not the virtual machine you just created:

Now we can grant the system assigned managed identity access to Key Vault via Azure RBAC. Let’s look at the identity with the command below:

This returns the information below. Note that principalId was also visible in the portal as Object (principal) ID. Yes, not confusing at all… 🤷‍♂️

Now assign the Key Vault Secrets User role to this identity:

If you check the Key Vault in the portal, in IAM, you should see:

az role assignment create key vault

Now we can run some code on the VM to obtain an Azure AD token to read the secret from Key Vault. SSH into the virtual machine using its public IP address with ssh azureuser@IPADDRESS . Next, use the commands below:

It might look weird but by sending the curl request to that special IP address on the VM, you actually request an access token to access Key Vault resources (in this case, it could also be another type of resource). There’s more to know about this special IP address and the other services it provides. Check Microsoft Learn for more information.

The result of the curl command is JSON below (nicely formatted with jq):

Note that you did not need any secret to obtain the token. Great!

Now run the following code but first replace <YOUR VAULT NAME> with the short name of your Key Vault:

First, we set the vault URL to the full URL including https:// . Next, we retrieve the full JSON token response but use jq to only grab the access token. The -r option strips the " from the response. Next, we use the Azure Key Vault REST API to read the secret with the access token for authorization. The result should be TOPSECRET ! 😀

Instead of this raw curl code, which is great for understanding how it works under the hood, you can use Microsoft’s identity libraries for many popular languages. For example in Python:

If you are somewhat used to Python, you know you will need to install azure-identity and azure-keyvault-secrets with pip. The DefaultAzureCredential class used in the code automatically works with system managed identity in virtual machines but also other compute such as Azure Container Apps. The capabilities of this class are well explained in the docs: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/python/api/overview/azure/identity-readme?view=azure-python . The identity libraries for other languages work similarly.

What about Azure Arc-enabled servers?

Azure Arc-enabled servers also have a managed identity. It is used to update the properties of the Azure Arc resource in the portal. You can grant this identity access to other Azure resources such as Key Vault and then grab the token in a similar way. Similar but not quite identical. The code with curl looks like this (from the docs):

On an Azure Arc-enabled machine that runs on-premises or in other clouds, the special IP address is not available. Instead, the token request is sent to http://localhost:40342 . The call is designed to fail and respond with a Www-Authenticate header that contains the path to a file on the machine (created dynamically). Only specific users and groups on the machine are allowed to read the contents of that file. This step was added for extra security so that not every process can read the contents of this file.

The second command retrieves the contents of the file and uses it for basic authentication purposes in the second curl request. It’s the second curl request that will return the access token.

Note that this works for both Linux and Windows Azure Arc-enabled systems. It is further explained here: https://learn.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/azure-arc/servers/managed-identity-authentication .

In contrast with managed identity on Azure compute, I am not aware of support for Azure Arc in the Microsoft identity libraries. To obtain a token with Python, check the following gist with some sample code: https://gist.github.com/gbaeke/343b14305e468aa433fe90441da0cabd .

The great thing about this is that managed identity can work on servers not in Azure as long if you enable Azure Arc on them! 🎉

In this post, we looked at what managed identities are and zoomed in on system-assigned managed identity. Azure Managed Identities are a secure and convenient way to authenticate to Azure resources without having to store credentials in code or configuration files. Whenever you can, use managed identity instead of service principals. And as you have seen, it even works with compute that’s not in Azure, such as Azure Arc-enabled servers.

Stay tuned for the next post about user-assigned managed identity.

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Use Azure Key Vault secrets in GitLab CI/CD

Use azure key vault secrets in a ci/cd job, troubleshooting, jwt token is invalid or malformed message, caller is not authorized to perform action on resource message, help & feedback, feature availability and product trials.

For problems setting up or using this feature (depending on your GitLab subscription).

az role assignment create key vault

Azure Key Vault Secrets configuration provider for Microsoft.Extensions.Configuration

The Azure.Extensions.AspNetCore.Configuration.Secrets package allows storing configuration values using Azure Key Vault Secrets.

Getting started

Install the package.

Install the package with NuGet :


You need an Azure subscription and Azure Key Vault to use this package.

To create a new Key Vault, you can use the Azure Portal , Azure PowerShell , or the Azure CLI . Here's an example using the Azure CLI:

Azure role-based access control

When using azure role-based access control , the identity you are authenticating has to have the "Key Vault Reader" and "Key Vault Secrets User" roles. The "Key Vault Reader" role allows the extension to list secrets while the "Key Vault Secrets User" allows retrieving their values.

Key concepts

Thread safety.

We guarantee that all client instance methods are thread-safe and independent of each other ( guideline ). This ensures that the recommendation of reusing client instances is always safe, even across threads.

Additional concepts

Client options | Accessing the response | Long-running operations | Handling failures | Diagnostics | Mocking | Client lifetime

To load initialize configuration from Azure Key Vault secrets call the AddAzureKeyVault on ConfigurationBuilder :

The Azure Identity library provides easy Azure Active Directory support for authentication.

Read more about configuration in ASP.NET Core .


This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit cla.microsoft.com .

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct . For more information see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact [email protected] with any additional questions or comments.


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Create key vault, managed identity, and role assignment

  • Code Sample
  • 2 contributors

This template creates a key vault and managed identity, and a role assignment for the managed identity to access the key vault.

For more information about using Bicep to deploy key vaults, see Manage secrets by using Bicep , and for information about using Bicep to deploy role assignments, see Create Azure RBAC resources by using Bicep .

Deletion behavior

When a managed identity is deleted, any role assignments for that managed identity are not automatically deleted. If you try to deploy a new role assignment with the same role assignment ID, the deployment fails because the resource already exists and the principalId can't be modified.

To ensure that each deployment has a unique role assignment ID, you can use the guid() function with a seed value that is based in part on the managed identity's principal ID. However, because Azure Resource Manager requires each resource's name to be available at the beginning of the deployment, you can't use this approach in the same Bicep file that defines the managed identity. This sample uses a Bicep module to work around this issue.

Tags: Microsoft.KeyVault/vaults, Microsoft.ManagedIdentity/userAssignedIdentities, Microsoft.Resources/deployments, Microsoft.Authorization/roleAssignments

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az keyvault role assignment create doesn't add Authorization header and body #22801


chgeuer commented Jun 9, 2022


yonzhan commented Jun 9, 2022

Sorry, something went wrong.


evelyn-ys commented Jun 9, 2022


chgeuer commented Jun 9, 2022 • edited


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  1. Microsoft Azure Services

    az role assignment create key vault

  2. Grant permission to applications to access an Azure key vault using

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  1. Grant permission to applications to access an Azure key vault using

    To create a role assignment using the Azure CLI, use the az role assignment command: az role assignment create --role {role-name-or-id} --assignee {assignee-upn}> --scope {scope} For full details, see Assign Azure roles using Azure CLI. To create a role assignment using Azure PowerShell, use the New-AzRoleAssignment cmdlet:

  2. az keyvault role assignment

    Name Description Type Status; az keyvault role assignment create: Create a new role assignment for a user, group, or service principal. Core GA az keyvault role assignment delete

  3. Manage storage account keys with Azure Key Vault and the Azure CLI

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  4. Assign Azure roles using Azure CLI

    Step 1: Determine who needs access. You can assign a role to a user, group, service principal, or managed identity. To assign a role, you might need to specify the unique ID of the object. The ID has the format: 11111111-1111-1111-1111-111111111111. You can get the ID using the Azure portal or Azure CLI. User.

  5. Working With Azure Key Vault Using Azure PowerShell and AzureCLI

    After key vault access policy configuration, configure role (key vault reader) assignment access to the user on key vault ID got earlier. az role assignment create --assignee [email protected] ...

  6. Manage role-based access control for Azure Key Vault keys ...

    Azure Key Vaults are essential components for storing sensitive information such as passwords, certificates, and secrets of any kind. Because the data stored in Key Vaults is sensitive, only authorized users or applications should be able to access them. At that point, we have two options to manage access control: traditional vault access policies and new role-based access control (RBAC).

  7. azure-docs/articles/key-vault/general/rbac-guide.md at main

    Built-in role Description ID; Key Vault Administrator: Perform all data plane operations on a key vault and all objects in it, including certificates, keys, and secrets. Cannot manage key vault resources or manage role assignments. Only works for key vaults that use the 'Azure role-based access control' permission model.

  8. azure-docs/articles/key-vault/managed-hsm/role-management.md ...

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  9. Using Azure RBAC with Azure Key Vault

    To use RBAC roles to manage access, you must switch the Key Vault to use Azure RBAC instead of access policies . So no, you cannot use both at the same time. Once you make the switch, access policies will no longer apply. What you can do is assign the necessary roles first to the users/applications that need them, and then switch to use RBAC roles.

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